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valleys, in many of which are small lakes, which azure.' Jones's Works, vol. x. As. Res. pol. iii.
continue filled in the greatest heat of summer. SHITTAH, n. s. Heb. A sort of precious
Shirvan may in general be esteemed fertile, Suit'TIM. } wood, of which Moses
being watered by numberless rivers, some of made the greatest part of the tables, altars, and
which fall into the Kur, and others into the Cas- planks, belonging to the tabernacle.
pian. This province was annexed to the Persian

Bring me an offering of badgers' skins and shittir. empire in 1500, by Shah Ismael, and continued wood.

Erodus. subject till the decline of the Sefi dynasty. I will plant in the wilderness the shittah-tree. Recently, however, the Russians have obtained

Isaiah xli. 19. possession of all the sea coast. The principal Suittim Wood is supposed to be the wood towns are Schamachi and Bak.u

of the Acacia, which is the only tree that grows SHISHAK, Sesac, or Sesacus, a king of in Arabia Deserta. Jerome says, it resembled the Egypt, mentioned in Scripture, and believed by wood of the white thorn. See CRATÆGUS. It Sir Isaac Newton and others to be the same with is said to have been almost incorruptible. Sesostris. Some commentators snppose him, SHITTLECOCK, n. s. Commonly, and with great probability, to have been the brother perhaps as properly, shuttlecock. Skinner deof Solomon's queen; and that, being offended rives it from Teut. schutteln, to shake; or Sax. with his brother-in-law for dishonoring his sister scearan, to throw; and thinks it is called a cock by his subsequent marriages, he had the more rea

from its feathers. Perhaps it is properly shuttledily given encouragement and protection to Je- cork, a cork driven to and fro, like the instruroboam, though he did not choose to venture a

ment in weaving, and softened by frequent and war with such a powerful monarch as Solomon, rapid utterance from cork to cock. - Johnson. This appears the more probable from Shishak's But see Shuttle. A cork stuck with feathers, conduct after his brother-in-law's death; for and driven by players from one to another with having in the fifth year of Rehoboam raised a battledoors. great ariny of 60,000 horsemen, 1200 chariots, You need not discharge a cannon to break the and an innumerable multitude of Egyptians, chain of his thoughts : the pat of a shittlecock, or the Ethiopians, Lybians, &c., he invaded Judah, creaking of a jack, will do his business. Collier. took Jerusalem, and plundered the palace and

SHIVE, n. s. Belg. schyve, of Goth. skyfa, temple of their most valuable articles; while he

to divide. A slice of bread. Obsolete. allowed his ally Jeroboam to enjoy his newly ac

Easy it is quired kingdom in peace. See 1 Kings, xiv. 25, Of a cut loaf to steal a shive. 26; and 2 Chron. xii. 2-9. See also EGYPT

Shakspeare. Titus Andronicus. and ETHIOPIA.

Shavings made by the plane are in some things SHITAKOONTHA, a name of a Hindoo differing from those shives, or thin and fexible pieces deity Siva. It means the blue-throated; and of wood, that are obtained by borers. Boule. the fable accounting for the name is often alluded SHIV'ER, v. n., v. a., &) Teut. schawren, of to in the writings of that people. When the Suiv'ery, adj. [n. s. I Goth. skyfa, to split ocean was churned, we are told, poison was pro or divide. To quake; tremble with some degree duced among the fourteen precious articles re- of violence: shudder; fall to pieces: break into sulting from that operation. The word, as well pieces ; shatter : shivery is incoherent; falling as poison, ineans medicinal drugs. This was easily into fragments or shivers. swallowed by Siva : and, in the songs of Jayade Hadst thou been aught but goss'mer, feathers, va, translated by Sir W. Jones, in praise of Vishnu air, and Lakshmi, under their names of Krishna So many fathom down precipitating, and Radha, the following passage occurs (Heri Thou’dst shivered like an egg. and Narayana, we should premise, are names of

Shakspeare. King John. Vishnu; and Padma, or the Lotos, of Lakshmi:)

As brittle as the glory is the face ; • Whatever is delightful in the modes of music;

For there it is cracked in an hundred shivers. whatever is divine in meditations on Vishnu;

Shakspeare. whatever is exquisite in the sweet art of love;

Any very harsh noise will set the teeth on edge,

Bacon. whatever is graceful in the fine strains of and make all the body shiver.

Upon the breaking and shivering of a great state, poetry ;-all that let the happy and wise learn from the songs of Jayadeva, whose soul is you may be sure to have wars.

