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ELEVATION, or SHEER-DRAUGAT. sweeps in the latter direction. These two arcs A A, the keel; whose upper edge is prolonged are joined by a third, which coincides with both, by the dotted line, upon the extremities of which without intersecting either. are erected perpendiculars, which determine the The curve of the top-timber is either formed height of the wing-transom.
by a mould which corresponds to the arc of the B, the stern-post.
breadth-sweep, or by another sweep, whose cenC, the stem.
tre and radius are without the plane of projection. D D, the quarter-gallery,
The breadth of the ship at every top-timber is E, the quarter-piece, which limits the stern on limited by an horizontal line drawn on the flooreach side.
plane, called the half-breadth of the top-timbers. F, the taffrail, or upper piece of the stern. The extreme breadth is also determined by anG G, profile of the stern, with its galleries. other horizontal line on the floor-plane; and the H, H, H, the gun-ports.
lines of balf-breadth are thus mutually transferI, I, I, the channels, with their dead-eyes and able, from the projection and floor-planes to chain-plates.
each other. K, the tuckrail.
The necessary data by which the curves of the L, the lower finishing.
timbers are delineated, then, are the perpendiM, the upper finishing.
cular height from the keel, the main or principal N, the fretwork on the upper finishing. breadth, and the top-timber-breadth: for, as a 0, the rudder.
ship is much broader near the middle of her P, the top timber line.
length than towards the ends, so she is broader Q, the upper edge of the main-wale.
in the middle of her height than above and be R, the lower edge of the main-wale.
low; and this latter difference of breadth is conS, the upper edge of the channel-wale.
tinued throughout every point of her length. T, the lower edge of the channel-wale. The main breadth of each frame of timber is, U, the water-lines.
therefore, the ship's breadth nearly in the middle X, X, the rails of the head.
of her height in that part: and the top-timberY, the knee of the head, or cutwater.
breadth is the line of her breadth near the upper 2, Z, the cheeks of the head.
end of each timber. It has been already oba, the cat-head.
served that, as both sides of the ship are alike, b, b, the hawse-holes.
the artificers only draw one side, from which The frame timbers are represented by ACE both sides of the ship are built; therefore, the GIK MOQSU W Y, in the fore-body of the timbers before the midship-section are exhibited ship, before the midship-frame.
on one side of the plane of projection, as in , represents the midship-frame, called dead- plate I., fig. 2, and those abaft before it on the fiat.
other, as in fig. 3. The timbers in the after-body are represented by 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 24, 26,
PLANE OF PROJECTION. 28, 30, 32, 34, which are erected abaft the mid A, the keel. ship-frame.
B B, the line which expresses the upper edge As the eye of a spectator is supposed in this of the keel, from which the height of each timprojection to view the ship's side in a line per- ber and height of its different breadths are meapendicular to the plane of elevation, it is evident sured. that the convexity will vanish, like that of a cy Ç, C, the perpendiculars raised on the line B, linder or globe, when viewed at a considerable to limit the ship's extreme breadth and height distance.
amid-ships; or, in other words, to limit the It has been already observed that the plane breadth and height of the midship-section. of projection may be defined a vertical delinea D, a perpendicular erected from the middle of tion of the curves of the timbers upon the plane the keel, to bisect the line of the ship's breadth of the midship-section, which is perpendicular in two equal parts. to that of the elevation. It is necessary to ob E, the half-breadth of the top-timber line. I serve here that the various methods, by which F, the upper height of the main-breadth line. these curves are described, are equally mecha 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 24, 26, nical and arbitrary. In the latter sense, they 28, 30, 32, 34, the radii of the breadth-sweeps, are calculated to make a ship fuller or narrower, in the after-body, fig. 5, abaft the midshipaccording to the service for which she is de- section. signed, and in the former they are drawn accord , the midship-section, called dead-flat. ing to those rules which the artist has been im- ACE GIKMOQSU W Y, are those of plicitly taught to follow, or which his fancy or the radii of the breadth-sweeps in the forebody, judgment has esteemed the most accurate. They fig. 4, before the midship-section. are generally composed of several arcs of a cir 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 24, 26, cle, reconciled together by moulds framed for 28, 30, 32, 34, are the outlines of the timbers that purpose. The radii of those arcs, therefore, abast the midship-section, in different parts of are of different lengths, according to the breadth their height. of the ship in the place where such arcs are , the midship-section, called dead-flat. swept; and they are expressed on the plane of ACEGIKMOQSU W Y, are the outprojection either by horizontal or perpendicular lines of the timbers before the midship-section, lines; the radii of the breadth-sweeps being al- in different parts of their height. ways in the former, and the radii of the floor G, G, the crosses on the ticked line in the fore
and after bodies, which are tne radii of the floor- tant from each other, to receive the keel; the sweeps.
