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SHEEPHAVEN, a harbour on the north SHEERNESS, a market-lown on the northcoast of the county of Donegal, Ireland, situated west point of Sheppey-Island, where the Medwest of the Mulroy, and separated from it by a way joins the Thames, forty-six miles and a half long and narrow peninsula. The surrounding east from London, in the parish of Minster, country is mountainous and thinly inhabited; In 1667 this place was taken by the Dutch. It nor is there any town of consequence in the has now a regular fortification and garrison, neighbourhood. Dunfanaghy, near Hornhead, under a governor, lieutenant-governor, fortis no more than a village, though ruins near it major, and other officers, and such a line of seem to indicate that it was formerly much heavy cannon, commanding the mouth of the larger. The siliceous sand found in this dis- river, as to bid defiance to any force that may trict is of excellent quality for making glass, and attempt to pass it. The harbour, dock-yard, it is carried to Belfast for that purpose. About and public buildings have of late been much a century ago, an elegant edifice, according to enlarged and improved; a chapel has also been the taste of that age, says Dr. W. Hamilton, erected at the expense of government. The was built on the peninsula, between the harbours town contains several good streets. Here is an of Sheephaven and Mulroy, which at present ordnance-office, with apartments for the different stands • like Tadmor of the east, the solitary officers, all ordnance stores being delivered here wonder of a surrounding desert.' The gardens to the fleet stationed at the Nore; here is also a are totally denuded of trees and shrubs by the yard for building ships, and a dock intended fury of the western winds; their walls, unable chiefly for repairing. It has a neat chapel of to sustain the mass of overbearing sands, have ease to the mother church. Market on Saturday. bent before the accumulated pressure; and, SHEERS, a name given to an engine used to overthrown in numberless places, have given free hoist or displace the lower masts of a ship. The passage to this restless enemy of all fertility. sheers employed for this purpose in the royal The courts, the flights of steps, the terraces, are navy are composed of several long, masts, whose all involved in equal ruin; and their limits only heels rest upon the side of the hulk, and having discoverable by tops of embattled walls, visible their heads' declining outward from the perpenamid hills of sand." The mansion itself, yielding dicular, so as to hang over the vessel whose to the unconquerable fury of the tempest, ap- masts are to be fixed or displaced. The tackles, proaches fast to destruction; the freighted which extend from the head of the mast to the whirlwind, howling through every avenue and sheer-heads, are intended to pull in the latter crevice, bears incessantly along its drifted bur- toward the mast head, particularly when they den, which has already filled the lower apart- are charged with the weight of a mast after it ments of the building, and begins now to rise is raised out of any ship, which is performed by above the once elevated thresholds. Fields, strong tackles depending from the sheer-heads. fences, villages, involved in common desolation, The effort of these tackles is produced by two are reduced to one undistinguishable scene of capsterns, fixed on the deck for this purpose. sterile uniformity, and 1200 acres of land are In merchant ships this machine is composed of said thus to have been buried within a short two masts or props, erected in the same vessel period in irrecoverable ruin.'— Transactions of wherein the mast is to be planted, or whence the Irish Academy, vol. vi.

it is to be removed. The lower ends of these SHEER, adj. Saxon. scyn. Pure; clear; props rest on the opposite sides of the deck, and unmingled : clean; quick; at once.

their upper parts are fastened across, so as that a If she say, I am not fourteen pence on the score tackle which hangs from the intersection may be for sheer ale, score me up for the lying'st rogue in almost perpendicularly above the station of the Christendom.

Shakspeare. mast to which the mechanical powers are applied. Thrown by angry Jove Sheer o'er the crystal battlements; from morn

These sheets are secured by stays which extend To noon he fell: from noon to dewy eve,

forward and aft to the opposite extremities of A summer's day; and with the setting sun

the vessel. Dropped from the zenith, like a falling star,

SHEET, n. s. & v. a. Sax. sceat. A large On Lemnos.

Milton. broad piece of linen; any thing expanded ; a The sword of Satan with steep force to smite single fold of such a thing: to furnish with Descending, and in half cut sheer.

Id. sheets. Sheer argument is not the talent of the man ; little

He saw heaven opened, and a vessel descending wrested sentences are the bladders which bear him

unto him, as a great sheet, knit at the four corners. up, and he sinks downright, when he once pretends

Acts x. 11 to swim without them.


If I die before thee, shroud me SHEERGOTTA, a town of Hindostan in In one of these same sheets.

