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I bruised my shán the other day with playing at While from afar we heard the cannons play, sword and dagger.

Like distant thunder on a shiny day, Shakspeare. Merry Wives of Windsor. For absent friends we were ashamed to fear. Id. The shin bone, from the knee to the instep, is The sun shines when he sees it.

Locke. made by shadowing one half of the leg with a single The colour and shining of bodies is nothing but shadow.

Peacham the different arrangement and refraction of their miHis leg then broke, nute parts.

Id. Had got a deputy of oak;

Cato's soul For when a shin in fight is cropt,

Shines out in every thing she acts or speaks ; The knee with one of timber's propt. Hudibras. While winning mildness and attractive smiles As when to an house we come,

Dwell in her looks, and with becoming grace To know if any one's at home,

Soften the rigour of her father's virtues. Addison. We knock; so one must kick your shin,

The reformation, in its first establishment, proEre he can find your soul's within. Anonymous.

duced its

proper fruits, and distinguished the whole SHINAR, a province of Babylonia, where the age with shining instances of virtue and morality.

Id. Freeholder. famous tower of Babel was built. See Babel.

Of all the' enamelled race, whose silvery wing It had mountains named Zagræi, and a city and Waves to the tepid zephyrs of the spring, river named Singara. Ashur the son of Shem. Or swims along the fluid atmosphere, emigrated out of it.

Once brightest shined this child of heat and air. SHINE, v. n. & n. s. ? Pret. I shone, I have

Pope. Sai'sy, adj.

shone; sometimes I Say, in what mortal soil thou deignest to grow ? shined, I have shined. Sax. scinan; Belg. Fair opening to some court's propitious shine,

Id. schijnen. To have bright resplendence; to Ordeep with diamonds in the flaming mine? glitter; glisten ; gleam ; fair weather: the ad

Few are qualified to shine in company; but it is

in most men's power to be agreeable. Swift. jective corresponding. They are waxen fat, they shine. Jer. v. 28.

SHI'NESS, n. s. From Shy. Unwillingness The Lord make his face shine upon thee, and be to be tractable or familiar. gracious.

Numbers vi. 25.

An incurable shiness is the vice of Irish horses, The light of righteousness hath not shined unto and is hardly ever seen in Flanders, because the

winter forces the breeders there to house and handle us, and the sun of righteousness rose not upon us.

Wisdom v. 6.
their colts.

Temple. So proud she shined in her princely state,

They were famous for their justice in commerce, Looking to heaven, for earth she did disdain,

but extreme shiness to strangers : they exposed their And sitting high.

Faerie Queene.

goods with the price marked upon them, and then re

tired. When Aldeboran was mounted high,

Arbuthnot. Above the shiny Cassiopeia's chair,

SHIN'GLE, n. s. Teut. schindel. A thin One knocked at the door, and in would fare. Id. board to cover houses. To-day the French,

The best to cleave is the most useful for pales, All clinquant, all in gold, like heathen gods, laths, shingles, and wainscot. Shone down the English ; and to-morrow

Mortimer's Husbandry. Made Britain India : every man that stood

SHINGLES, in building, are small pieces of Shewed like a mine.

Shakspeare wood, or quartered oaken boards, sawn to a cerThe moon shines bright : in such a night as this,

tain scantling, or, as is more usual, cleft to about When the sweet wind did gently kiss the trees,

an inch thick at one end, and made like wedges, And they did make no noise.

four or five inches broad, and eight or nine long. Id. Merchant of Venice.

They are used instead of tiles or slates, especially How bright and goodly shines the moon !

for churches and steeples; however, this cover-The moon! the sun : it is not moonlight now.

Shakspeare. ing is dear; yet, where tiles are very scarce, and The night

a light covering is required, it is preferable to Is shiny, and they say we shall embattle

thatch; and, where they are made of good oak, By th' second hour oth' morn.

cleft, and not sawed, and well seasoned in water Id. Antony and Cleopatra. and the sun, they make a sure, light, and durable Clear pools greatly comfort the eyes, when the covering. The building is first to be covered all sun is overcast, or when the moon shineth. Bacon.

over with boards, and the shingles nailed upori He that has inured his eyes to that divine splen- them. dour which results from the beauty of holiness is

SHIP, n. s. & v. a. Sax. scip; Belg. not dazzled with the glittering shine of gold, and


schip. A large holconsiders it as a vein of the same earth he treads on.


low vessel made to Decay of Piety.