lower, being inuch larger than those above, are The horizontal plane, plate I., fig. 5, is com therefore fastened upon the ground-ways, and posed of water-lines and ribands ; it also con- the upper ones on the lower with tree-nails : tains the main and top-timber breadth-lines, or their declivity is generally from five-eighths to the longitudinal lines by which the main-breadth three-quarters of an inch to a foot; the upper and top-timber-breadth are limited in every point sides being made straight fore-and-aft and level of the ship's length.
ath wart-ships. HORIZONTAL PLANE.
The keel is formed of several pieces of elm .
timber, scarfed perpendicularly and bolted toA, the diagonal or riband-line.
gether, and is the basis for the whole structure; B, the main half-breadth line.
it is set straight upon the middle of the blocks, C, the top-timber half-breadth line.
and kept in that position by tree-nails being D, E, F, G, the horizontal or water-lines. driven into the blocks along its sides.
I, the round aft of the stern at the height of The dead-wood is generally of oak of various the main-breadth.
forms and thicknesses, and fayed on the upper J, the round aft of the stern at the top-timber- side of the main-keel, the scarfs giving shift to breadth.
the scarfs of the keel, and, fastened thereto by K, the stern.
tree-nails. L, the stern-post.
The floors are also of oak, fixed athwart-ship, aceg ik m o q su w y, are the joints of the and scored into the dead-wood. frame-timbers before the midship-frame.
The stem is composed of two or more circular , the midship-frame, called 'dead-fat. pieces of oak timber, which are scarfed and 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 24, 26, bolted together : its lower end is scarfed or 28, 30, 32, 34, are the joints of the frame-timbers boxed into the fore-end of the main keel, and its abaft the midship-frame.
upper end extends to the under-side of the bow. The plan and elevation of this seventy-four sprit. gun ship are drawn to a scale of one-sixteenth The apron is also of oak, and conforms to the of an inch to a foot.
shape of the stem; the convexity of the former, Thus we have endeavoured briefly to explain fayed to the concavity of the latter, forms one the nature and uses of the principal draughts solid piece. used in the construction of a ship, which reci The knight-heads are of oak; their heads are procally correspond with each other in the di- sufficiently above the head of the stem to support mensions of length, breadth, and depth. Thus the bowsprit : narrow timber, or fillings, have the plane of elevation is exactly of the same recently been introduced between the knightlength with the horizontal or floor-plane. The heads and the stem, in order to prevent the bowseveral breadths of the timbers in the floor-plane sprit from wounding them. The stem, apron, and that of the projection are mutually transfer- knight-heads, and the narrow timbers, or fillings, able; and the real height of the timbers in the are all bolted together and raised to their proper projection exactly conforms to their height in stations; the scarf or boxing of the stem is then the elevation.
bolted securely to the forepart of the keel. In the same manner the breadths of all the
The stern-post is of oak, is the principal piece timbers may be laid from the projection to the of timber in the stern-frame, and into which the horizontal plane, and, vice versa, from that to the wing, filling, and deck-transoms, are scored and projection. Thus the height of each timber may bolted. Its lower end is tenoned into the keel, also be transferred from the elevation to the pro- and terminates the ship abaft. jection, &c.