Shakspeare the province of Bahar, stands at the fooi of a

As much love in rhime steep and narrow pass through the Ramgur hills, As could be crammed in a sheet of



Id being part of the great military road from Cal- Writ on both sides the leaf, margin and all. cutta to Benares. It takes its name from the The bark of trees thou browsedst.

Like the stag, when snow the pasture sheets,

la. number of tigers which formerly infested the

The little word behind the back, and undoing route. Long. 84° 55' E., lat. 24° 32' N. SHEERHORN, a lofty mountain of Switzer- whisper, like pulling off a sheet-rope at sea, slackens

the sail.

Suckling land, in the canton of Uri, ten miles south-east

Fierce Boreas drove against his flying sails, of Altorf. It rises to the height of 10,700 feet, And rent the sheets.

Dryden. and at the top is divided into two parts. It is Some unequal bride in nobler sheets covered with glaciers of great extent. Long. 8° Receives her lord.

Id 40' 5" E., lat 46° 49'50" N.

When I first put pen to paper, I thought all I In 1711 he was made steward of the household s.hould have to say would have been contained in

to queen Anne, and president of the council. one sheet of paper.


During her reign he was but once out of emI let the refracted light fall perpendicularly upon ployment; when he resigned, being attached to a sheet of white paper upon the opposite wall.

Newton's Opticks.

Tory principles. He was instrumental in the

change of the ministry in 1710. A circumstance To this the following sheets are intended for a

that reflects the highest honor on him is the vigor full and distinct answer.


with which he acted in favor of the unhappy CataSueet, in sea-language, a rope fastened to one lans, who afterwards were so inhumanly sacrificed. or both the lower confines of a sail, to extend He was survived by only one legitimate so and retain it in a particular station. When a (who died at Rome in 1735); but left several ship sails with a lateral wind, the lower corner natural children. His worst enemies allow that of the main and fore-sail are fastened by a tack he lived on very good terms with his last wife, and a sheet; the former being to windward, natural daughter to king James II., the late and the latter to leeward; the tack, however, is duchess of Buckingham, a lady who always beentirely diffused with a stern-wind, whereas the haved with a dignity suitable to the daughter of sail is never spread without the assistance of a king. He died in 1721. He was admired by the one or both of the sheets. The stay-sails and stud- poets of his age; by Dryden, Prior, and Garth. ding-sails have only one tack and one sheet each; His Essay on Poetry was applauded by Addison, the stay-sail tacks are always fastened forward, and his Rehearsal is still universally admired, as and the sheet drawn aft; but the studding-sail a piece of true and original satire. His writings tack draws the under clew of the sail to the were splendidly printed in 1723, in 2 vols. 410; extremity of the boom, whereas the sheet is em and have since been re-printed in 1729, in 2 vols. ployed to extend the inmost.