SHIP'MAN, Fair daughter, blow away these mists and clouds,

pass on or over the

Ship’MASTER, And let thy eyes shine forth in their full lustre.

seas: to put into a Denham. SHIP'PING,

ship: the derivaTrue paradise inclosed with shining rock. Milton. SHIPWRECK, n. S. & v. n. tives correspond We can dismiss thee ere the morning shine. Id. Ship’WRIGHT, n. s. ing. Fish with their fins and shining scales.


Hiram sent in the navy shipmen that had knowHer face was veiled; yet to my fancied sight

of the sea.

1 Kings ix. 27. Love, sweetness, goodness, in her person shined They have made all thy shipboards of fir-trees, and So clear, as in no face with more delight.

brought cedars from Lebanon to make masts. Celestial light

Ezek. xxvii. 5. Shine inward, and the mind through all her powers The shipmaster came to him, and said unto him, Irradiate.

Id, What ineanest thou, O sleeper ? arise, call upon thy Be it fair or foul, rain or shine. Dryden. God.

Jonah i. 6.



They took shipping and came to Capernaum, seek A square piece of marble shews itself to have beea ing for Jesus. John vi. 24. a little pagan monument of two persons who were

Id. Holding faith and a good conscience, which some shipwrecked. having put away, concerning faith, have made ship Thou that canst still the raging of the seas, wreck.

1 Timothy 1. Chain up the winds, and bid the tempests cease, Two other ships loaded with victuals were burnt, Redeem my shipwrecked soul from raging gusts

Prior. and some of the men saved by their shipboats. Of cruel passion and deceitful lusts.

Knolles. This sea war cost the Carthaginians five hundred The emperor, shipping his great ordnance, de- quinquiremes, and the Romans seven hundred, in

Arbuthnot. parted down the river. Id. History of the Turks. cluding their shipwrecks. All my followers to the eager foe

The Roman feet, although built by shipwrights, Turn back, and fy like ships before the wind.

and conducted by pilots, both without experience, Shakspeare. Henry VI. defeated that of the Carthaginians.

Id. My father at the road

A single leaf can waft an army o'er, Expects my coming, there to see me shipped. Or ship off senates to some distant shore.

Pope. Shakspeare.

As when a shipwright stands his workmen o'er, I myself have the very points they blow,

Who ply the wimble some huge beam to bore, All the quarters that they know

Urged on all hands it nimbly spins about, l'th' shipman's card.

Id. Macbeth. The grain deep piercing, till it scoops it out. Id. Few or none know me: if they did,

Vast numbers of ships, in our harbours, and shipThis shipboy's semblance hath disguised me quite. wrights in our sea-port towns.

Swift. Shakspeare. It curbs their impetuosity ; puts the reins into the Whence the sun 'gins his reflection,

hands of reason; quells the rising storm ere it make Shipwrecking storms and direful thunders break. Id. shipwreck of the conscience; and teaches a man to

leave off contention before it be meddled with. Why such impress of shipwrights, whose sore task

Mason. Does not divide the Sunday from the week ?

Ship is a general name for all large vessels, Before Cæsar's invasion of this land, the Britons had not any shipping at all, other than their boats of particularly those equipped with three masts and twigs covered with hides.


a bowsprit; the masts being composed of a There made forth to us a small boat, with about lower-mast, top-mast, and top-gallant mast; each eight persons in it, whereof one of them had in his of these being provided with yards, sails, &c. hand å tipstaff, who made aboard our ship. Bacon. Ships, in general, are either employed for war or

Let him go on shipboard, and the mariners will merchandise. not leave their starboard and larboard. Bramhall. SHIP, Hospital, a vessel fitted up to attend Instead of a ship, he should levy upon his country

on a fleet of men of war, and receive their sick such a sum of money, and return the same to the or wounded ; for which purpose her decks should treasurer of the navy : hence that tax had the deno- be high, and her ports sufficiently large. Her mination of ship-money, by which accrued the cables ought also to run upon the upper deck, to yearly sunı of two hundred thousand pounds. the end that the beds or cradles may be more


commodiously placed between decks, and admit Friend, What dost thou make a shipboard ? To what end ?

a free passage of the air to disperse that which is

offensive or corrupted.