The inner-post is fayed to the fore side of the The principal utility of these draughts is, stern-post, for the purpose of seating the transoms therefore, to exhibit the various curves of the below the deck; its lower end is tenoned into ship’s body, and of the pieces of which it is the keel, and its upper end terminates at the framed, in different points of view, which are under side of the lower-deck-transom. either transverse or longitudinal, and will, ac The transoms are of oak, fixed athwart the cordingly, present them in very different direc- stern-post, and bolted thereto, in order to form tions. Thus the horizontal curves of the tran- the buttock of the ship, and to fortify her aftersoms and water-lines are represented on the part. They are divided into four sorts; viz. floor-plane, all of which are nearly straight lines wing, filling, lower-deck, and the others below in the elevation and projection; and thus the the latter are distinguished by Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, vertical curves of the timbers are all exhibited 6, and 7. on the projection, although they appear as straight The wing-transom is the upper transom in the lines in the elevation and floor-plane.
stern-frame, in which the heels of the counterWe shall here attempt to describe the various timbers are let in and bolted. parts of a seventy-four-gun ship, and, at the same The filling-transon is the intermediate trantime, show how these parts are progressively ap- som, which is placed sufficiently above the deckplied and connected with each other, according transom to admit the plank of the deck being to the modern practice of building, from the worked between them. laying of the keel to the launching of her into The deck-transom is next below the fillingthe water.
transom, and is worked sufficiently broad to The timbers being provided, the blocks are secure the after ends of the gun-deck plank. laid in the middle of the slip, about five feet dis The transoms below the lower-deck-transom
are, with those described above, bolted to the of the floor-timbers, and bolted through the floors stern-post, as before mentioned.
and the keel, the scarfs giving shift to the The fashion-pieces are of oak, so called from scarfs of the keel. their fashioning the after-part of the ship, and The stemson is a piece of compass-oak timber, have scores taken out of their aft sides, in order worked on the aft-side of the apron, having its to receive the ends of all the transoms. The lower end scarfed into the kelson, which gives stern-frame, being now raised and secured, forms shifts to the scarfs of the apron, and its upper the basis of the whole stern.
end continued as high as the upper-deck. The harpings, called the floor-surmurk, are The postson, or sternson, is a large knee-piece pieces of oak similar to the ribands; they are of oak timber worked upon the after dead-wood; trimmed and bevelled to the shape of the body the fore-end is scarfed into the kelson, and the of the ship in the wake of the fore and after aft-side fayed and bolted to the fore-sides or cupt-bodies, and are shored securely to keep the throats of the transoms, and continued as high timbers in their respective stations.
as the lower-deck transom. The ribands, also called the floor-surmark, The dead-wood bolts are long copper bolts are of fir-timber, nailed to the timbers of the driven through the kelson, dead wood, and keel, square-body; their fore and after ends are where they are well clinched upon copper rings scarfed to the harpings, which extend from the for the purpose of securing the ship in that park. stem to the stern; they are also shored securely The lower-deck ports are then trimmed out to to retain the floor-timbers and the heels of the their proper size, and the heads and heels of first buttocks in their proper stations.
the timbers cut off in order to let in the portThe frame-timbers are the bends of timbers sills. forming the body of the ship, each of which is The lower-deck port-sills are pieces of oak composed of a first, second, third, fourth futtock, timber let in horizontally between the frames, to and a top-timber, which, being united, are raised form the upper and lower sides of the ports. cross-spalled to their respective stations, shored The main wale (black-strake, and diminishingand bolted sideways to the floor-limbers. stuff) is the lower-wale, which is wrought, fast
The cross-spalls are pieces of fir plank nailed, ened with bolts, and bored off, but the tree-nails in a temporary manner, athwart the ship in the are not driven through it until the inside plank wake of the ports, by which the frames are kept is worked : it is generally placed on the lowerwell to their breadth.
breadth, so that the fastenings of the knees or The whole of the harpings and ribands are chocks, to the ends of the beams, may be secured now trimmed and fastened to their respective to it by the in and out bolts. stations till the plank is wrought.