8vo. The first contains his poems on various SHEFFIELD (John), duke of Buckingham, subjects; the second his prose works, which an eminent writer of the seventeenth and eigh- consist of historical memoirs, speeches in parliateenth centuries, of great personal bravery, and ment, characters, dialogues, critical observations, an able minister of state, was born about 1650. essays, and letters. The edition of 1729 is casHe lost his father at nine years of age, and his trated; some particulars relating 10 the Revolumother marrying lord Ossulston, the care of his tion in that of 1723 having given offence. education was left to a governor, who neglected SHEFFIELD, a market-town in the West Riding it. Finding himself deficient in many parts of of Yorkshire, at the junction of the rivers literature, he resolved to devote a certain number Don and Sheaf, thirty-six miles south of Leeds, of hours every day to his studies ; and thereby and 162 N. N. W. of London, celebrated improved himself to a high degree of learning. He throughout Europe for all kinds of hardware, entered a volunteer in the second Dutch war; cutlery, and plated goods. It has a singular and was in that famous naval engagement where appearance, from its occupying a long hill, and the duke of York commanded as admiral ; on extending over the adjoining valleys, being which occasion he behaved so gallantly that he almost enveloped in the smoke from its numerwas appointed commander of the Royal Cathe ous fire-engines, foundries, &c. The three rine. He afterwards made a campaign in the churches, St. Peter's, St. Paul's, and St. James's, French service under M. de Turenne. As Tan- erected on a hill, have a fine effect; their spires gier was in danger of being taken by the Moors, overtop the whole town, and look still more he offered to head the forces which were then majestic at a small distance, by the intervening sent to defend it; and accordingly was appointed atmosphere being almost continually loaded with to command them. He was then earl of Mul- sooty exhalations. The extent.of the town each grave, and one of the lords of the bed-chamber way is about three-quarters of a mịle. The to king Charles II. The Moors retired on the streets are in general wide, well-built, open, approach of the king's forces ; and the result clean, and lighted by gas. The slaughter-houses was the blowing up of Tangier. He continued are built close to the river. Over each of the in several great posts during the reign of king rivers is a good stone bridge; that over the Don, James II., till that unfortunate prince was de- called the Lady's Bridge, consists of three arches, throned. Lord Mulgrave, though he paid his and was widened and repaired in 1768. That respects to king William before he was advanced over the Sheaf consists of one arch, erected in to the throne, yet did not accept of any post in 1769. On the eastern side of the Sheaf stands the government till some years after. In the the duke of Norfolk's hospital, erected in 1670, sixth year of William and Mary he was created consisting of two quadrangles of eighteen chammarquis of Normanby. He was one of the most bers in each, for eighteen poor men, and eighactive and zealous opposers of the bill which teen poor women. It has a neat chapel. Here took away Sir John Fenwick's life; and exerted is another hospital, erected in 1703, for the benefit the utmost vigor in carrying through the treason of sixteen poor cutlers' widows; and a good bill, and the bill for triennial parliaments. He free grammar and charity schools. Here are had some considerable posts under king William, nine different meeting-houses for dissenters, and and enjoyed much of his favor and confidence. a Roman Catholic chapel. In 1702 he was sworn lord privy seal; and in Between the rivers Don and Sheaf, in the the same year was appointed one of the commis- north-eastern part of the town, anciently stood a sioners to treat of an union between England castle of a triangular form; this castle surrenand Scotland. In 1703 he was created duke of dered to the parliament forces in 1644, and was Normanby, and soon after duke of Buckingham. demolished. The market-place, which is exten

An ancient .שקל .Heb

sive and commodious, was erected by the duke one of their meanest officers, an oda basha, finds of Norfolk, who is nearly the sole proprietor of means, by his parts and abilities, to govern all the town. Here is a neat theatre, and assembly things. room. In the south-east corner of Trinity church SHEK'EL, n. s. . . yard is the old town-hall; a new town-house Jewish coin equal to four Attic drachms, or four has lately been erected, handsomely built with Roman denarii, value about 2s. 6d. sterling. stone. Here are also a general infirmary, commodious military barracks, and two excellent printed upon their sheckle on one side the golden pot

The Jews, albeit they detested images, yet imschools on the Bell and Lancasterian system. which had the manna, and on the other Aaron's rod. From the convenience of the rivers and adjoin

Camden. inz coal mines, the whole of the heavy work has

The huge iron head six hundred shekels weighed, of late years been performed by machinery, and

And of whole bodies but one wound it made : its workmen have made such improvements in Able death's worse command to overdoe, :heir trade that they are now able to undersell Destroying life at once and carcase too. Cowley. every other market. The nature of their manufactures gives the town a very sombre appear- brass.

This coat of mail weighed five thousand shekels of

Broome. ance, and the houses all look black from the continual smoke. A canal has been cut to the

SHEKOABAD, a considerable town of Hinverge of the town, which, with the navigation of dostan in the province of Agra. It was formerly the Don, conveys the manufactures of Sheffield fortified. The vicinity produces very fine indi to all parts of the kingdom. On the south side go, in which, and cotton, it carries on a good of Trinity church-yard is the cutlers' hall, erected trade. This town is said to have been founded in 1725. The corporation of cutlers are styled by the unfortunate Dara Sheko, the elder brother

of Aurungzebe. • The Company of Cullers of Hallamshire,' and

Long. 78° 38' E., lat. 27° 6' N. is governed by a master, two wardens, and two

SHELBY, a county of the United States, in assistants; but the public affairs of the town are

Kentucky, bounded north by Henry, west by under seven of the principal inhabitants, who are

Bullet, east by Franklin, and south by Nelson. termed regents or collectors. The town is well

It is fertile, and copiously watered by the creeks

which run into Salt River. supplied with water, by means of pipes, and at a moderate rate. Here are two banking-houses,

SHELBYVILLE, the principal town of Markets Tuesday and Saturday. Fairs Tuesday Shelby county, Kentucky, situated on Brashan's after Whitsun week, and November 28th. The Creek, twelve miles above its junction with Salt

River. old church of the Holy Trinity, a fine ancient Gothic structure, is a vicarage.

