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cleaned out, which is done by rolling and shak 9. Each shell to be sounded, by striking it ing the shell with the fuse-hole downwards. It gently, as the ringing tone will be lost should may be taken out of large shells with a proper there be an imperceptible crack in it. ladle, that will go into the fuse-hole.

N. B. In the examination of spherical case 3. They are to be proved with a strong bel- shot shells, the thick side of the shell need not lows and water as usual ; the shot being placed be taken into consideration, but the thinnest part under in a tub or bucket, introduce the nose of only; for when the thinnest part is 100 thin, by the bellows into the fuse, and by blowing them the rule given, the thickest part must be too the water will bubble if the shell be porous. thick, which needs no examination to discover.

4. They are to be examined, by the new cal Supposing an eighteen-pounder shell ought to liper instruments, round the side and at the be five inches thick in every part, subtract the bottom, to ascertain their thickness and concen- non-concentricity allowed of 0.83 from it, and tricity

there remains 4.17 inches, for the thinnest part of 5. They are to be examined by a circular an eighteen-pounder shell which can be received. gauge, and appropriated to the respective ord Method of making fuses of colonel Shrupnel's nance they are found to answer. If any are too construction. The fuses, after being turned so as high by 0:3 of an inch, or too low by 0-3 of an to fit the fuse-holes, are bored, and a deep thread inch, they are to be rejected.

grooved inside, to hold the composition firm; 6. When each shell is ascertained to be per- and, instead of being turned with cups, they are fectly dry inside, it is to be placed with its fuse- hollowed conical, and roughed with a tool that hole up, and the nose of a strong bellows, form- cuts under, the better to receive the priming. ing an angle downwards, being introduced into After they are driven, with fuse composition, it, a few blasts being given, will blow the one and one-half inch, the yare sawed across the remaining particles of dust out of the shell. top, about one-fifth of an inch down, so as not

7. The shells are to be classed, by their fuse to touch the composition, and divided into five holes, into different numbers, viz. 1, 2, 3, and equal parts, of two-tenths of an inch each ; after 4; those of an equal size to be packed in boxes which a bit of quick match is placed across, and by themselves.

drawn tight in the same grooves; they are then 8. A file to be used occasionally to try if the primed, with mealed powder and spirits of wine, metal is soft, instead of breaking the shell. capped and packed for service.

TABLE or the DIMENSIONS and Weight of Shells for MORTARs and HowitzERS.

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DIMEnsions of SHELLS for Guns and CARRONADES made with an equal thickness of metal.

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Inch. lach. Inch. Inch. Inch.
Diameter of Exterior 6.684 6.105 5.547 | 5:05 404
the Shell S Interior 4.404 4.005 3.767 3.4 2.8

Thickness of Metal 1:14 1.05 0.89 0.82 0.8

Diameter of > Exterior 0.894 0.894 0.893 0.832 0.832

Fuse-hole S Interior 0.826 0.826 0.826 0.76 0.769
Powder for bursting . . | 14 oz. 11 oz. 12 oz. 9 oz. 5oz.
Diameter of Exterior 6.64 6 05 5.48 4.935 4.295
the shell

4:36 3.95 3:48 3.235 2.695
Carro Thickness of Metal 1.14 1.35 1: 0.85 0.98
pades. Shell's weight . . . lbs. 0.22

0-12 Contains powder Oz.


00:9 Powder for bursting 02.



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Vou. XX.




The following shells may also be fired from smooth, and polished on the surface, and much guns

of the color of the bark of sodne trees; it has Hand-grenades, from 6-pounders. usually an edge of a cottony matter, visible 43-shells 12

where its sides touch the tree, and its eggs are 5-shells . 24.

always deposited on a fine cottony bed; the 8-inch 68-pr. carronades.

young ones are white, fat, and have two small Shells may likewise he thrown from guns to horns and six legs; in this state they are known short distances, in cases of necessity, though the to be of the gall-insect class, not by their likebore be not of a diameter sufficient to admit the ness to their parent, but to the young gall-insects shell. For this purpose the gun may be elevat- of other species. They march about very briskly ed to any degree that will retain the shell upon for some time after they are hatched, and after its muzzle, which may be assisted by a small that fix themselves, and then begin to grow, and line going from the lugs of the shell round the by degrees alter their form, till they at length are neck of the gun. To produce a greater effect, of the same shape with their parent.—Reaumur, the space between the shell and the charge may Hist. Ins. tom iv. p. 69, 70. be filled with wads or other substances.

