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an edition in 1744 in 6 vols. 4to. Dr. Warbur- abilities, and of extensive learning. too's 8vo. edition came out in 1747 in 8 vols., tions are commonly just, but sometimes caprifor which he was paid £560. The editions pub- cious. He is censurable, too, for receiving lished since that time are Dr. Johnson's in without examination almost all the innovations 1765 in 8 vols. 8vo.; Steven's in 1766 in 4 vols. of Pope. The original and predominant error 8vo.; Capell's in 1768 in 10 vols. crown 8vo., of Warburton's commentary is acquiescence in for this the author was paid £300. A second his first thoughts; that precipitation which is edition of Hanmer's in 1771 in 6 vols.; Johnson's produced by consciousness of quick discernand Stevens's in 1773 in 10 vols. 8vo.; a second ment; and that confidence which presumes to edition in 1778; a third hy Reed in 1785; and do, by surveying the surface, what labor only Malone's crown 8vo. edition in 1789 in 10 vols. can perform by penetrating to the bottom. His The most authentic of the old editions is that of notes exhibit sometimes perverse interpretations, 1623. At last,' says Dr. Johnson, an edition and sometimes improbable conjectures; he at was undertaken by Rowe; not because a poet one time gives the aụthor more profundity of was to be published by a poet, for Rowe seems meaning than the sentence admits, and at another to have thought very little on correction or ex- discovers absurdities where the sense is plain to planation, but that our author's works might ap- every other reader. But his emendations are pear like those of his fraternity, with the appen- likewise often happy and just; and his interpredages of a life and recommendatory preface. tation of obscure passages learned and sagacious. Rowe has been clamorously blamed for not per- It has indeed been said by his defenders, that his forming what he did not undertake, and it is great object was to display his own learning; and time that justice be done him, by confessing, certainly, in spite of the clamor raised against that though he seems to have had no thought of him for substituting his own chimerical conceits correction beyond the printer's errors, yet he has instead of the genuine text of Shakspeare, his made many emendations, if they were not made work increased his reputation. But as it is of before, which his successors have received with- little value as a commentary on Shakspeare, out acknowledgment, and which, if they had since Warburton is now gone, his work will proproduced them, would have filled pages with bably sink into oblivion. In 1765 Dr. Johnson's censures of the stupidity by which the faults edition, which had long been impatiently exwere committed, with displays of the absurdities pected, was given to the public. His vigorous which they involved, with ostentatious expo- and comprehensive understanding threw more sitions of the new reading, and self-congratula- light on his author than all his predecessors had tions on the happiness of discovering it. The done. The character which he gave of each play nation had been for many years content with is generally just. His refutation of the false Mr. Rowe's performance, when Mr. Pope made glosses of Theobald and Warburton, and his them acquainted with the true state of Shaks- numerous explications of involved and difficult peare's text, showed that it was extremely cor passages, entitle him to the gratitude of every rupt, and gave reason to hope that there were admirer of Shakspeare. The last editor'is Mr. means of reforming it. Mr. Pope's edition, Malone, who was eight years employed in prehowever, he observes, fell below his own expec- paring his edition. By collating the most autations; and he was so much offended, when he thentic copies, he has been careful to purify the was found to have left any thing for others to do, text. He has been so industrious to discover that he passed the latter part of his life in a state the meaning of the author, that he has ransacked of hostility with verbal criticisms. The only many volumes, and trusts that, besides his adusk, in the opinion of Mr. Malone, for which ditional illustrations, not a single valuable exPope was eminently and indisputably qualified, plication of any obscure passage in these plays was to mark the faults and beauties of his author. has ever appeared which he has not inserted in When he undertook the office of a commentator, his edition. He rejects Titus Andronicus, as every anomaly of language, and every expres- well as the three plays formerly mentioned, as sion that was not currently in use, were considered not being the authentic productions of Shaksas errors or corruptions, and the text was altered peare. To the whole he has added an appendix, or amended, as it was called, at pleasure. Pope and a copious glossary. Of this work a less is openly charged with being one of the great expensive edition has been published in 7 vols. corrupters of Shakspeare's text. Pope was suc 12mo., in which the general introductory obserceeded by Theobald, who collated the ancient vations prefixed to the different plays are precopies, and rectified many errors. He was, served, and the numerous notes abridged. This however, a man of narrow comprehension and of judicious commentator has certainly done more little learning; and, what is worse, in his reports for the elucidation and correction of Shaksof copies and editions, he is not to be trusted peare than all who came before him, and has without examination. From the liberties taken followed with indefatigable patience the only by Pope, the edition of Theobald was justly road which a commentator of Shakspeare ought preferred, because he professed to adhere to the to observe. Within fifty years after our poet's ancient copies more strictly, and illustrated a death, Dryden says that he was become a little few passages by extracts from the writers of our obsolete;' and in the beginning of the eighteenth poet's age. Still, however, he was a considera- century lord Shaftesbury complains of his rude ble innovator; and, while a few arbitrary changes unpolished style, and his antiquated phrase and made by Pope were detected, innumerable so These complaints were owing to the great phistications were silently adopted. Sir Thomas revolution which the English language has unIlanmer, who comes next, was a man of critical dergone, and to the want of an enlightened com





