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made with an easy round to prevent the cables fresh air, and lids hung to them with illuminafrom chafing.

tors in the centre, in order to give light between The timbers in the head are narrow pieces of decks. oak, standing nearly perpendicular, their lower The false-keel is of elm, and is fastened in a ends are fayed and fastened on the upper cheek, temporary manner under the main-keel, with and the upper ends bolted to the main-rail; the nails and copper staples made for that purpose, middle and lower head rails being let into them to prevent the latter from being chafed, should and secured.

the ship at any time strike the ground, in which The cross-pieces in the head are also pieces of case the false-keel gives way, and the main-keel oak let in and bolted to the main-rails ; they is preserved. have knees at each end, which secure the head The launch of the ship, or the bilge-ways, by rails. Between the two main-rails the head is which she is conveyed into the water, require framed with carlings and ledges. There are also some consideration to ascertain with what deseats of ease in the head for the convenience of clivity the ways must be laid; for large ships the seamen.

they are generally from three-quarters to sevenThe bumkins are pieces of round fir timber, eighths of an inch to a foot; and for the small bolted to the middle of the main-rail ; their inner classes from one inch to one inch and an eighth. ends are secured by cleats against the bows, and The utmost care should always be taken that the the outer ends project from the rails for the pur- fore-foot be clear of the after ground-way, when pose of hauling down the fore-tack.

launching The rails of the stern are of oak, fayed to the In order to give a more comprehensive idea of round-aft of the stern and to the round up, and the different timbers, we have exhibited the disbolted to the timbers: they are distinguished position of the frame of a second-rate ship in thus : the tuck-rail, which is the lowest; the plate III. SHIP-BUILDING, where ower counter-rail, which is above the latter; the A is the main-keel. apper counter-rail ; the foot-rail, breast-rail, and B the stern-post. ulso the cove. The stern is then planked up C the stem. with two-inch rabbeted plank, which is fastened D the knight-head. o the timbers.

E the knuckle-timber. The taffrail is the upper part of the stern, and F the side counter-timber. composed of light ornamented carved work. G the midship ditto.

The munions of the stern are broad pieces of H the wing-transom. for about two inches thick ; they are placed equi- I the filling-transom. distant from each other, and fastened to the stern- J the deck-transom. timbers to receive the sashes.

K the seven transoms under the deck-transom. The stools of the quarter-gallery are thick pieces L the after fashion-piece. of plank fayed together edgeways, and bolted to M the middle ditto. the sides of the ship. Of these there are three N the foremost ditio. sorts, viz. the lower, middle, and upper stools, 0, 0, 0, the floor-timbers, which cross the keel. for building the quarter-gallery.

PPP the first futtock. The quarter-pieces are substantial pieces of fir QQ Q the second ditto. timber, forming the boundaries of the stern, and R R R the third ditto. connecting the quarter-galleries thereto, and to SSS the fourth ditto. the taff-rail ; their upper ends are bolted to the T, T, T, the top-timbers. ship's sides, and the lower ends extend down- V,V,V,the lengthening pieces to the fourth futtock. ward to the middle stool, where they are secured U, V, the gun-deck port-sills. by iron knees.

W, W, the middle-deck ditto. The quarter-rails are of oak, and form the X, X, the upper-deck ditto. boundaries of the quarter-galleries : the lower Y, Y, the quarter-deck and forecastle ditto. rails are termed the rails on the lower stools; a, a, the round-house ports. the next the breast-rails, foot-rails, and the rails b, b, the quarter-deck and forecastle ditto. on the upper stools.

C, C, the upper-deck ditto. The munions to the quarter-galleries are of fir, d, d, the middle-deck ditto. about two inches thick ; they are placed equi- é, e, the lower deck ditto. distant from each other, and fastened to the stools f the entering-port. and rails to receive the sashes.

g, g, g, the doorways to the quarter-gallery. The lower finishings are solid pieces of orna- h, k, h, h, h, the hawse-pieces. mental carved work, fastened to the ship's sides i, i, the hawse-holes. under the quarter-galleries.

k, k, the double futtocks in the fore and afterThe upper finishings are also ornamental carved bodies. work, placed upon the upper stools, and fastened @ © ©BD FHKMOQ, the station of the at each end with nails. The dead-eyes and square-timbers of the frame in the fore body. chains are let into the channels, and secured s u w y, dic., the station of the cant-timbers of thereto, the chain-plates are then let on, and the frame in ditto. the chain and preventer-bolts driven and secured. 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19, and 21, the

The portlids' to the lower gun-deck are a sort station of the square-timbers of the frame in the of shuiters, hung by hinges, to enclose the ports after-body. iu tempestuous weather. These port-lids have 23, 25, 27, 29, and 31, the station of the cantscuttles cut through them for the admission of timbers of the frame in ditio. VOL. XX.