If you strike a solid body that is brittle, it breaketh united to the foot of Narayana. May that Heri

not only where the immediate force is, but breaketha be your support who expanded himself into an

all about into shivers and fritters. infinity of bright forms, when, eager to gaze with

Id. Natural History. myriads of eyes on the daughter of the ocean, he What religious palsy's this, displayed his great character of the all-pervading Which makes the boughs divest their bliss ? deity, by the multiplied reflections of his divine And, that they might her footsteps straw,

Cleaveland person in the numberless gems on the many Drop their leaves with shivering awe. heads of the king of serpents, whom he chose

Surging waves against a solid rock, for his couch: that Heri who, removing the Though all to shivers dashed, the assault renew, lucid veil from the bosom of Padma, and fixing Vain battery, and in froth or bubbles end.

Milton. his eyes on the delicious buds that grew upon it,

The ground with shivered armour strown. Id. diverted her attention by declaring, that when she

Why stand we longer shivering under fear? had chosen him as her bridegroom, near the sea The man that shivered on the brink of sin, of milk, the disappointed husband of Parvati Thus steel'd and hardened, ventures boldly in. drank in despair the venom which dyed his neck





He described this march to the temple with so metal. Another mark of them is their being much horror, that he shivered every joint. Addison. spongy and porous; this is a sign of especial

The natural world, should gravity once cease or use in the tin countries; for the tin shoad-stones be withdrawn, would instantly shiver into millions are often so porous and spongy that they reof atoms.


semble large bodies thoroughly calcined. There There were observed incredible numbers of these sbells thus flatted, and extremely tender in shivery

are many other appearances of tin shoads, the Id.

very hardest and firmest stones often containing Give up Laius to the realms of day,

this metal. When the miners, in tracing a shoad Whose ghost, yet shivering on Cocytus’ sand,

up hill, meet with such odd stones and earths Expects its passage to the farther strand. Pope.

that they know not well what to make of them, Prometheus is laid

they have recourse to vanning, that is, they calOn icy Caucasus to shiver,

cine and powder the stone, clay, or whatever While vultures eat his growing liver. Swift. else is supposed to contain the metal; and then

Showers of granados rain, by sudden burst washing it in an instrument prepared for that Disploding murderous bowels, fragments of steel ;

purpose, and called a vanning shovel, they find A thousand ways at once the shivered orbs

the earthy matter washed away, and of the reFly diverse, working torment.


mainder the stony or gravelly matter lies behind, Suivers, in the sea language, little rollers, or and the metalline matter at the point of the round wheels of pulleys.

shovel. If the person who performs this operaSHOA, or Xoa, a province of Abyssinia, tion has any judgment, he not only easily diswhere the royal line of Solomon lived during covers what the metal is that is contained in the their expulsion from the throne. See ETHIOPIA. shoad, but also will make a very probable guess

SHOAD, among miners, denotes a train of at what quantity the mine is likely to yield of it metalline stones, serving to direct them in the in proportion to the ore. discovery of mines.

SHÓAL, n. S., v. n., & 1 Sax. fcole; Belg. SHOÁD'STONE, n. s. From Shed. See Shoal'y, adj. (adj. S school, of Goth. kule, below.

full. A crowd; a great multitude; a throng: Certain tin ste nes lie on the face of the ground, hence a number of shelving rocks; a sand-bank; which they call shoad, as shed from the main load, shallow sea : as a verb neuter, to crowd ; throng: and made somewhat round by the water.

be or grow shallow : the adjective correspondCarew's Survey of Cornwall.

ing. Shoadstone is a small stone, smooth without, of a

A league is made against such routes and shoals of dark liver colour, and of the same colour within, people as have utterly degenerated from nature. only with the addition of a faint purple. It is a

Bacon. fragment broke off an iron vein.

Woodward on Fossils.

Where there be great shoals of people which go on The loads or veins of metal were by this action of

to populate without forseeing means of sustentation, the departing water made easy to be found out by

once in an age they discharge part of their people the shouds, or trains of metallick fragments borne oft upon other nations. from them, and lying in trains from those veins to The wave-sprung entrails, about which fausens wards the sea, in the same course that water falling and fish did shole.

Chapman. thence would take.

Id. The haven's mouth they durst not enter, for the SHOAD-STONES, a term used by the miners dangerous shoals. Abbot’s Description of the World. of Cornwall and other parts of England, to ex

The Sices of a prince draw shoals of followers,

when his virtue leaves him the more eminent, be. press such loose masses of stones as are usually

cause single.