mentator. These complaints are now removed, So subjects love just kings, or so they should. for an enlightened commentator has been found

Dryden. in Mr. Malone. In 1790 a copious index to

The girls look upon their father as a clown, and the remarkable passages and words in the plays the boys think their mother no better than she should


Addison. of Shakspeare was published by the Rev. Mr.

I conclude that tidings are not as they should be. Ayscough, a gentleman to whom the literary

Swift. world is much indebted for several very valuable keys of knowledge. In fine, the admirers of SHALLOON, n. s. From Chalons, in France. Shakspeare are now furnished with every help A slight woollen stuff. that can enable them to understand the sense

In blue shalloon shall Hannibal be clad, and to taste the beauties of this illustrious poet. And Scipio trail an Irish purple plaid. Swift.

SHALE, n. s. Sax. scala. A husk; the SHAL'LOP, n. s. Fr. chaloupe. A small case of seeds in siliquous plants.

boat. Behold yon poor and starved band, And fair shew shall suck away their souls,

You were resolved, after your arrival into Oroo. your Leaving them but the shales and husks of men. noque, to pass to the mine ; and, to that end, you


desired to have Sir John Fearne's shallop : I do not

allow of that course, because ye cannot land so seShale, in the old system of mineralogy, a cretly but that some Indians on the river side may species of schistus. It is a black slaty substance, discover you, who giving knowledge of your pasor a clay hardened into a stony consistence, and sage to the Spaniards, you may be cut off before you so much impregnated with bitumen that it be- can recover your boat.

Raleigh. comes somewhat like coal. The acid emitted

Our hero set from shale, during its calcination, uniting itself In a small shallop, fortune in his debt. Waller. to the argillaceous earth of the shale, forms

A SHALLOP, or Sloop, is a small light vessel, alum. About 120 tons of calcined shale will with only a small main-mast, and fore-mast, and make one ton of alum. The shale, after being lug-sails, to hale up, and let down, on occacalcined, is steeped in water, by which means sion. Shallops are commonly good sailers, and the alum, which is formed during the calcination are therefore often used as tenders upon men of of the shale, is dissolved : this dissolved alum undergoes various operations before it is formed

SHAL'LOW, adj. & n. s. Probably cominto the alum of the shops. Watson's Chemi Shallow'BRAIN, adj.

pounded of shoal cal Essays, vol. ii. p. 315. See Alum. This

SHALLOW’LY, adv. and low.—Johnkind of slate forms large strata in Derbyshire. SHALLOW’NESS, n. s.