The new

SHELDON (Gilbert), archbishop of Canterchurches are curacies. Patron, the vicar.

bury, an eminent and munificent English prelate, SHEFFIELDIA, in botany; a genus of plants

born in 1598. He was entered of Trinity College, belonging to the class of pentandria, and to the Oxford, in 1613, and in 1622 was elected fellow order of monogynia. The corolla is bell-shaped; of All Souls, and became chaplain to lord Cothe filaments are ten, of which every second is ventry, keeper of the great seal, who made him barren. The capsule consists of one cell, which

a prebendary of Gloucester, and recommended has four valves. There is only one species, viz. him to king Charles I. The king made him vicar

of Hackney, and rector of Ickford and NewingSHEIK, in the oriental customs, the person Souls.

ton. In 1635 he was chosen warden of All who has the care of the mosques in Egypt; his

During the civil wars, he continued atduty is the same as that of the imams at Con- tached to the king, and attended as one of his stantinople. There are more or fewer of these commissioners at the treaty of Uxbridge, where to every mosque, according to its size or revenue.

he argued warmly for the king and the church. One of these is head over the rest, and answers

Hence he was afterwards imprisoned by the parto a parish priest with us; and has under him, in liament for six months, and deprived of his warlarge mosques, the readers, and people who

denship and lodgings. He was liberated by the re

cry out to go to prayers; but in small mosques the forming committee, October 24th, 1648, on consheik is obliged to do all this himself. In such dition that he should not come withir five miles it is their business to open the mosque, to cry to

of Oxford. On the Restoration he was replaced prayers, and to begin their short devotions at the in his wardenship, made master of the Savoy, head of the congregation, who stand rank and dean of the chapel royal, and bishop of London; file in great order, and make all their motions and in 1663 archbishop of Canterbury. In

of the University together. Every Friday the sheik makes an ha- 1067 he was chosen chancell rangue to his congregation.

of Oxford, but lost king Charles II.'s favor by SHEIK-BELLET, an officer in the oriental honestly advising him to dismiss his mistress, nations. In Egypt the sheik-bellet is the head Barbara Villiers. He died November 9th, 1677, of the city, and is appointed by the pacha. The aged eighty. He spent no less than £60,000 in business of this officer is to take care that no in- public and private charities. novations be made which may be prejudicial to SHELF, n. s. Sax. scylf; Belg. scelf. A the Porte, and that they send no orders which Shelíry, adj. ) board fixed to lay any thing may hurt the liberties of the people. But all his on; a sand-bank or rock in the sea. authority depends on his credit and interest, not

About his shelves his office: for the government of Egypt is of such A beggarly account of empty boxes. Shakspeare. a kind that often the people of the least power Her chamber is aloft, far from the ground; by their posts have the greatest influence; and a And built so shelving, that one cannot climb it caia of the Janizaries or Arabs, and sometimes Without apparent hazard of liis life.


S. repens.



I had been drowned, but that the shore was shelvy through tho shell, and reached the waters, it rarefied and shallow. H. Merry Wives of Windsor. them.

Burnet's Theory. The tillable fields are in some places so tough So devout are the Romanists about this outward that the plough will scarcely cut them : and in some shell of religion, that if an altar be moved, or a stone so shelfy that the corn hath much ado to fasten its of it broken, it ought to be re-consecrated. roots.


Ayliffe's Parergon. Our transported souls shall congratulate each other The marquis of Medina Sidonia made the shell of their having now fully escaped the numerous rocks, a house, that would have been a very noble buildshelves, and quicksands.

Boyle. ing, had he brought it to perfection. He seized the helm ; his fellows cheered,

Addison on Italy. Turned short upon the shelfs, and madly sleered. The ocean rolling, and the shelly shore, Dryden. Beautiful objects, shall delight no more.

Prior. Glides by the syreus cliffs, a shelfy coast,

The shells served as moulds to this sand, which, Long infamous for ships and sailors lost,

when consolidated, and afterwards freed from its inAnd white with bones.


vestient shell, is of the same shape as the cavity of Near the shelves of Circe's shores they run,

the shell.

Woodward. A dangerous coast.

The shells, being found, were so like those they saw He called his money in;

upon their shores, that they never questioned but that But the prevailing love of pelf

they were the exuviæ of shellfish, and once belonged Soon split him on the former shelf ;

to the sea. He put it out again.