Dryden. A breeze from shore began to blow,

Suip, Merchant, a vessel employed in comThe sailors ship their oars, and cease to row;

merce to carry commodities of various sorts from Then hoist their yards a-trip, and all their sails

one port to another. The largest inerchant-ships Let fall.

Id. are those employed by the different companies of Fishes first to shipping did impart;

merchants who trade to the East Indies. They Their tail the rudder, and their head the prow. Id. are, in general, larger than our forty-gun ships;

Nor is indeed that man less mad than these, and are commonly mounted with twenty guns on Who freights a ship to venture on the seas,

their upper deck, which are nine pounders; and With one frail interposing plank to save

six on their quarter-deck, which are six pounders. From certain death, rolled on by every wave. Id.

Ship's Form Gauge, an instrument that has They might have it in their own country, and that been recommended as fit to ascertain any alteraby gathering up the shipwrecks of the Athenian and Roman theatres.

tion in the bottom of a ship, by its hogging or

Id. We are not to quarrel with the water for inunda. sagging; and also to regulate the stowage of a tions and shipwrecks.


ship. All ships,' says Mr. Hutchinson, of Bold were the men, who on the ocean first any consequence are built with staunchions fixed Spread their new sails, when shipwreck was the worst.

from the kelson to the middle of all the lower

Waller. deck beams fore and aft, in order to support In Portugal men spent with age, so as they can them in their exact, regular height, as well as the not hope for above a year, ship themselves away in a whole frame of the ship in the regular form in Brazil fleet.

Temple. which she was built upon the stocks; yet, notThe numbers and courage of our men, with the withstanding these staunchions, it is proved from strength of our shipping, have for many ages past experience that our ships' bottoms, hitherto, by made us a match for the greatest of our neighbours the pressure of water and improper stowage, have at land, and an overmatch for the strongest at sea.


generally been hogged upwards, or sayged downA ship carpenter of old Rome could not have wards, and most about the midship frame or talked more judiciously.


main body of the ship, which is commonly about The canal that runs from the sea into the Arno, the fore part of the main hatchway; which natugives a convenient carriage to all goods that are to rally makes it the best place at which to fix the be shipped off

ship's form gauge, where either the hogging or


sagging of her bottom may be observed and seen leeward, and the buoy comes on the weathersoonest and best, to regulate the stowage of quarter, the first thing to be done is to brace heavy materials to the greatest advantage, so as about the fore-yard; and, when the wind comes to keep her bottom nearly in the same form in near the beam, set the fore-stay-sail

, and keep it which she was built. The gauge I recommend standing until it shakes ; then brace all the yards is nothing more than a narrow plate of iron di- sharp forward, especially if it is likely to blow rided into inches and quarters like the side of a strong. If lying in the aforesaid position, and carpenter's rule. Let this be fixed to the after she breaks her sheer, brace about the main yard side of the staunchion now mentioned, with its immediately; if she recovers and brings the upper end projecting two or three inches above buoy on the lee or larboard quarter, let the the staunchion; a groove being cut out for it in main-yard be again braced about; but if she the after side of the lower-deck beam, and a come to a sheer the other way, by bringing the mark being made (when the ship is on the stocks) buoy on the other quarter, change the helm and at the part of the beam which corresponds to the brace the fore-yard to. Riding leeward tide with 0 on the gauge. When the ship alters in he. diore cable than the windward service, and exshape the gauge will slide up and down in this pecting the ship will go to windward of her angroove, and the quantity of hogging or sagging chor, begin as soon as the tide ceases to shorten will be pointed out on the gauge by the mark o. in the cable. This is often hard work; but it is the beam. The stowage may then be so managei necessary to be done, otherwise the anchor may as to bring this mark to coincide again with the be fouled by the great length of cable the ship has 0, or to approach it as near as we see necessary.' to draw round; but, even if that could be done,