SHELL-TOOTHED HORSE is one that from To Suelt, among horses, to have the teeth four years, to old age, naturally bears a mark in ali completely bare and uncovered, which happens his fore-teeth, and there still keeps that hollow about the fifteenth or sixteenth year.

place with a black mark, which we call the eye Suells, Message, are nothing more than of a bean, insomuch, that at twelve or fifteen he howitz shells, in the inside of which a letter or appears with the mark of a horse that is not yet other paper is put; the fuse hole is stopped up with wood or cork, and the shells are fired out of SHELLA, an ancient town of Africa, in Mca royal or howitz, either into a garrison or camp. rocco; containing several Moorish tombs, which It is supposed that the person to whom the let are highly venerated. The town is considered ter is sent knows the time, and accordingly ap- as an asylum so sacred that none but Mahomepoints a guard to look out for its arrival. tans are permitted to enter it. It is supposed to

Shell-Fisu are in general oviparous, very few have been anciently the metropolis of ihe Carinstances having been found of such as are vivi- thaginian colonies on the west coast of Africa. parous. Among the oviparous kinds anatomists SHELLIF, the most considerable river of have found that some species are of different Algiers, the Chinalaph of the ancient geography. sexes in the different individuals of the same It rises among the mountains of Atlas, in a species; but others are hermaphrodites, every place called the Seventy Fountains; flows north one being in itself both male and female. In during the first part of its course, then west, and both cases their increase is very numerous, and then nearly parallel to the sea. Its whole length scarcely inferior to that of plants, or of the most is about 200 miles. In its early course it forms fruitful of the insect class. The eggs are very the lake of Titterie. small, and are hung together in a sort of clusters SHELTER, n. s., v. a. & v.n.2Skinner deby means of a glutinous humor which is always Shel'TERLESS, adj.

S duces it from placed about them, and is of the nature of the shell; Davis from Sax. scylo, a shield. There is jelly of frog's spawn. By means of this they also a Goth. skiul, and Isl. skildu. Protection; are not only kept together in the parcel, but the cover from outward violence or inclemency; a whole cluster is fastened to the rocks, shells, or defender or protector; state of being covered : other solid substances; and thus they are pre- to cover in this way; defend : to take or give served from being driven on shore by the waves, protection of this kind : shelterless is, defenceless : and left where they cannot succeed. See Tes- without home or refuge.

Thou hast been a shelter for me, and a strong SHELL-GALL-INSECT, a gall-insect, some

tower from the enemy:

Psalm lxi. 3. what resembling those which are called the boat

We hear this fearful tempest sing,

Yet seek no shelter to avoid the storm. fashioned ones, but differing in this, that as the two ends of that species are not very different in

Shakspeare. Richard II.

Abbot. form, in this kind one of the ends is sharp and

They sheltered themselves under a rock. pointed in comparison with the other. It has its Between the mountain and the strean embraced ;

Low at his foot a spacious plain is placed, name of shell-insect from the resemblance it has

Which shade and shelter from the hill derives, to a mussel shell; as it is, in its whole form, not While the kind river wealth and beauty gives. unlike one of the two shells in which the com

Denham. mon sea-mussel is enclosed, but the pointed end They wish the mountains now might be again of this insect is much more extended in length Thrown on them, as a shelter from his ire. Milton. than the smaller end of this shell.

We besought the deep to shelter us. This species is extremely small, and may be

Heroes of old, when wounded, shelter sought; easily mistaken for the minute case out of which But he, who meets all dangers with disdain, some small insect has escaped; or, in an other

Even in their face his ship to anchor brought, state, for the nest in which some small insect has And steeple high stood propt upon the main.