Some fruits are contained within a hard shell, Amidst the brake a hollow den was found,

being the seeds of the plants.

Arbuthnot. With rocks and shelving arches vaulted round.

The ulcers were cured, and the scabs shelled off. i Addison.

Wiseman. Bind fast, or from their shelves

The conceit of Anaximander was, that the first Your books will come and right themselves. Swift. men, and all animals, were bred in some warm

Shelf, among miners, the same with what they moisture, inclosed in crustaceous skins, as lobsters; otherwise call fast ground or fast country; being and so continued, till their shelly prisons growing that part of the internal structure of the earth dry, and breaking, maae way for them. Bentley. which they find lying even and in an orderly He whom ungrateful Athens could expel, manner, and evidently retaining its primitive At all times just but when he signed the shell. form and situation.

Pope. SHELL, n. s., v. 2., & Saxon seyll, sceall; Shells, in natural history, are hard crustace SHELL'DU'CK,

[v. n. (Belg. schelle. The ous, or bony coverings, with which certain aniSHELL'FISH,

crustaceous covering nials are defended, and thence called shell fish. SHEL·LY, adj.

of certain animals and See Physiology and CONCHOLOGY. vegetables; covering of an egg; the outer part of M. Herissant, in the Memoirs of the Academy any thing; hence a musical instrument (in poetic of Sciences, 1766, suggested that the structure of language); a superficial part : to shell is, to take shells was organical. In the numerous experiout of a shell ; to fall off as broken shells; to ments that he made on an immense number, and cast the shell : a shell-duck is a kind of wild a very great variety, of animal shells, he conduck: shell-fish, fish protected by shells: shelly, stantly found that they were composed of two abounding in, or consisting of, shells.

distinct substances; one of which is a cretaceThink him as a serpent's egg,

ous or earthy matter; and the other appeared Which hatched would, as his kind, grow mis- from many experiments made upon it by burning, chievous,

distillation, and otherwise, to be evidently of And kill him in the shell. Shakspeare. Julius Cæsar.

an animal nature. These two substances he Changed loves are but changed sorts of meats ; dexterously separated from each other by a very And, when he hath the kernel eat,

easy chemical analysis ; by the gentle operation Who doth not throw away the shell ? Donne. of which they were exhibited distinctly to view, Her women wear

without any material alteration from the action The spoils of nations in an ear ;

of the solvent, or instrument employed for that Changed for the treasure of a shell,

purpose. On an entire shell, or a fragment of And in their loose attires do swell.

one contained in a glass vessel, he poured a Ben Jonson's Catiline. Albion

sufficient quantity of the nitrous acid, consideWas to Neptune recommended ;

rably diluted either with water or spirit of wine. Peace and plenty spread the sails :

After the liquor has dissolved all the earthy part Venus, in her shell before him,

of the shell (which may be collected after preFrom the sands in safety bore him.

cipitation by a fixed or volatile alkali), there re

Dryden's Albion. mains floating in it a soft substance, consisting Less than a god they thought there could not of innumerable membranes of a retiform apdwell

pearance, and disposed in different shells, in a Within the hollow of that shell,

variety of positions, which constitutes the animal That spoke so sweetly.

Dryden. Whatever we fetch from underground is only what the solvent, retains the exact figure of the shell;

part of it. This, as it has not been affected by is lodged in the shell of the earth.


and, on being viewed through a microscope, exTo preserve wild ducks, and shellducks, have a place walled in with a pond.

hibits satisfactory proofs of a vascular and orMortimer's Husbandry.

ganical structure. He shows that this membra The sun is as the fire, and the exterior earth is as nous substance is an appendix to the body of the shell of the colipile, and the abyss as the water the animal, or a continuation of the tendinous within it ; now when the heat of the sun had pierced fibres that coinpose the ligaments by which it is