From Goth. It is found in large strata, generally above the sigu la, to sink low.—Thomson. Not deep; coal, in most coal counties of this kingdom, having the bottom at no great distance from the Dr. 'Short says that the shale wastes the lead surface: not intellectually deep; not profound; ore near it, by its strong acid; and that it cor

not deep of sound : the noun substantive and adrodes and destroys all minerals near it, except verb corresponding. iron or coal, of whose vitriol it partakes. SHALL, verb defect. Sax. sceal. I owe, or

This is a very shallow monster,

Afraid of him? A
I ought. In Chaucer, the faithe I shall to God, The man i' th’ moon! A most poor credulous mon-

shallow monster,

very means the faith I owe to God: thence it became

Shakspeare. a sign of the future tense. It has no tenses but

I had been drowned, but that the shore was shelvy shall future, and should imperfect.

and shallow ; a death that I abhor. It is a mind that shall remain.

Id. Merry Wives of Windsor.
-Shall remain !

I should not see the sandy hour-glass run,
Hear you this triton of the minnows ? Mark you But I should think of shallows and of flats;
An absolute shall ?
Shakspeare. Coriolanus.

And see my wealthy Andrew docked in sand, Some praises come of good wishes and respects, Veiling her high top lower than her ribs. when, by telling men what they are, they represent To kiss her burial.

Id. Coriolanus. to them what they should be.

There is a fabulous narration that in the northern Fondly brought here, and foolishly sent


Most shallowly did you these arms commence, countries there should be an herb that groweth in the

Shakspeare. likeness of a lamb, and feedeth upon the grass. Bacon's Natural History.

That inundation, though it were shallow, had a Let not a desperate action more engage you

long continuance, whereby they of the vale, that Than safety should.

Ben Jonson's Catiline.
were not drowned, perished for want of food.

That he shall receive no benefit from Christ is the

The king was neither so shallow nor so ill adveraffirmation where all his despair is founded : and the one way of removing this dismal apprehension is,

to tised, as not to perceive the intention of the French convince him that Christ's death, and the benefits king, for the investing himself of Britaigne.

Id, Henry VII. thereof, either do, or, if he perform the condition re

A swift stream is not heard in the channel, but quired of him, shall certainly belong to him. Hammond's Fundamentals.

upon shallows of gravel. Id. Natural History. To do thee honour I will shed their blood,

If a virginal were made with a double concave, Which the just laws, if I were faultless, should.

the one all the length of the virginal, and the other

at the end of the strings, as the harp hath, it must
See Romulus the great:
make the sound perfecter, and not so shallow and

This prince a priestess of your blood shall bear;

jarring. And, 'like his sire, in arms he shall appear.

The load lieth open on the grass, or but shallowly
Dryden's Æneid. covered.




By it do all things live their measured bour : It goes a great way when natural curiosity and We cannot ask the thing which is not there, vulgar prejudice shall be assisted with the shams of Blaming the shallowness of our request. Herbert. astrological judgments.

Id. I cannot wonder enough at the shallowness and im He that first brought the sham, wheedle, or banter pertinent zeal of the vulgar sort in Drunia, who in use, put together, as he thought fit, those ideas he were carried away with such an ignorant devotion for made it stand


Locke. his successes, when it little concerned their religion That in the sacred temple needs would try or security.

Howel. Without a fire the' unheated gums to fry,
You that so oft have sounded

Believe who will the solemn sham, not I. Addison.
And fathomed all his thoughts, that know the deeps Then all your wits that fleer and sham,
And shallows of his heart, should need no instru Down from Don Quixote to Tom Tram,

From whom I jests and puns purloin, To advance your ends.

Denham. And slily put them off for mine, Having but newly left those grammatic fats and Fond to be thought a country wit.

Prior. shallous, where they stuck unreasonably, to learn a

Never join the fray, few words with lamentable construction, and now on Where the sham quarrel interrupts the way. Gay. the sudden transported, to be tossed with their un SHAMAMS are wizards or conjurers, in high ballasted wits in fathomless and unquiet deeps of

repute among several idolatrous nations inhabitcontroversy, they do grow into hatred of learning.


ing different parts of Russia. By their enchantUncertain and unsettled he remains,

ments they pretend to cure diseases, to divert Deep versed in books, and shallow in himself. Id. misfortunes, and to foretel futurity. They are I am made a shallow forded stream,

great observers of dreams, by the interpretation Seen to the bottom : all my clearness scor ned, of which they judge of their good or bad fortune. And all my faults exposed. Dryden's All for Love. They pretend likewise to chiromancy, and to Shallow brooks, that flowed so clear,

foretel a man's good or ill success by the lines of The bottom did the top appear.