Q

It has been asserted in the Third Report of shipwrights, in the royal dock-yards, were placed the Commissioners for revising the Civil Affairs under the eye of a superior workman, and conof the Navy, that, where we have built exactly tinued five or six years at the practical part after the form of the best of the French ships of their business. At the expiration of that that we have taken, thus adding our dexterity in time, young men of the best character and building to their knowledge in theory, the ships, abilities were admitted into the mould-loft, in it is generally allowed, have proved the best in order to acquire the knowledge of the theory of our navy; but whenever our builders have been ship-building; vamely, drawing, laying off ships, so far misled in the science of naval architecture &c. From this situation they were frequently as to depart from the model before them in any employed as overseers, to superintend the buildmaterial degree and attempt improvements, the ing of ships of war, which were to be built by true principles on which ships ought to be con contract in our merchants' yards; hence they strucied have been mistaken or counteracted, gradually imbibed such a knowledge of shipand the alterations, according to the information building as to qualify them for officers in that given to us, have in many cases done harm. Science. We mention this in order to point out, From the same cause there has been infinite by way of contrast, the success that may be variety in the alterations made, and in the forms expected to result from a superior class of shipwhich have been adopted. The alterations being wrights' apprentices, which, by the king's order founded on no certain principles, no similarity in council, September 20th, 1809, has been esin form of the ships could be expected, and they tablished at Portsmouth dock-yard. This class have the appearance of having been constructed consists of twenty-five young men of liberal on the chance, that, in the multitude of trials education, who, before admittance, must be exmade, some one might be found of superior amined by the professor of the Royal Naval excellence. While therefore our rivals in naval College, and the instructor in the theory of naral power were employing men of the greatest architecture. Their mornings are occupied in talents and most extensive acquirements, to call the study of mathematics and mechanics, and in in the aid of science for improving the construc- the application of them to naval architecture, in tion of ships, we have been rather remiss in quest drawing the different parts of ships, and making of such discoveries as chance might bring in our complete draughts and plans. The remainder way. Nothing certainly can be more surprising of the day is employed under the paster shipthan that, in a nation so enlightened as this, and wright in the mould-loft, and in all the various whose power, importance, and even safety, de- kinds of manual labor connected with shippend on its naval superiority, matters so essen- building, as well as in the management and tial to its preservation should so long have been conversion of timber, so as to make them fully neglected.

acquainted with the duties of a practical ship* As a remedy for this great evil it has been wright. The last year of their apprenticeship proposed, that the ships of each class or rate is to be served at sea, to afford them an opporshould be constructed in every particular accord- tunity of acquiring some practical knowledge in ing to the form of the best ship in the same the steering, sailing, trimming, and ballasting of class in our navy; of the same length, breadth, ships, &c., during which the order directs that and depth, the masts of the same dimensions, they shall mess with the officers, and be treated and placed in the same parts of the ship, with in all respects as gentlemen.' the same form and size of the sails.'

Nothing can be more advantageous to this It has been generally reported that most of the country than such an establishment; and a plans of our ships of war have heretofore been number of young men of the highest promise determined by the surveyors of the navy in favor have been already entered, who will undoubtedof some chance draught which may have suc- ly excel the French in the science of naval arceeded; or by the encomiums lavished on some chitecture as much as our shipwrights at present prize ship by the officer who may have captured surpass theirs in the practice of the art. her, &c. All this is perfectly natural, and if I A ship of the line (Fr. vaisseau de ligne) is stopped here might not be much amiss ; but the usually applied to all men of war carrying sixty mischief follows; each, in turn, suggests some guns and upwards. Of late, however, our fiftychange in the figure of the ship, by which she is gun ships have been formed sufficiently strong to to become a paragon of excellence; for instance, carry the same metal as those of sixty, and aca little more sheer, a little more breadth of beam, cordingly may fall into the line in cases of necesa little more height between decks, &c., without sity in time of action. considering how small a deviation from the The ships of seventy-four guns are generally original draught will alter the line of flotation, esteemed the most useful in the line of battle, and affect her sailing; change the centre of gra- and indeed in almost every other purpose of war. vity, and affect her stability; and, instead of It has therefore been judged conformable to our improving, destroy every good quality which she design to represent different views and sections before possessed. The disadvantages arising of a ship of this class. from such a variety of models are of serious Merchant-ship (Fr. bâtiment marchand), a importance, particularly when they meet with vessel, employed in commerce, to carry commodamage at sea and require immediate repairs, dities of various sorts from one port to another. as scarcely any two ships take the same sized The largest merchant-ships are those emmasts, yards, &c., these therefore cannot be kept ployed by the different companies of merchants in store to supply accidental losses.

who trade to the East Indies. They are ir. Until of late most of the youths intended for general as large as our forty-four gun ships, and

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London, Published by Thomas Tram. 73. Cheapvide. June 1182.9.

LANT-MAST.

are commonly mounted with twenty guns on studding-sail 90. Cap. their upper deck, which are nine-pounders, and booms.

91. MAIN-TOP-GALsix on their quarter-deck, which are six-pounders. 35. Stay and sail. They are particularly employed in the Chinese 36. Preventer-stay. 92. Shrouds. trade, and some of them are said to have brought 37. Backstays.

93. Yard and sail. to Europe cargoes amounting to 2000 tons, the 38. Halyards.

94. Backstay. principal part of which was tea.

39. Lifts.

95. Stay, halyard, and Prison-ship (Fr. vaisseau servant de prison 40. Braces.

sail. dans un port), a vessel fitted up in a port pur- 41. Horses.