Dryden. deposited its eggs; but, if the assistance of the

Those ruins sheltered once his sacred head, microscope be called in, they will easily be dis

When he from Worcester's fatal battle fled, covered to be true gall-insects, even as soon as Watched by the genius of this royal place.

Id. they are hatched from their eggs. This species, Now sad and shelterless, perhaps, she lies, at its full growth, is so small that it requires Where piercing winds blow sharp. good eyes to discover it: it is brown, very

kowe's Jane Shore.


In vain I strove to check roy growing flame, SHENANDOAH, a county of Virginia, Unit Or sheller passion under friendship's name ; ed States, bounded north by Frederick county You saw my heart.


south-east by Culpeper and Maddison counties: Comfort thyself with such thoughts, chiefly when south-west by Rockingham county, and west by all earthly comforts fail thee; then do thou particu Hardy county. Chief town Woodstock. larly retreat to those considerations, and shelter thy

SHENANDOAH, a river of Virginia, United self under them.


States, which rises in Augusta county, and, after The healing plant shall aid,

a course of about 200 miles, joins the Potomac, From storms a shelter, and from heat a shade. Pope.

in lat. 38° 4' N., just before the latter bursts Then seeks the farthest ooze, the sheltering weed, through the Blue Ridge. It is composed of the The caverned bank, his old secure abode. Thomson. South, Middle, and North rivers, and is navigaWho into shelter takes their tender bloom,

ble for boats 100 miles. And forms their minds to fly from ills to come. SHEND, v. a. Preter. and part. puss. shent.

Young Sax. scendan; Belg. schenden. To ruin; spoil; November hirples o'er the lea,

mischief. Obsolete. Chill, on thy lovely form;

Provide for thy wife, or else look to be shent,
And gane, alas! the sheltering tree,

Good milchcow for winter, another for Lent.
Should shield thee frae a storm. Burns.

At a thoughtless age, allured

Shepherds, should it not yshent
By every gilded folly, we renounced

Your roundels fresh, to hear a doleful verse His sheltering side, and wilfully forewent

Of Rosalind, that Colin made ?

That converse, which we now in vain regret. She passed the rest as Cynthia doth shend

The lesser stars.


Sore bruised with the fall, he slow uprose, SHEM, or Sem, the second son of Noah, born And, all enraged, thus him louldly shent: .about A. M. 1558. His filial piety and modesty Disleal knight! whose coward courage chose in endeavouring, along with his elder brother To wreck itself on beast.

Faerie Queene. Japhet, to conceal the effects of the only act of

Miy tongue and soul in this be hypocrites; folly which the excellent old patriarch had fallen How in my words soever she be shent, into, and which their brother Ham, with probably To give them seals never, my soul, consent. his son Canaan, had made a subject of ridicule,

Shakspeure. Humlet. are recorded in Genesis ix. 23, together with the

Such a dream I had of dire portent, remarkable benediction pronounced upon them

That much I fear my body will be shent;
It bodes I shall have wars.

in consequence, and the dreadful curse upon
Ham's posterity, the effects of which continue SHENSTONE (William), an admired English
even to the present period. The posterity of poet, the eldest son of a country gentleman, who
Shem by his five sons Elam, Ashur, Arphaxad, farmed his own estate in Shropshire, was born
Lud, and Aram, peopled most of the south pari in November 1714. He learned to read of an
of Asia and the adjacent islands, and gave rise old dame, whom his poem of the School Mistress
to the kingdoms of Persia, Assyria, Phænicia, has immortalised; and soon received such de-
Lydia, Syria, &c. See Philology. In that light from books that he always expected, when
branch of it from which the Hebrews descended, any of the family went to market, a new book
from Heber, the grandson of Arphaxad, the true should be brought him. As he grew older he
church, and the knowledge of the true God were went to the grammar school in Hales Owen, and
continued for above 2000 years, till the coming afterwards to Mr. Crumpton, an eminent school-
of Jesus Christ, by the promulgation of whose master at Solihul, where he distinguished' himself
glorious gospel among the Gentiles the prophecy by his quick progress. In his tenth year (June
respecting the posterity of Japhet was completely 1724) he was deprived of his father; and soon
fulfilled. Shem lived to the age of 600 years, after (August 1726) of his grandfather ; and was
and died about A. A.C. 2467.