Decay of Piety. found about the entrances into mines, sometimes

What they met runding in a straight course from the load or vein Solid, or slimy, as in raging sea, of ore to the surface of the earth. These are

Tost up and down, together crowded drove stones of the common kinds, appearing to have From each side shoaling towards the mouth of hell. been pieces broken from the strata or larger

Milton. masses; but they usually contain mundic, or A shoal of silver fishes glides marcasitic matter, and more or less of the orb to And plays about the barges.

Waller. be found in the mine. They appear to have been

The watchful hero felt the knocks, and found at some time rolled about in water, their corners

The tossing vessel sailed on shoally ground. being broken off, and their surface smoothed and


He heaves them off the sholes. rounded. The antimony mines in Cornwall are always easily discovered by the shoad-stones, these

The depth of your pond should be six foot ; and usually lying up to the surface or very nearly so; spawn.

on the sides some sholes for the fish to lay their

Mortimer. and the matter of the stone being a white spar, God hath the command of famine, whereby he or debased crystal, in which the native color of could have carried them off by shoals. Woodward. the ore, which is a shining bluish-black, easily

Around the goddess roll discovers itself in streaks and threads. Shoad- Broad hats, and hoods, and caps, sable shoal ; stones are of so many kinds, and of such various Thick, and more thick, the black blockade extends. appearances, that it is not easy to describe or

Pope. know them : but the ininers, to whom they are of Suoal, in sea language, is the same as shallow, the greatest use in tracing or searching after new and is applied to flats in the water. They say mines, distinguish them from other stones by it is good shoaling, when a ship sailing towards their weight; for if very ponderous, though they shore

, they find by her founding it grows shallook ever so much like common stones, there is lower and shallower by degrees, and not too great reason to suspect that they contain some suddenly; for then the ship goes in safety.



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Judge Hale.

SHOALNESS, a low point on the north-west Corn tithed, Sir parson, together to get, coast of North America. Captain Cook thus And cause it on shocks to be by and by set. Tusser. describes the character of the natives :- While Reap well, scatter not, gather clean that is shorn, we lay here, twenty-seven men of the country, Bind fast, shock apace, have an eye to thy corn. Id. This brought on a traffic between them and our Thou, full of days, like weighty shocks of corn each in a canoe, came off to the ships, which In season reaped, shall to thy grave be borne. they approached with great caution, hallooing

Sandys. and opening their arms as they advanced. This

, Come the three corners of the world in arms,

These her princes are come home again : we understand, was to express their pacific inten- And we will shock them. tions. At length some approached near enough

Shakspeare. King John.

Thro' the shock to receive a few trifles that were thrown to them. Of fighting elements

, on all sides round people, who got dresses of skins, bows, arrows, Environed, wins his way.

Milton. darts, wooden vessels, &c.; our visitors taking in exchange whatever was offered them. They stood the shock of an eternal duration without cor

It is inconceptible how any such man, that hath seemed to be the same kind of people that we ruption or alteration, should after be corrupted or alhad lately met with along this coast; wore the tered. same ornaments in their lips and noses, but were Supposing verses are never so beautiful, yet, if far more dirty and not so well clothed. They they contain any thing that shocks religion or good appeared to be wholly unacquainted with people manners, they are like us; knew not even the use of tobacco; nor Versus inopes rerum, nugæque canoræ. Dryden. was any foreign article seen in their possession, Those that run away are in more danger than the unless a knife may be considered as such. This others that stand the shock.

L'Estrange. indeed was no more than a piece of common I would fain know why a shock and a hound are iron fitted into a wooden handle. They, how- not distinct species.

Locke. ever, knew the value and use of this instrument Such is the haughty man ; his tow'ring soul, so well that it seemed to be the only article they 'Midst all the shocks and injuries of fortune, wished for. Most of them had their hair shaved Rises superior, and looks down on Cæsar.

Addison. of cut short off, leaving only a few locks behind, or on one side. As a covering for the head they take in female conversations, is very shocking to the

The French humour, in regard of the liberties they wore a hood of skins, and a bonnet apparently of Italians, who are naturally jealous. wood. One part of their dress was a kind of

Id. Remarks on Italy. girdle, very neatly made of skin, with trappings depending from it, and passing between the legs, of tides and seas tempestuous, while the rocks,

These strong unshaken mounds resist the shocks so as to conceal the adjoining parts. By the That secret in a long-continued vein use of such a girdle, it should seem that they some- Pass through the earth, the pond'rous pile sustain. times go naked, even in this high latitude; for they

Blackmore. hardly wear it under their own clothing. The Those who in reading Homer are shocked that 'tis canoes were made of skins, like all the others we always a lion, may as well be angry that 'tis always had lately seen; except that these were broader, a man.