The fillings are pieces of timber driven edgeThe filling-timbers are intermediate timbers ways between the timbers from the floor-heads placed between the frames; they are trimmed downward to the dead-wood, and caulked within and got into their stations singly, and secured by and without board to prevent the ship from ribbing-nails through the harpings and ribands. leaking, should the plank of the bottom be rubbed
The side counter-timbers are of oak, and partake off by any accident, which has frequently hapof the shape of the top-side, their lower ends pened. being placed at the extremity of the wing-transom, The plank of the bottom is wrought and bored and bolted to the foremost fashion-pieces. off, and sufficiently fastened with bolts made fo
The midship counter-timbers are also of oak; that purpose, but the tree-nails are not driver: their lower ends are let into the wing-transom, until the inside plank is worked. and bolted thereto : they are fixed at equal dis The orlop clanrps are thick plank worked withtances from each other, in order to form the inside the ship, and the ends of the beams are stern-lights, and all the stern-rajls are firinly let into them: the tree-nail-holes are then put bolted to thein.
through from the outside, and the tree-nails driven The hawse-pieces are oak timbers, whose side through and wedged, by which means the inside stand nearly fore and aft, and form the bow of and outside plank are secured; the butt-bolts the ship.
are afterwards driven, which completes the fastShort hawse-pieces have lately been placed ening of the plank. above and below the hawse-holes, and are the The orlop beams are substantial pieces of oak means of preventing the timbers from being timber, scarfed, dowelled, and bolted together; weakened by cutting the hawse-holes.
they are laid athwart-ships to support the orlopThe cross-chocks are pieces of oak timber deck, and to keep the sides of the ship together which cross the dead-wood, and secure the heels by means of chocks with their iron plate-knees, of the lower futtocks.
or wooden knees. The angular-chocks are fastened to the different The lower-deck clamps are also thick plank heads and heels of the timbers; when they are worked withinside the ship, and fastened in a completed the outside frame of the ship is recon- similar manner to the orlop clamps above-menciled, and the inside dubbed to its scantling tioned. ready to receive the plank.
The lower-deck beams are also substantial pieces The kelson is composed of long square pieces of oak timber, scarfed, dowelled, and bolted of oak timber, scarfed together in a horizontal together; they are laid athwart-ships to support direction, and fixed within board exactly over that deck, &c., by means of chocks and iron the keel, and may be considered as the counter- plate-knees, which are bolted both to the chocks pari thereof for strengthening the lower part of and to the ends of the beams; these plate-knees the ship: it is fitted to and laid upon the middle have ears attached to them, and are made to
receive two in and out bolts; these ears substi- timber, fixed withinside athwart the how of the tute lodging-knees.
ship and bolted thereto, as the upper-deck hook The lower-deck hook is a large piece of com- before-mentioned, in consequence of the beak pass-timber fixed withinside athwart the bow of heads being discontinued, and round bows inThe ship, to which it is firmly bolted : its upper troduced into the service. side is trimmed to the round of the beam to The quarter-deck and forecastle-spirketting is receive the plank of the deck.
wrought within board, &c., similarly to the upperThe lower-deck spirketting is thick plank deck spirketting; and the short stuff between wrought within board; its lower edge is wrought the ports is worked and sufficiently fastened. sufficient distance from the beam to admit the The round-house clumps are worked withinside water-way, and the upper edge kept well with the ship, and secured like the quarter-deck the upper side of the lower port-sills, and fast- clamps. ened similar to the orlop-clamps, 'as before The round house beams are of small scantling, mentioned.
generally of one piece, placed athwart ships; The transom-knees are pieces of compass- their ends are secured by chocks and plates, or timber, bolted to the wing-transom and to the hanging and lodging knees. sides of the ship, in the direction of the transom; The round-house transom is bolted to the sternbeing the principal security to the ends of the timbers, and trimmed to the same round as the wing-transom.
beams; a rabbet is taken out of the upper side The upper-deck ports are next trimmed out to to receive the deck planks, and its end is secured their proper size, and the heads and beels of the by iron knees. timbers cut off, in order to let in the port-sills. The limber-streak are thick oak-plank, wrought
The upper-deck port-sills are let in as the lower- near the kelson with a rabbet trimmed out, on deck port-siils before-mentioned.
the midship-side, to receive the limber-boards. The channel-wale is thick plank worked be The thick-plank, at the floor and first futtocktween the upper and lower-deck ports, the chain heads, are applied to strengthen the ship at the and preventer-bolts being driven through it. different heads and heels of the timbers.