fixed to its shell; and that this last owes its contain sixty carbonate of lime, (welve phoshardness to the earthy particles conveyed through phate of lime, and twenty-eight cartilage; 100 the vessels of the animal, which fix themselves parts of hen's egg shells contain 89.6 carbonate into, and incrust, as it were, the meshes formed of lime, 5-7 phosphate of lime, and 4:7 animal by the reticular filaments of which this membra- matter. Hatchett found traces of phosphate of nous substance is composed. In the shell called lime also in the shells of snails. The shells of porcelaine, in particular, the delicacy of these sea animals may be divided into two classes. membranes was so great, that he was obliged to The first has the appearance of porcelain, their put it into spirit wine, which he had the surface is enamelled, and their texture is often patience to add a single drop of spirit of nitre slightly fibrous. Mr. Hatchett has given them day by day, for the space of two months ; lest the name of porcellaneous shells. The second the air generated, or let loose by the action of kind of shells is known by the name of mother-ofthe acid on the earthy substance, should tear the pearl. It is covered with a strong epidermis, and compages of its fine membranous structure into below it lies the shelly matter in layers. The shatters; as it certainly would have done in a shell of the fresh water mussel, mother-of-pearl, more hasty and less gentle dissolution. The heliotis iris, and turbo oleurius, are instances of delicate reticulated film left after this operation these shells.' had all the tenuity of a spider's web; and ac Of the many singular configurations and apcordingly he does not attempt to delineate its pearances of the membranous part of different organisation. In other shells he employed even shells, which are described in M. Herissant's five or six months in demonstrating the com- memoir, and are delineated in several well explicated membranous structure of this animalecuted plates, we shall mention only, as a specisubstance by this kind of chemical anatomy. men, the curious membranous structure observed In general, however, the process does not require in the laminæ of mother-of-pearl, and other much time.

shells of the same kind, after having been exThe singular regularity, beauty, and delicacy posed to the operation of the author's solvent. in the structure of the shells of animals, and the Beside the great variety of fixed colors, with variety and brilliancy in the coloring of many which he found the animal filaments of these of them, at the same time that they strike the shells adorned, the shell presents a succession of attention of the most incurious observers, have rich and changeable colors, the production of at all times excited philosophers to enquire into which he explains from the configurations of and detect, if possible, the causes and manner their membranes. These brilliant decorations of their formation. But the attempts of natu are produced at a very small expense. The ralists, ancient and modern, to discover this pro- membranous substance is plaited and rampled cess, have constantly proved unsuccessful. M. in such a manner that its exterior laminæ, inde Reaumur hitherto appears alone to have given crusted with their earthy and semi-transparent a plausible account, at least, of the formation of matter, form an infinite number of little prisms, the shell of the garden-snail in particular, placed in all kinds of directions, which refract founded on a course of very ingenious experi- the rays of light, and produce all the changes of ments, related in the Mem. de l'Acad. 1709. color observable in these shells. With respect He then endeavours to show that this substance to the figures and colors of shells, river shells is produced merely by the perspirable matter have not so agreeable or diversified a color as the of the animal condensing and afterwards har- land and sea shells; but the variety in the figure, dening on its surface, and accordingly taking the colors, and other characters of sea shells, is alfigure of its body, which has performed the most infinite. The number of distinct species in office of a mould to it; in short, that the shell the cabinets of the curious is very great; and of a snail, and, as he supposed, of all other doubtless the deep bottoms of the sea, and the animals possessed of shells, was only the pro- shores yet unexplored, contain multitudes still duct of a viscous transudation from the body of unknown to us. It is rare to find any two shells the animal, containing earthy particles united exactly alike in all respects. This wonderful by mere juxtaposition. This hypothesis, how- variety, however, is not all the produce of one ever, is liable to very great and insurmountable sea or one country. Bonani observes that the difficulties, if we apply it to the formation of beautiful shells come from the East Indies and some of the most common shells : for how, ac from the Red Sea. The sun, by the great heat cording to this system, it may be asked, can the that it gives to the countries near the line, exalts oyster, for instance, considered simply as a mould, the colors of the shells produced there, and form to itself a covering so much exceeding its gires them a lustre and brilliancy that those of own body in dimensions ?

colder climates generally want. On this subject Dr. Thomson has the follow Of fossil shells, or those buried at great depths ing remarks in bis System of Chemistry, vol. iv. in the earth, some are found remaining almost p. 366-368. • The crustaceous coverings of entirely in their native state, but others are animals, as of echini, crabs, lobsters, prawns, variously altered by being impregnated with and craw-fish, and also the shells of eggs, are ticles of stone and of other fossils; in the place composed of the same ingredients as bones (see of others there is found mere stone or spar, or Bones); but in them the proportion of car some other native mineral body, expressing all bonate of lime far exceeds that of phosphate. their lineaments in the most exact manner, as Thus 100 parts of lobster crust contain sixty having been formed wholly from them, the shell carbonate of lime, fourteen phosphate, and having been first deposited in some solid matrix, twenty-six cartilage ; 100 parts of crawfish crust and thence dissolved by very slow degrees, and


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