Pope. and the hole in which the man sits was wider

And now with shouts the shocking armies clos'd: than in any I had before met with.' Long. 198° To lances lances, shields to shields oppos'd; 12' E., lat. 60° N.

Commutual death the fate of war confounds, Suoals, Isles of, or Smith's Islands, seven Each adverse battle gored with equal wounds. islands on the coast of New Hampshire, eleven

Pope. miles south-east of Portsmouth. Long. 70° 33' Behind the master walks, builds up the shock

Thomson. W., lat. 42° 59' N. Staten Island, on which is Feels his heart heave with joy. the town of Gosport, belongs to New Hamp; Of Edward twice o'erturned their desp'rate king:

The mighty force shire; the rest to Maine. They are inhabited Twice he arose, and joined the horrid shock. by about 100 fishermen.

Philips. SHOAL-WATER BAY, a bay on the east coast

Fewer shocks a statesman gives his friend. Young. of New Holland, visited by captain Flinders in

Julian, who loved each sober mind to shock, 1802, who says that it offers no advantages to

Who laugh'd at God, and offered to a cock. Harte. ships which may not be had on any other part of the coast, except that the tides rise higher, and SHOE, n. s. & v. a., [Plural shoes, an that in the winter season fish are more plentiful. SHOE'BOY,

ciently shoon, pret. and Long. of Aken's Island, situated at its entrance, SHOE'INGHORN,

pass. part. shod.] Sax. 150° 15' E., lat. 22° 21' 35" S.


sceo, seoe; Belgic Shoal-Water Bay, a bay on the west coast SHOE'TYE.

schoe; Goth. sko. The of North America. Long. 124° 10' W., lat. 46o cover of the foot, of• horses as well as men: to 50' N.

fit with a shoe or shoes; cover at the bottom: a SHOCK, n. s., v. A., & v. n. Saxon scæoc; shoe-boy is the boy who cleans and has the Fr. choc; Belg. schocken. Conflict; mutual care of shoes : shoeing-horn, a horn used to put impression of violence; concussion ; offence; a on shoes: hence a low tool of any kind: the other pile of corn thrown together; a rough dog : as compounds are plain. a verb active, to shake by violence; offend; dis

Strong axletree'd cart that is clouted and shod. gust: as a verb neuter, to meet with violence;

Tusser. be offensive: pile corn in sheaves.

Your hose should be ungartered, your shoe un-
In a full age, like as a shock of corn cometh in tied, and every thing about you demonstrating a
his season.
Job. careless desolation.


Spare none but such as go in clouted shoon, of leather and the sole of wood. In the reign For they are thrifty honest men. Id. Henry VI. of William Rufus, a great beau, Robert, surThe smith's note for shoeing and ploughing irons.

named the horned, used shoes with long sharp

Shakspeare. points, stuffed with tow, and twisted like a ram's The wheel composed of cricket's bones, horn. It is said the clergy, being highly offended, And daintily made for the nonce,

declaimed against the long-pointed shoes with For fear of rattling on the stones,

great vehemence. The points, however, conWith thistle down they shod it. Drayton.

tinued to increase, till in the reign of Richard II. Madam, I do, as is my duty,

they were of so enormous a length that they were Honour the shadow of your shoetye. Hudibras. I was in pain, pulled off my shoe, and some ease

tied to the knees with chains sometimes of gold,

sometimes of silver. that gave me.


The upper parts of these This hollow cylinder is fitted with a sucker, upon of a church window. The long pointed shoes

shoes in Chaucer's time were cut in imitation wbich is nailed a good thick piece of tanned shoeleather.

Boyle. were called crackowes, and continued in fashion Unknown, and like esteemed, and the dull swain for three centuries in spite of the bulls of popes, Treads on it daily with his clouted shoon,

the decrees of councils, and the declamations of And yet more medicinal than that moly

the clergy. At length the parliament of England That Hermes once to wise Ulysses gave;

interposed by an act, A. D. 1463, prohibiting the He called it hæmony.


use of shoes or boots with pikes exceeding two I have been an arrant shoeing-horn for above these inches in length, and prohibiting all shoemakers twenty years. I served my mistress in that capacity from making shoes or boots with longer pikes above five of he number before she was shod. under severe penalties. But even this was not Though she haa many who made their applications to her, I always thought myself the best shoe in her sufficient: it was necessary to denounce the shop.


dreadful sentence of excommunication against If I employ a shoeboy, is it in view to his advan- all who wore shoes or boots with points longer tage, or my own convenience ?