SHIPS, MANAGEMENT OF, AT SINGLE Anchor, the cable would be damaged against the bows or is the method of taking care of a ship while rid- cut-water. It is to be observed that, when a ship ing at single anchor in a tide-way, by preventing rides windward tide, the cable should be cackled her from fouling her anchor, &c. The following from the short service towards the anchor, as far rules for this purpose are given by the ingeni- as will prevent the bare part touching the ship. ous Mr. Henry Taylor of North Shields, and when the ship tends to windward, and must be will be found of consequence :-Riding in a set a-head, hoist the fore staysail as soon as it will tideway, with a fresh-of-wind, the ship should stand, and, when the buoy comes on the lee-quarhave what is called a short or windward service, ter, haul down the fore-stay-sail, brace to the foresay forty-five or fifty fathoms of cable, and al- yard, and put the helm a-lee; for till then the ways with the helm hard down, but more or less helm must be kept a-weather and the yards full. so according to the strength or weakness of the When the ship rides leeward tide, and the wind tide. It is a known fact that many ships sheer increases, care should be taken to give her more their anchors home, drive on board of other cable in time, otherwise the anchor may start, and ships, and on the sands near which they rode, probably it will be troublesome to get her brought before it has been discovered that the anchor had up again ; and this care is the more necessary been moved from the place where it was let go. when the ship rides in the hause of another ship. When the wind is cross, or nearly cross, off shore, Previous to giving a long service it is usual to take or in the opposite direction, ships will always back. a weatber-bit

, that is, a turn of the cable over the This is done by the mizen-top-sail, assisted, if windlass end, so that in veering away the ship will needful, by the mizen-stay-sail; such as have no be under command. The service ought to be mizen-top-sail commonly use the main-top-sail, greased, which will prevent its chafing in the

if it blows fresh, a top-gallant-sail, or any such hause. If the gale continues to increase, the sail at the gaff

. In backing, a ship should al- topmasts should be struck in time; but the foreways wind with a taught cable, that it may be yard should seldom, if ever, be lowered down, certain the anchor is drawn round. In case there that in case of parting the foresail may be ready is not a sufficiency of wind for that purpose, the to be set. At such times there should be more ship should be hove apeak. Riding with the on deck than the common anchor-watch, that no wind afore the beam, the yards should be braced accident may happen from inattention or falling forward ; if abaft the beam they are to be braced asleep: In a tide-way, a second anchor should all a-back. If the wind is so far aft that the never be let go but when absolutely necessary; ship will not back (which should not be attempted for a ship will sometimes ride easier and safer, if, when the tide ceases, the ship forges ahead especially if the sea runs high, with a very long and brings the buoy on the lee-quarter), she scope of cable and one anchor, than with less must be set a-head: if the wind is far aft, and length and two cables ; however, it is advisable, blows fresh, the utmost care and attention are ne as a preventive, when ships have not room to cessary, as ships riding in this situation often drive, and the night is dark, to let fall a second break their sheer, and come to windward of anchor under foot, with a range of cable along their anchors again. When the ship lies in this the deck. If this is not thought necessary to be ticklish situation, the after-yards must be braced done, the deep sea lead should be thrown overforward, and the fore-yards the contrary way: board, and the line frequently handled by the she will lie safe, as the buoy can be kept on the watch, that they may be assured she rides fast. lee-quarter, or, suppose the helm is a-port, as long If at any time the anchor watch, presuming on as the buoy is on the larboard quarter. With their own knowledge, should wind the ship, or the helm thus, and the wind right aft, or nearly suffer her to break her sheer without calling the so, the starboard, main, and fore braces should mate, he should immediately, on the very first be hauled in. This supposes the main braces to opportunity, oblige the crew to heave the anchor lead forward. When the ship begins to tend to in sight, which will prevent the commission of Vol. XX.


too near

the like fault again; for, besides the share of scuttles or holes in the ship's side were made, trouble the watch will have, the rest of the crew and the valves fixed thereto to draw off the will blame them for neglecting their duty. Pru water at the lowest ebb of the tide, to facilitate dent mates seldom lie a week in a road stead the discharge of the remaining part of the caryo; without heaving their anchor in sight; even and, after many attempts, I succeeded in an exthough they have not the least suspicion of its ternal application of sheep skins, sewed on a sail being foul. There are other reasons why, the and thrust under the bottom, to stop the body of anchor should be looked at; sometimes the water from rushing so furiously into the ship. cable receives damage by sweeping wrecks or This business effected, moderate pumping enabled anchors that have been lost, or from rocks or us to keep the ship to about six feet water at stones; and it is often necessary to trip the an low water, and by a vigorous effort we could chor, in order to take a clearer birth, which bring the ship so light as (when the cargo should should be done as often as any ship brings up be all discharged) to be easily removed into