The upper-deck clumps are thick plank worked The foot-waling, or ceiling, is composed of withinside the ship, and fastened similarly to the plank which is placed between the several pieces lower-deck clamps.
of thick-stuff. The upper-deck beams are substantial pieces of The breast-hooks are compass-pieces of oak oak timber, scarfed, dowelled, and bolted to- timber, fayed and bolted athwart the bow of the gether; they are laid athwart-ships to support ship, where they are the principal security, that deck, &c., by means of chocks and plate The crutches are also compass-pieces of oak knees, the latter being bolted to the former and timber, fayed and bolted on the foot-waling abaft, to the ends of the beams, as in the lower-deck. for the security of the after-part of the ship.
The upper-deck hook is a piece of compass The sleepers are also compass-pieces of oak timber fixed withinside athwart the bow of the timber, fayed and bolted to the transoms and ship, and bolted, &c., as the lower-deck hook. sides of the ship within board, in a diagonal di
The upper-deck transom is a piece of oak tim- rection, to strengthen the buttock. ber, whose upper side is trimmed to the round The bends, or riders in the hold, are interior of the beam, and bolted to the counter-timbers timbers which combine and strengthen the ship; to receive the after-end of the deck-plank: its they are fayed on the foot-waling; and cross the ends are fastened by knees, which cast under the kelson their upper ends continue as high as the upper-deck beams, and are securely bolted to the orlop and lower-deck beams, and are fayed and transom and side of the ship.
bolted through the sides of the ship; they are The upper-deck spirketting is thick plank distinguished by floor, and first, second, and wrought within board, similar to the lower-deck third futtocks. spirketting above-mentioned.
The limber-boards are composed of short pieces The quarter-deck and forecastle ports are then of oak, having their grain placed fore and aft, trimmed out to their proper size, and the port- except in the wake of the hatchways, where it sills are let in as the upper-deck port-sills above runs up and down; they serve to keep the dirt, mentioned.
&c., from getting into the limber-passage ; their The sheer-strake is thick plank wrought on the lower edges are filted into the rabbet or the limtop-sides, and its upper edge is kept well with ber-strake, and the upper edges fayed and fitted the top timber-lines, or top of the side.
against the sides of the kelson. The forecastle and quarter-deck clamps are The pillars are straight pieces of oak timber thick plank worked withinside the ship, and erected perpendicularly under the middle of the fastened as the upper-deck clamps.
beams to support the orlop; their heels are chased The forecastle and quarter-deck beams are sub- into the kelson, and their heads tenoned into the stantial pieces of oak timber, scarfed, dowelled, beams. and bolted together, &c., the same as the upper
The bulk-heads in the hold are various partitions deck beams.
separating one part of the ship from the other ; The quarter-deck transom is trimmed as the they are built with rabbeted and cyphered-edged round of the beam, and bolted to the stern- planks; those erected in the main hold have timbers to receive the after-ends of the deck, their seams battened over; those for the magaplank; its ends are fastened by knees, which zines and spirit-room are lined with thin deal, cast under the quarter-deck beams, &c.
and have a cement applied between them to keep The forecastle-deck hook is a piece of compass- the powder and spirits from accidents by fire, &c.
The grand magazme is composed of racks, bat- tain's cabin abaft, and the steering wheel, which sens, drawers, &c., for containing the powder. works the tiller, are erected ; also the fore brace
The light-room is a place forward, separated bits for bracing the yards; and the blocks, viz. from the grand magazine; and, in order to give the main-lifts, the main-top-sail halyards, and light to the latter, the lanterns are fixed in it be- cheek-hlocks : it also contains twenty-fourtween strong oak jambs, with splaw-boards cased pounder and thirty-two-pounder carronades. with lead and tin, to secure them very firmly in The forecastle, which is also above the uppertheir places; and, to prevent any accident hap- deck, is of three-inch fir, and supported by iron pening to the magazine, there are wire-guards pillars : on it the blocks belonging to the forefixed before the glass.
tacks, cat, top-sail-halyards, and fore-lifts are The coal-hole is placed abaft the after-hold, placed. for keeping coals, &c., in.