Dryden. his hand. By these and such like tricks they He sounds and fathoms him to find

have a very great ascendency over the underThe shallows of his soul. Id. Spanish Fryar.

standings, and a great influence on the conduct, Three more fierce Eurus in his angry mood of those people Dashed on the shallows of the moving sand,

SHAM’BLES, n. s. Of uncertain etymology; And in mid ocean left them moored a-land.

Ital. scannaglia.--Johnson : or Lat. scamni macelli.

Id, Æneid. Their spawn being lighter than the water, there it The place where butchers kill or sell their meat; would not sink to the bottom : but be buoyed up by

a butchery. it, and carried away to the shallows.

Far be the thoughts of this from Henry's heart,

Ray on the Creation. To make a shambles of the parliament-house. With the use of diligence and prudent conduct,

Shakspeare. Henry VI. he may decline both rocks and shallows. Norris. I hope my noble lord esteems me honest,

In arms of the sea, and among islands, there is no Oh, ay, as summer flies are in the shambles, great depth, and some places are plain shallows. That quicken even with blowing. Id. Othello.

Burnet. He warned a flock of sheep, that were driving to It cannot but be matter of just indignation to all the shambles, of their danger; and, upon uttering

Arbuthnot. good men, to see a company of lewd shallow-brained some sounds, they all fled. huffs making atheism, and contempt of religion, the When the person is made the jest of the mob, sole badge of wit.

South. or his back the shambles of the executioner, there is One would no more wonder to see the most shallow no more conviction in the one than in the other. pation of Europe the most vain, than to find the

Watts. most empty fellows of every nation more conceited

SHAMBLES, among miners, a sort of niches or than the rest.

Addison. The sea could not be much narrower than it is, of the mines that the shovel-men may con

landing places, left at such distances in the adits without a great loss to the world; and must we now veniently throw up the ore from shamble to have an ocean of mere fats and shallows, to the utter ruin of navigation ?


shamble till it comes to the top of the mine. The like opinion he held of Meotis Palus, that by the SHAM’BLING, adj. See SCAMBLING. Movfloods of Tanais, and the earth brought down thereby, ing awkwardly and irregularly. A low bad it grew observably shallower in his days, and would word. in process of time become a firm land.

By that shambling in his walk, it should be my Browne's Vulgar Errours.

rich banker, Gomez, whom I knew at Barcelona. SHALM, n. s. Germ. shelm; Teut. schemme.

Dryden's Spanish Fryar. A kind of musical pipe.

So when nurse Nokes to act young Ammon tries, Every captain was commanded to have his soldiers With shambling legs, long chin, and foolish eyes, in readiness to set forward upon the sign given, which With dangling hands he strokes the imperial robe, was by the sound of a shalm or hoboy.

And with a cuckold's air commands the globe.
Knolles's History of the Turks.

Smith. SHAM, v. n., n. s., & adj. Welsh shommi, to

SHAME, n. s., v.a.&v.n. Saxon sceam; cheat. To trick; cheat; fool with a fraud : a low

Shame'FACED, adj.

Teut. scham; Belg. word : the derivatives corresponding.


scheam. Pudicity; Men tender in point of honour, and yet with little

SHAMEʻFACEDNESS, n. S. the passion felt at regard to truth, are sooner wrought upon by shame

SHAME'Ful, adj. than by conscience, when they find themselves

-a supposed loss of fooled and shammed into a conviction. L'Estrange.

Shame'FULLY, adv. reputation; the We must have a care that we do not, for want of


cause or reason of laying things and things together, sham fallacies SHAME'LESSLY, adv. shame; disgrace; upon the world for current reason.