Swift. than two inches. The present fashion of shoes Tell your master that the horses want shoeing. was introduced in 1633; the buckle was not

Id. used till 1670. In Norway they ase shoes of a A cobler or shoemaker may find some little fault particular construction, consisting of two pieces, with the latchet of a shoe that an Apelles had and without heels ; in which the upper leather painted, when the whole figure is such as pone but fits close to the foot, the sole being joined to it an Apelles could paint.


by many plaits or folds. The shoes or slippers Shoes, among the Jews, were made of leather, of the Japanese, as we are informed by professor linen, rush, or wood; those of soldiers were Thunberg, are made of rice straw woven, but sometimes of brass or iron. They were tied with sometimes, for people of distinction, of fine slips thongs which passed under the soles of the feet. of ratan. The shoe consists of a sole without To put off their shoes was an act of veneration ; upper leather or hind piece; forwards it is it was also a sign of mourning and humiliation: crossed by a strap of the thickness of one's to bear one's shoes, or to untie the latchets of finger, which is lined with linen; from the tip of them, was considered as the meanest service. the shoe to the strap a cylindrical string is Among the Greeks shoes of various kinds were carried, which passes between the great and used. Sandals were worn by women of distinc- second toe, and keeps the shoe fast on the foot. tion. The Lacædemonians wore red shoes. The As these shoes have no hind piece, they make a Grecian shoes generally reached to the middle of noise when people walk in them, like slippers. the leg. The Romans used two kinds of shoes; When the Japanese travel, their shoes are furthe calceus, which covered the whole foot some- nished with three strings made of twisted straw, what like our shoes, and was tied above with lat. with which they are tied to the legs and feet, to chets or strings; and the solea or slipper, which prevent them from falling off. Some people covered only the sole of the foot, and was fas- carry one or more pairs of shoes with them on tened with leathern thongs. The calceus was their journeys, in order to put on dew, when the always worn along with the toga when a person old ones are worn out. When it rains, or the went abroad; slippers were put on during a roads are very dirty, these shoes are soon wetted journey and at feasts, but it was reckoned etfemi- through, and one continually sees a great numnate to appear in public with them. Black shoes ber of worn out shoes lying on the roads, espewere worn by the citizens of ordinary rank, and cially near the brooks, where travellers have white ones by the women. Red shoes were changed their shoes after washing their feet. Insometimes worn by the ladies, and purple ones stead of these, in rainy or dirty weather, they by the coxcombs of the other sex. Red shoes wear high wooden clogs, which underneath are were put on by the chief magistrates of Rome un hollowed out in the middle, and at top have a band days of ceremony and triumphs. The shoes of across like a stirrup, and a string for the great senators, patricians, and their children, had a toe; so that they can walk without soiling their crescent apon them, which served for a buckle; feet. Some of them have their straw shoes fasthese were called calcei lunati. Slaves wore no tened to these wooden clogs. The Japanese shoes : hence they were called cretati, from their never enter their houses with their shoes on; dusty feet. Phocion also and Cato Uticensis but leave them in the entry, or place them on the went without shoes. The toes of the Roman bench near the door, and thus are always bareshoes were turned up in the point; hence they footed in their houses, so as not to dirty their were called calcei rostrati, repandi, &c. In the neat mats. During the time that the Dutch live ninth and tenth centuries the greatest princes at Japan, when they are sometimes under an of Europe wore wooden shoes, or the upper part obligation of paying visits at the houses of the

Japanese, their own rooms at the factory being other employment. · Of the shoes made by these likewise covered with mats of this kind, they machines, the upper-leathers are the same as wear, instead of the usual shoes, red, green, or those of any other shoes, and consist of three black slippers, which on entering the house they pieces ; viz. the vamp, or part which covers the pull off: however, they have stockings on, and upper part of the foot, and the two quarters shoes made of cotton stuff with buckles in them, which surround the heel, and are sewed together which shoes are made at Japan, and can be washed behind it; they are also sewed to the vamp at when dirty. Some have them of black satin, to about the middle of the length of the shoe. The avoid washing them.