The skid-beams are of fir timber, fixed in a The spirit-room is an apartment abaft the coal. range between the quarter-deck and forecastle; hole, and is appropriated for the reception of spi- they have two fir pillars under each of them, and rituous liquors, &c.
are for the purpose of stowing away the spars, The powder-room is a convenient place abaft booms, boats, &c. the spirit-room ; it contains racks, &c., in which The round-house, abaft, is that part above the the filled cartridges are placed ready for action. quarter-deck forming a covering to the captain's
The bread-room is close abaft the powder-room, cabin; it is laid with three-inch fir plank, and and lined with feather-edged boards, with dun- contains a light for the captain's cabin, also the nage battons underneath them, to prevent any mizen-top-sail sheet-bits, and six twenty-fourwater that may spring from a leak in the sides of pounder carronades. the ship from damaging the bread.
The knee of the head is generally of oak; the The orlop is the deck beneath the lower gun- pieces which compose it are of various forms deck, and is supported by an oak pillar placed and thicknesses, tabled or dowelled together : under each beam, and framed with carlings and the aft-side is fayed and bolted to the stem of the ledges to receive the plank, which are generally ship, and its lower end continued downwards to of three-inch fir. On this deck are erected the the gripe. purser's, surgeon's, boatswain's, gunner's, and The rudder is that useful machine attached to carpenter's cabin and store-rooms ; the midship- the stern-post by pintles and braces; it is formed men's births, the captain's, and lieutenants' store- of oak and fir timber, the principal of which is rooms, the purser's slop-room, the steward's called the main-piece, which reaches sufficiently room, and a place for the marine clothing. The above the upper deck to allow a hole to be cut greater part of the said deck is also used for in it for the reception of the spare tiller, in case stowing and coiling the cables.
the working tiller on the lower gun-deck should The lower-gun deck is that next the orlop, also be rendered unserviceable in action or otherwise. supported by an oak pillar under each beam, and The cheeks to the knee of the head are kneeframed with carlings and ledges to receive the pieces of oak timber supporting the knee; their plank, which is of four inch oak, and on which after-arms are bolted to the bow of the ship, and the lower tiers of guns, consisting of thirty-two their fore arms to the knee of the head. pounders, are placed.
The cat-heads are strong compass-pieces of oak There are also attached to this deck the cis- timber, whose outer ends project from the ship's terns for the pumps, the steps for the capstans, sides, and the inner ends are secured under the mizen-mast, bowsprit, and the riding-bits with fore-castle beams : each of them has three sheaves their cross-pieces, to which the cables are secured at the outer end for the purpose of catting the when the ship rides al anchor.
anchor. The cabins for the junior lieutenant and chap The main head-rails are of two sorts, circular lain are erected abaft upon this deck, as also a and straight; the former extends from the foregun-room for the midshipmen to mess in. side of the cat-head to the back of the figure
The upper-deck is next above the lower gun- head; and the latter has lately heen introduced, deck, and is also supported by an oak pillar having been proved a greater security to the knee under each beam, and framed with carlings and of the head 'than the circular rail, and is also a ledges to receive the deck plank, which is of three- saving both as to workmanship and materials
. inch fir, and on which the upper tier of guns, The channels are an assemblage of planks fayed consisting of twenty-four, or long eighteen- and dowelled together edgeways; the fore and pounders, are placed. On this deck the ward- main channels are bolted the side of the ship room abaft
, with the lieutenants', master's, and above the upper-deck ports, and the mizen chancaptain of marines' births are erected with screen nel above the quarter-deck ports, for the purpose bulk-heads, which are readily taken down on of spreading the shrouds in order to support coming to action. The cook-room, with the fire. masts. hearth, are placed abaft the fore-mast; and the The figure-head is the principal piece of carved topsail-sheet and jear-bits are also placed on this work or ornament at the head of the ship; it is deck.
scored over the knee of the head and bolted to The quarter-deck is next above the upper-deck, the
lace-piece. and is of three-inch fir plank; it is supported The bolsters to the hawse are large pieces of by oak pillars, except those that come in the oak or elin timber, fayed and bolted to the bows wake of the jear capstan, and they are of iron; of the ship between the cheeks: there are two they are hung the beams, and hooked up when holes cut ihrough each of them in the direction she capstan is working. On this deck the cap- of the hawse-holes, the foresides of which are