deeper water. But as the external application Method for the safe removal of ships when might be disturbed by so doing, or totally redriven on shore.–For this purpose empty casks moved by the agitation of the ship, it was absoare usually employed to tloat off the vessel, es- lutely necessary to provide some permanent pecially if she is small, and at the same time near security for the lives of those who were to naviihe port to which it is proposed to conduct her. In gate her to the Thames. I then recommended as other cases, the following method adopted by the cheapest, quickest, and most effectual plan Mr. Barnard will answer. « On January 1st, to lay a deck in the hold, as low as the water 1777,' says Mr. Barnard (Philosophical Transac- could be pumped to, framed so solidly and setions, vol. Ixx., part. 1), in a most dreadful storm, curely, and caulked so tight, as to swim the ship the York East Indiaman, of 800 tous, homeward inçlependent of her own leaky bottom. Beams bound, with a pepper cargo, parted her cables in of fir timber twelve inches square were placed Margate roads, and was driven on shore, within in the hold under every lower deck beam in the 100 feet of the head and thirty feet of the side of ship, as low as the water could permit; these Margate pier, then drawing twenty-two feet six were in two pieces for the conveniency of getting inches water, the flow of a good spring tide them down, and also for the better fixing them, of being only four feet at that place. On the 3d, I an exact length, and well bolted together when went down, as a ship-builder, to assist, as much in their places. Over these were laid long as lay in my power, my worthy friend Sir Dantzic deals of two inches and a half thick, Richard Hotham, to whom the ship belonged. I well nailed and caulked. Against the ship's found her perfectly upright, and her shere (or side, all fore and aft, was well nailed a piece of side appearance) the same as when first built, fir twelve inches broad, and six inches thick on but sunk to the twelve feet water mark fore and the lower and three inches on the upper edge to aft in a bed of chalk mixed with a stiff blue prevent the deck from rising at the side. Over clay, exactly the shape of her body below that the deck, at every beam, was laid a cross piece draft of water : and from the rudder being torn of fir timber six inches deep and twelve broad, from her as she struck coming on shore, and the reaching from the pillar of the hold to the ship's violent agitation of the sea after her being there, side, on which the shores were to be placed to her stern was so greatly injured as to admit free resist the pressure of the water beneath. On each access thereto, which filled her four days equal of these, and against the lower deck beam, at to the flow of the tide. Having fully informed equal distances from the side and middle of the myself of her situation and the flow of spring- ship, was placed an upright shore, six inches by tides, and being clearly of opinion she might twelve, the lower end let two inches into the cross be again got off, I recommended, as the first ne piece. From the foot of this shore to the ship's cessary step, the immediate discharge of the side, under the end of every lower deck beam, was cargo; and, in the progress of that business, I placed a diagonal shore six inches by twelve, to found the tide always flowed to the same height ease the ship's deck of part of the strain by on the ship; and when the cargo was half dis- throwing it on the side. An upright shore of charged, and I knew the remaining part should three inches by twelve was placed from the end not make her draw more than eighteen feet of every cross piece to the lower deck beams at water, and while I was observing the water at the side, and one of three inches by twelve on twenty-two feet six inches by the ship's marks, the midship end of every cross piece to the lower she instantly lifted to seventeen feet eight inches; deck beam, and nailed to the pillars in the hold. the water and air being before excluded by her Two firm-tight bulkheads or partitions were pressure on the clay, and the atmosphere acting made as near the extremes of the ship as posupon her upper part equal to 600 tons, which is sible. The ceiling or inside plank of the ship the weight of water displaced at the difference was very securely caulked up to the lower deck of these two drafts of water. The moment the and the whole formed a complete ship with a ship lifted, I discovered she had received more flat bottom within side, to swim the outside damage than was at first apprehended, her leaks leaky one; and that bottom being depressed six being such as filled her from four to eighteen feet feet below the external water, resisted the ship's water in an hour and a balf. As nothing effec- weight above it equal to 581 tons, and safely tual was to be expected from pumping, several conveyed her to the dry dock at Deptford.





accommodation of the rowers, was added ; and HISTORICAL SKETCH OF THE ART.