with his brother, who died afterwards unmarried, SHEMAIAH, an inspired prophet of Judah, left to the care of his grandmother, who managed in the reign of Rehoboam, who prevented a civil the estate. From school he was sent, in 1732, war between Israel and Judah, and prevailed on to Pembroke College in Oxford, a society which, Rehoboam's new raised army of 180,000 war- for half a century, has been eminent for English riors to disband, by assuring them, that the divi- poetry and elegant literature. Here he continued sion of the kingdom which had just taken place his name ten years, though he took no degree. was ordained by the Almighty. See 1 Kings After the fourth year he put on the civilian's xii. 21—24. Hé delivered other two messages gown, but without any intention to engage in the to the king and the people. Shemaiah was also profession. About the time he went to Oxford an author, and wrote the history of Rehoboam ; the death of his grandmother devolved his affairs which is quoted in 2 Chron. xii. 5, 7, and 15. to the care of the Rev. Mr. Dolman, of Brome,

SHEMİNITH, in Hebrew antiquity, a musical in Staffordshire, whom he always mentioned with instrument of eight strings. It is mentioned in gratitude. At Oxford he, in 1737, published a the title of Psalıns vi. and xii.

small Miscellany, without his name.

He pubSHENAN, a drug used in the east for dyeing lished, in 1740, his Judgment of Hercules, adleather red. It is the eastern jointed kali, å dressed to Mr. Lyttleton, whose interest he supspecies of salicornia, which grows plentifully in ported with great warmth at an election ; this Turkey, Syria, Africa, &c. The salicornia pe- was two years afterwards followed by the School Tennis has been used for it, but not always with Mistress. Mr. Dolman died in 1745, and the