Id SHAMELESSNESS, n. s. ignominy;


proach: to shame is, to make ashamed ; dis

Applause grace; to be ashamed : shamefaced, modest; Turned to exploding hiss, triumph to shame,

Id. bashful; easily discountenanced: the adverb Cast on themselves from their own mouths.

But I his holy secret and noun substantive corresponding : shameful is, disgraceful; infamous; ignominious; raising Presumptuously have published, impiously,

Id. Agonistes. shame : the adverb corresponding : shameless is, Weakly at least

, and shamefully.

For this he shall live bated, be blasphemed, devoid of shame; impudent ; audacious: the ad- Seized on by force, judged, and to death condemned, verb and noun substantive corresponding.

A shameful and accurst!

Milton. The king to day, as one of the vain fellows, He must needs be shamelessly wicked that abhors shamelessly uncovereth himself. 2 Samuel vi. 20. not this licentiousness.

Hale. A foul shame is upon the thief. Ecclus. v. 14.

Hide, for shame, Would she shamefully fail in the last act in this Romans, your grandsires images, contrivance of the nature of man?

More. That blush at their degenerate progeny. Dryden. Philoclea, who blushing, and withal smiling, The coward bote the man immortal spite, making shamefacedness pleasing, and pleasure shume Who shamed him out of madness into flight. ld. faced, tenderly moved her feet, unwonted to feel the Your shamefaced virtue shunned the people's naked ground.


praise, Lamenting sorrow did in darkness lie,

And senate's honours.

ld. And shume his ugly face did hide from living eye. None but fools, out of shamefacedness hide their

Spenser. ulcers, which, if shown, might be healed. Great shame it is, thing so divine in view,

Id. Dufresnoy. Made for to be the world's most ornament,

A man may be shamefaced, and a woman modest, To make the bait her gazers to embrew ;

to the degree of scandalous.

L'Estrange. Good shames to be to ill an instrument. Id. In the schools men are allowed, without shame, to She is the fountain of your modesty;

deny the agreement of ideas; or, out of the schools, You shamefaced are, but shamefacedness itself is she. from thence have learned, without shame, to deny Faerie Queene. the connection of ideas.

Locke, None but that saw, quoth he, would ween for Were there but one righteous man in the world, truth,

he would hold up his head with confidence and How shamefully that maid he did torment. Id. honour; he would shame the world, and not the This all through that great prince's pride did fall, world him.

South. And came to shameful end.

Id. God deliver the world from such guides, who are Peace, peace, for shame, if not for charity. the shame of religion.

Id. -Urge neither charity nor shame to me:

Those who are ready enough to confess him, both Uncharitably with me have you dealt,

in judgment and profession, are, for the most part, And shamefully my hopes by you are butchered : very prone to deny him shamefully in their doings. My charity is outrage, life my shame;

Id. Sermons. And in my shame still lives my sorrows' rage.

God deliver the world from such hucksters of Shakspeare. Richard III. souls, the very shame of religion, and the shameless To tell thee of whom derived,

subverters of morality. Were shame enough to shame thee, wert thou not From this time we may date that remarkable turn shameless.

Shakspeure. in the behaviour of our fashionable Englishmen, that If thou hast power to raise him, bring him hither, makes them shamefaced in the exercise of those duAnd I've power to shame him hence :

ties which they were sent into the world to perform. Oh, while you live, tell truth and shame the devil.

Addison's Freeholder.

Id. His naval preparations were not more surprising Sham'st thou not, knowing whence thou art ex than his quick and shameful retreat; for he returned traught,

to Carthage with only one ship, having fled without To let thy tongue detect thy base-born heart? Id. striking one stroke.

Arbuthnot. Conscience is a blushing shamefaced spirit that O shame to manhood! shall one daring boy mutinies in a man's bosom : it fills one full of obsta- The scheme of all our happiness destroy ? cles. Id. Richard III.

Pope's Odyssey. Hyperbolus by suffering did traduce

Who shames a scribbler, breaks a cobweb through: The ostracism, and shamed it out of use.

He spins the slight self-pleasing thread anew. Pope.

Cleaveland. Such shameless bards we have ; and yet, 'tis true, To the trunk of it authors give such a magnitude, There are as mad, abandoned criticks too.