96. Lifts. posely for the accommodation of prisoners of war, 42. Stay-sail halyards. 97. Braces. and regularly guarded.

43. Bowlines and 98. Bowlines and Receiving-ship (Fr. vaisseau servant d'entrepôt, bridles.

bridles. pour les gens destinés au service de la marine), 44. Sheets.

99. Royal stay. a ship stationed at any place to receive volun- 45. Cross-trees. 100. Backstay teers and impressed men, and train them to their 46. Cap.

101. Royal yard and duty in readiness for any ship of war which may 47. FORE-TOP-GALLANT sail. want hands.

Mast.

102. Royal braces. Store-ship (Fr. bâtiment armé en flûte, pour 48. Shrouds. 103. Royal lifts. charger des munitions, &c.), a vessel employed 49. Yard and sail. 104. Royal standard. to carry artillery or naval stores for the use of a 50. Backstays. 105. MIZEN-MAST. Aeet, fortress, or garrison.

51. Stay.

106. Shrouds and ratTransport-ship (Fr. bâtiment de transport), a 52. Lifts.

lines. merchant-ship, Nired by the Transport Board, for 53. Braces.

107. Cross-jack-yard the purpose of conveying ammunition, stores, 54. Bowlines and. 108. Stay. &c., from one place or port to another.

bridles.

109. Preventer-stay. Troop-ship (fr. bâtiment de transport pour les 55. Royal stay. 110. Cross-jack-lifts. troupes), a ship carrying her guns on the upper 56. Backstay. 111. Ditto ditto braces. deck, and employed to convey troops, and on 57. Royal yard and sail. 112. Horse. that account is commonly called a troop or 58. Royal braces.

113. Top. transport-ship.

59. Royal lifts.

114. Cap. Ships of war (Fr. vaisseaux de guerre), are 60. Flag of the lord 115. MIZEN-TOP-MAST. properly equipped with artillery, ammunition, high admiral. 116. Shrouds. and all the necessary martial weapons and in- 61. MAIN-MAST. 117. Stay. struments for attack or defence. They are dis- 62. Shrouds and rat- 118. Backstay. tinguished from each other by their several ranks lines.

119. Yard and sail. or classes.

63. Stay.

120. Lifts. Besides the different kinds of ships above- 64. Preventer-stay. 121. Braces. mentioned, which are denominated from the 65. Stay-tackles. 122. Bowlines and purposes for which they are employed, vessels 66. Yard-tackles.

bridles. have also in general been named according to 67. Lifts.

123. Cross-trees. the different manner of rigging them. It would, 68. Braces.

124. Cap. however, be an endless, and at the same time an 69. Horse.

125. MIZEN-TOP-GALunnecessary task, to enumerate all the different 70. Sheets. kinds of vessels with respect to their rigging. 71. Tack.

126. Shrouds. Plate II. represents a modern first-rate ship of 72. Bowlines

and 127. Stay. war, with masts, yards, sails, rigging, &c., at bridles.

128. Backstay. anchor; the several parts of which are as fol- 73. Top.

129. Yard and sail. lows:

74. Cap.

130. Bowlines

and

75. Yard and course, bridles. 1. BOWSPRIT. 20. Preventer-stay and with studding- 131. Lifts. 2. Gammoning,

lanyard.

sail-booms. 132. Braces. 3. Bumkin. 21. Yard and course,

76. Futtock shrouds. 133. Royal yard and 4. Horse. with studding 77. MAIN-TOP-MAST.

sail. 5. Bob-stays.

sail-booms. 78. Shrouds and lan- 134. Royal lifts. 6. Martingal. 22. Horse.

yards.

135. Royal braces. 7. Martingal-stays. 23. Top

79. Yard and sail, 136. Royal stay. 8. Bowsprit shrouds. 24. Yard tackles.

with studding- 137. Royal back-stays. 9. Jib boom. 25. Lifts.

sail-booms. 138. Union jack. 10. Jib, stay, and sail. 26. Braces.

80. Backstay.

139. Driver boom. 11. Jib-halyards. 27. Sheets.

81. Preventer-stay,

140. Boom topping12. Horses. 28. Tack. 82. Stay and sail.

lifts. 13. Sprit-sail-yard and 29. Bowlines

and 83. Halyards. 141. Boom guy-falls. bridles. 84. Lifts.

142. Gaff and driver, 14. Bowsprit-cap. 30. Futtock-shrouds. 85. Braces.

143. Derrick-fall, 15. Jack-staff and flag. 31. Cap.

86. Horse.

144. Peak-brails. 16. Braces. 32. FORE-TOP-MAST. 87. Sheets.

145. Peak-halyards 17. Fore-Mast. 33. Shrouds and lan 88. Bowlines and 146. Ensign-staff. 18. Shrouds & rat-lines. yards.

bridles.

147. Ensign. 19. Stay and lanyard. 34. Yard and sail, with 89. Cross trees. 148. Bower-cable.

LANT-MAST.

course.

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