care of his fortune now fell



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then took the whole estate into his own hands, and strona incentive to the attainment of knowand rather improved its beauiy than increased ledge in his business. A shepherd should be its produce. Now began his delight in rural naturally active, both in body and mind, clearpleasures, and his passion for rural elegance; headed and clear-sighted; such a one, for inbut in time his expenses occasioned clamors that stance, as can distinguish the individual counteoverpowered the lamb's bleat and the linnet's nances of a numerous flock, and, running over song, and his groves were haunted by beings them with his bodily and mental eye, instantly very different from fawns and fairies. He spent give the exact number and condition; or perhis estate in adorning it, and his death was pro- ceive, at a glance, a bird's nest in the thickest bably hastened by his anxieties. He was a lamp quickset. Fond of animals and attractive to that spent its oil in blazing. He died at the them, the latter quality of which is well known Leasows of a putrid fever, February 11th, 1763; to inhere in some persons; possessing a musical and was buried by the side of his brother, in the voice and shrill whistle; hardy, patient, watchchurch-yard of Ilales-Owen. In his private ful; satisfied with little sleep, and temperate in opinions our author adhered to no particular drink. It is conceived that he ought never to be sect, and hated all religious disputes. Tender- suffered, if he profess, to practise physic, nor any ness, in every sense of the word, was his peculiar but the most easy and common operations, a characteristic; and his friends, domestics, and farce that too often ends in a tragedy; for, if of poor neighbours, daily experienced the effects two evils we ought to choose the least, the office of his benevolence. This virtue he carried to an of medical practice had better devolve on the excess that seemed to border upon weakness; master. And for his comfort in the severe yet if any of his friends treated him ungenerously weather, in some situations, the moveable wooden he was not easily reconciled. On such occasions house on wheels may be of use. Also that he ought he used to say, • I never will be a revengeful to be clad during winter with substantial woolenemy; but it is not in my nature to be half a len next his skin, from his feet upwards, as the friend.' He was no economist ; for the gene- best defence against those rheumatic ails, to which rosity of his temper prevented his paying a proper he must be necessarily subject; and he should regard to the use of money; he exceeded, there- always go provided with the instruments proper fore, the bounds of his parental fortune. But, to his profession, ready for immediate occasions, if we consider the perfect paradise into which he namely, scissors, knife, steel, fleam, salve-box, had converted his estate, the hospitality with &c. And in folding, as the shepherd will have which he lived, bis charities to the indigent, and the flock perpetually under his eye, the first all out of an estate that did not exceed £300 a writer thinks, he will be capable of judging with year, one should rather wonder that he left any certainty and precision respecting the state of thing behind him than blame his want of econo every individual, so that the earliest remedy may my; be yet left more than sufficient to pay all be applied to every disorder, and such sheep his debts; and by his will appropriated his may be turned out of the fold as are found whole estate to that purpose. Though he had a not to be able to go through their work withhigh opinion of many of the fair sex, he forbore out manifest injury in their health ; and, if a to marry. A passion he entertained in his youth sheep or lamb be seized with a dangerous and was with difficulty surmounted. The lady was incurable malady, to kill and dress it immedithe subject of that admirable pastoral, in four ately; for it is one part of the business of a shepparts, which has been so universally and so justly herd to be so far skilled in the butcher's trade admired, and which, one would have thought, as to be able to slaughter, flea, and dress a sheep must have softened the proudest and most obdu- on occasion. Farther, that a good shepherd will rate heart. Another of his poems does no less be careful that his flock be driven late to fold in honor to his feelings and his virtuous sentiments. an evening, and released early in the morning It displays, in the most affecting terms, the grief from their confinement, in order that they may and remorse of an ingenuous mind upon the un- enjoy the coolest parts of the day on the food. fortunate issue of a licentious amour, and is He will be cautious that they are allowed a suffifounded on fact. This beautiful poem, falling cient time to graze in the uplands previous to into the hands of a young gentleman at the cri- their being driven into the fold, that they may tical period of a similar connexion, had the effect retire to rest with full bellies, by which the of preventing a similar fatal catastrophe to that quantity of the dung and urine will be considerof Henry and Jessy, described by our poet, by ably augmented. He will likewise be careful in determining him to marry the object of his affec- reviewing the hurdles, and providing that these tion. Mr. Shenstone's works have been pub- are fixed in the ground, lest by any accident they lished by Mr. Dodsley, in 3 vols., 8vo. The should be thrown down during the night, and first volume contains his poetical works, which the Hock by these means get into mischief, or inare particularly distinguished by an amiable termix with other sheep; he will count his sheep elegance and beautiful simplicity; the second regularly every evening when he drives them to contains his prose works; the third his letters, &c. the fold, and take a fresh tale in the morning,

SHEPHERD. In the General Treatise on Cat- when he turns them on their feed; he will, pretle, it is remarked that the method of encourage- vious to dismissing them from the fold, worry ment adopted in some districts, of allowing the them gently round the same, in order to cause shepherd to possess a small flock, or as many them to dung and stale plentifully, that the maewes as his means will allow, is probably one of nure may be left in the field, otherwise the the most powerful. It gives him that steadiness greatest part of the trundles will be dropt on the appertaining to property, and is an additional road, or carried on to the marsh, where, lying

thin, this dressing can do but little service, and and their kings, who reigned here a considerable where in truth it is not wanted; he will bestow time, maintaining themselves by force ; till, after a particular attention on every individual in his many struggles they were finally expelled by the flock, and, for those which show any appearance natives. of being stung by the fly, he will be prepared According to Manetho, the whole body of this with a pair of shears to clip away the wool from people bore the appellation of Huksos, that is, the part, and, having taken out the maggots, will royal shepherds; the first syllable in the sacred anoint the place with a mixture of train oil and dialect, sign.fying a king, and the latter, the brimstone; but, if slightly attacked, he will de- popular language, signifying a shepherd; and by stroy the maggots by strewing on them powder a composition of these two was formed the word of white lead; and if any of the flock should Huksos. These people are said to have been Arahaply break with the scab, a disorder to which bians. Josephus further informs us, from Manefolding sheep are continually subject, and which tho, that the shepherds maintained themselves in seldom fails to show itself in the spring and fall, Egypt 511 years. At last the people of Upper he will be provided with a proper remedy to Egypt rose in opposition to them, and after some keep it under, and prevent the contagion from time expelled them the country. However, on spreading. It is thought that one shepherd will their departure, they were afraid of going towards be able to look after 300 sheep.