when the joints or seams was carefully caulked

with the papyrus, so as completely to exclude the SHIP-BUILDING.-It would be a fruitless at- water, the floating fabric then became fit for imtempt to enquire after either the first inventor of mediate use. We must not, however, forget to daval architecture, or even the country or quar- mention, that experience very early suggested ter of the world whence it derived its origin. the necessity of some directing as well as impelThe remote distance of time renders the attempt ling power, in aid of human labor. A mast, useless, as the result of the enquiry cannot pro- formed out of a straight stick of the acantha, and duce any decisive determination. It may be a sail made of papyrus, supplied the latter ; at conjectured that the inquisitive and active spirit the same time a rudder, which is said to have of enterprise, constitutionally, as it were, im- passed through the keel, or bottom of the vessel, planted in our nature, displayed itself at one and remedied the defect occasioned by the want of the same time, in a variety of quarters and dis- the former. These vessels being, as well from tricts; for the primitive ideas of men dispersed their construction as equipment, almost incapaover the face of the globe, unconnected with each ble of stemming the current of the river, were other, and totally ignorant of each others' exist- generally towed up against it by persons on ence, appear in such perfect unison as to inven- shore, unless the wind fortunately proved suffition, that they well warrant this supposition. ciently strong and favorable for the proposed It must be allowed that the moderns never could course, to enable the sail to be used as a substihave attained that summit of knowledge now On returning with the current it was cusreached, had it not been for the labors of the an- tomary for the Egyptians to fasten, with ropes cients, which laid the foundation of that struc- across the prow of the vessel, a hurdle of tamarisk, ture which the modern artist has, to give him which being let down into the water, and steadied every merit he claims, only borne a less laborious by ropes, or bands made of twisted reeds, caused part of bringing nearer to perfection. But the it to move forward with increased velocity, in nations which stand foremost as candidates for consequence of the stream acting with greater the honor, appear to have been the Egyptians force on the surface of the hurdle which extended and Phænicians; at least, it is to them the in- beyond the sides, than it would have done on the vention is ascribed by authors of the highest mere vessel itself, without this ingenious aid. In antiquity, as well as credit, on the score of af- order to preserve a due balance between the fording the most authentic information.

head and stern, which might otherwise have been The Nile presented to the former a less dan- affected by the action of the water on the hurdle, gerous opportunity of making the first rude at- and in some degree also by the weight of it, as tempts in the art of navigation than the sea itself well as to cause the boat to swim nearly with an did; while the enterprising spirit that appears even keel, a stone of considerable magnitude, peculiarly to have marked the Phænician charac- pierced through the middle, was suspended by ter, as well as the advantageous situation of their a rope from the stern; a contrivance which was two principal cities, Tyre and Sidon, urged them, found to answer the purpose so well that the unby gradual steps to bolder enterprises, which skilled navigators were enabled to pass to and fro raised them to an unrivalled pre-eminence, as navi- without either danger or difficulty. gators, among the nations which surrounded It is a general idea, founded, we believe, on them, and enabled them to engross almost en- the best information and opinions now to be tirely to themselves the commerce of the unic procured, that the first species of a commercial verse. According to the best authorities, the vessel in most frequent, as well as extensive use, method used by the Egyptians in construtung among nations widely separated from each other, vessels is as follows :—The bark used on the was the raft, a collection of trees, rudely fastened Nile appears to have been formed of small together with ropes, formed most probably from planks cut out of the acantha, or Egyptian the barks of the very trees which constituted thorn : these were not, as might be naturally the float, or from some other coarse material supposed, cut into lengths, as planks, but nearly which the dawning genius of our early ancestors square, measuring about three feet each way; had discovered to be applicable to that purpose. they were lapped over each other like tiles, and Experience soon taught the navigators that they fastened together by a proper number of wooden were deficient in the power of directing the course pins, nearly of the same shape with the tree- of this unwieldy machine, so as to be certain, in nails of modern times. This mode of construc- spite of the natural opposition of winds and tion was found sufficiently strong for the pur- currents, of reaching in safety the precise spot poses to which it was applied, even without the they wished ; and, notwithstanding the manifest obvious assistance of any internal frame of tim- inconvenience which must have attended the ber; and, proving equal to the necessities and continued use of so imperfect a structure, a very ambition of the inventors, they for a long time extensive period of time appears to have elapsed troubled not themselves with attempting any before the improvement on it became general. additional improvement.

To remedy this inconvenience a simple addition The hull of the vessel being completed, a was first devised, which consisted of nothing more competent number of seats or benches, for the than a few thick planks of wood thrust down

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