sole part of the shoe is composed of the real or Shoes. For a method of making shoes by lower sole, with its welt, the heel, and the inner rivetting, instead of sewing, a patent was taken or upper sole. The lower sole has an additional out in 1809 by Mr. David Mead Randolph, an border, which is called the runner, or welt, fixed American. In his specification, he describes that upon its upper side, all round the edge, by 2 the rivetting, which he proposes to substitute for row of rivets, so that it makes a double thicksewing, is only applicable to the soles and heels ness to the sole towards the edge; but this addıof boots or shoes, all the other parts being made tional piece is only of small width from the outin the usual manner. The last which is used side of the sole inwards, and gradually diminishes for this method is the only implement which de- away in thickness to nothing, as it recedes from mands a particular description. It is first made the edge of the sole, so that the middle part of in wood, of the same figure as the common last, the sole is only of the same thickness as the and adjusted in the usual manner to the size and single leather. The upper-leathers are made sufshape of the shoe which is intended to be made ficiently large to turn in, all round, beneath the or put together upon it. The lower part or sole foot, under the edge of the inner sole, for about of the last is then covered with a plate of iron or three-quarters of an inch wide, and the outer steel, about the same thickness as a stout sole sole, reinforced by the welt, is applied beneath, leather : this plate, being formed to the exact so that the turning-in is included between the shape which is desired, is fastened down upon two soles; that is, it is included between the the wood by screws or rivets. The iron plate edge of the inner sole and the welt, or extra has three circular holes made through it, one at thickness which surrounds the lower sole. To the toe, another about half way between the toe hold the shoe together, a row of rivets is put and the heel, and a third at the heel : the holes through the sole, all round the edge, and they are about an inch in diameter, and being filled are of sufficient length to pass through all the up with wooden plugs, and cut down even with four thicknesses; viz. the lower sole, the welt, the surface of the iron, they will admit the points the upper-leathers (where they are turned in), of temporary nails to be driven through the lea- and also through the inner sole; and these rivets, ther sole to penetrate into the wood, and fix the being made fast, unite the parts of the shoe tosole upon the last whilst the work goes on. The gether in a much firmer manner than sewing. making of the shoe is conducted in the usual The rivets have no heads, but are made tapermanner, until it is ready for putting on the last. ing, and the largest ends are on the outside of To do this, the inner sole is put upon the iron the sole, which prevents them from drawing sole of the last ; then the upper-leathers are put through; and at the same time the strength of upon the opposite part, and the edges of the the rivetting will not be materially impaired by leather are turned down over the edges of the the gradual wearing away of the sole leather. inner sole: the outer sole is then applied over These rivets prevent the wear in a very great the turning-down, and fastened in a temporary degree, and for this reason there is a greater manner upon the last, by driving one or two number of rivets put into the sole than merely nails, through both soles, into the wooden plugs those which hold the shoe together. The diffebefore mentioned, which fill up the holes in the rent nails are, first, the short nails, or rivets, iron face of the last. Now, to unite the two soles which only penetrate through the single thickto the upper-leathers, holes are pierced all round ness of the lower sole; these are arranged in the edges of the sole, and small nails are driven parallel rows across the tread of the foot, that is, in, which are of sufficient length to penetrate about two-thirds of the length from the heel; through the sole and the turning-in of the upper- there is likewise a double row of short nails, leathers, and also through the inner sole, so as to which is carried round parallel to the outline of reach the metal face of the last, and, being for the toe, at about three-quarters of an inch from cibly driven, their points will be turned by the the edge, and extend as far as the middle of the iron, so as to clench withinside, or rivet through foot. Next the tacking nails, which are of a the leather, and serve instead of the sewing or sufficient length to reach through both the sole stitching commonly employed to unite the sole and the welt, and thus fix the two together: of to the upper-leathers.

these, there is a row all round the edge of the Mr. Brunel's machines for making shoes are foot, nearer to the edge than the row of short an improvement of the above plan. He esta nails before mentioned. Lastly, the long nails, blished, not long since, at Battersea an extensive which, as before described, fasten the shoe togemanufactory, chiefly intended to supply the army ther: these form also a complete row round the with this article, where all the operations were edge of the whole shoe, and nearer to the edge performed by the aid of machines, which act than any of the preceding rows. The heel is with such facility that they can be managed by also fastened on by a row of long nails round its the alid soldiers of Chelsea Hospital, only circumference. The heads or thick ends of all workmen employed, and most of them disabled these nails appear on the lower surface of the by wounds, or the loss of their legs, from any sole, and all contribute to preserve the leather

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