Assyria, and therefore resorted to the country In respect to the necessity of a dog, as an called afterwards Judea, and built Jerusalem. We assistant to the shepherd, Mr. Lawrence thinks learn also, from the same authority, that another that it has of late very rationally become a ques- class of people sojourned in Egypt in the reign tion among the most intelligent sheep-masters,: of Amenophis; and that they were treated as it may be thus settled : there can be no occasion slaves by the prince of the country, because they for such aid, nor any necessity for incurring the were infected with the leprosy. As their numdanger of it, amidst convenient enclosures, or ber very much increased, he employed them in where quiet breeds of sheep are kept, and where the stone quarries that lay on the east side of it is made an object to render them tame and the Nile, in company with some of the Egyptians. docile: and if, upon extensive wastes and Upon a remonstrance afterwards made to him, mountain districts, the service of dogs cannot he granted them for a retreat the city of Abaris, well be dispensed with, it ought to be made a where the former shepherds had resided, that now main point that they be trained early to a kind- lay desolate. The people belonging to each of ness for the sheep, and to view them rather as the two classes now mentioned were esteemed their companions than their prey; a thing which shepherds: the first shepherds were lords and he knows by experience to be most easy. conquerors; the others were servants, to whom

The SHEPHERDS, SHEPHERD Kings, or Royal was assigned the city which the former had evaSHEPHERDS, OF EGYPT, in ancient history, is a cuated. The latter were Israelites, as appears denomination given to a class of inhabitants of a from the name of their leader and lawgiver, part of Egypt, concerning whose origin, abode, Moses; and the former were Arabians, who are and migration, both ancient and modern writers said to have come from the east; and they are, have entertained very different opinions. The without doubt, the Auritæ, who founded the city learned Bryant has published an elaborate Dis of Auris, or Abaris, which is no other than the sertation on this subject. Differing from others city 71X, Ur or Aur, signifying light and fire, of concerning the situation of the land of Goshen, which element the Auritæ must have been worne conceives it to have been the Nome called shippers, as all the Arabians were. Their chief the Arabian, from the Arabian shepherds who god was Alorus (Al Orus), the god of fire. Achad formerly settled in those parts, and held cordingly the shepherds were called Auritæ, them for many years, and denominated by the from the chief object of their worship, and their LXX, redoen ons Apaßras. The province of kings were styled priests of Alorus, or, according Arabia, says this author, was one of the three

to the Greeks, priests of Vulcan. Hence it has most remarkable nomes, the other two being been inferred that they came from Babylonia, a those of Bubastus and Heliopolis. These three country that lay due east from Egypt, which nomes were contiguous to each other, and to- country was the original seat of the genuine Arawards the summit of Lower Egypt. The nome bians, and the true source whence their religion of Heliopolis, according to his statement, was a flowed. The two principal cities of that country Mediterranean district; and consequently the were Ur or Aur, and Babylon: in memory of two provinces, or that of Phacusa (i. e. the Ara- which they built two of the same name in Egypt. bian nome), and that of Bubastus, that are always Wherever they resided they introduced the mentioned with the former, were so likewise. Tzeba Schanain, or Zabian worship, together with Phacusa, mentioned by Strabo only as a village, the worship of fire. Hence we are informed by was the province at whose summit the Nile was Herodotus that V’ulcan was particularly honored first divided, where stood the city of Cercasora. at Heliopolis and Memphis, which places they It was called the Arabian nome for the reason are said to have built. The true name of these above-mentioned, and had for its metropolis people, say3 Bryant, who were called by the Phacusa, and the places situated upon its borders Greeks and Romans Arabians, was Cushan or were Babylon, Heliopolis, and Heroum. From Cusæans, the same that they gave to the province Syncellus we learn that Egypt had been in sub- where they settled. See Cush. These stranjection to a three-fold race of kings, who are gers, therefore, who settled in Egypt, were no termed the Auritæ, the Mestræi, and the Egyp- other than the Cusa ans; and they have been tian. The Auritæ were the Arabian shepherds styled Arabian shepherds, because all the primi

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