I. as I shume to repeat. Raleigh's History of the World. The knave of diamonds tries his wily arts,

The shameless denial hereof by some of their friends, And wins, O shameful chance! the queen of hearts. and the more shameless justification by some of their

Id. Hatterers, makes it needful to exemplify, which I had But that effeminacy, folly, lust, rather forbear.

Paleigh. Enervate and enfeeble, and needs must; Cruel Auster thither hied him;

And that a nation shamefully debased And, with the rush of one rude blast,

Will be despised and trampled on at last, Shamed not spitefully to waste

Unless sweet Penitence her powers renew, All his leaves, so fresh, so sweet,

Is truth if history itself be true. Couper. And lay them trembling at his feet. Crashaw.

SHAMGAR, the son of Anath, the third judge Being most impudent in 'her heart, she could, when she would, teach her cheeks blushing, and make of Israel after Joshua. He delivered his country shamefacedness the cloak of shamelessness. Sidney. from the yoke of the Philistines, and slew 600 of

He that blushes not at his crime, but adds shame- them with an ox-goad, about A. M. 2657. See lessness to his shame, hath nothing left to restore him ISRAEL. to virtue.

Taylor. SIIAMMAII, the name of three heroes of Despoiled

Israel, under David. See 2 Sam. xxiii. 11-17, Of all our good, shamed, naked, miscrable. Milton. 25. 33.


SHAM'OIS, n.8. Fr. chamois. See CHAMOIS. oil till they be well softened; then oiled with the A kind of wild goat.

hand, one by one, and thus formed into parcels I'll bring thee

of four skins each; which are milled and dried To clustering filberds, and sometimes I'll get thee on cords a second time; then a third ; and then Young shamois from the rocks.

Shakspeare. oiled again and dried. This process is repeated SHAMO!s, in zoology. See Capra.

as often as necessary; when done, if there be Suamois, CHAMOIS, or Suammy, in commerce, any moisture remaining, they are dried in a a kind of leather, either dressed in oil or tanned, stove, and made up into parcels wrapped up in much esteemed for its softness, pliancy, &c. It wool; after some time they are opened to the is prepared from the skin of the chamois or air, but wrapped up again as before, till such shamois, a kind of rupicapra, or wild goat, time as the oil seems to have lost all its force, called also isard, inhabiting the mountains of the which it ordinarily does in twenty-four hours. ci-devant French and Italian provinces of Dau- The skins are then returned from the mill to the phiny, Savoy, Piedmont, and the Pyrenees. chamoiser to be scoured : which is done by putBesides the softness and warmth of the leather, ting them in a lixivium of wood-ashes, working it has the faculty of bearing soap without damage and beating them in it with poles, and leaving which renders it very useful on many accounts.

them to steep till the ley hath had its effect : then In France, &c., some wear the skin raw, without they are wrung out, steeped in another lixivium, any preparation. Shammy leather is used for wrung again ; and this is repeated till all the the purifying of mercury, which is done by pass- grease and oil be purged out. When this is ing it through the pores of this skin, which are done, they are half dried, and passed over a very close. The true chamois leather is counter- sharp-edged iron instrument, placed perpendicufeited with common goat, kid, and even with lar in a block, which opens, softens, and makes sheep skins, the practice of which makes a par- them gentle. Lastly, they are thoroughly aried, ticular profession, called by the French cha- and passed over the same instrument again; moisure. The last, though the least esteemed, which finishes the preparation, and leaves them is yet so popular, and such vast quantities of it in form of shammy. Kid and goat skins are are prepared, especially about Orleans, Mar- shamoised in the same manner as those of seilles, and Thoulouse, that it may not be amiss sheep, excepting that the hair is taken off with10 give the method of preparation.

out the use of any lime; and that, when brought The skins, being washed, drained, and smeared from the mill, they undergo a particular preparaover with quick-lime on the fleshy side, are tion called ramalling, more delicate and 'diffifolded in two lengthwise, the wool outwards, cult than the others. It consists in this, that, and laid on heaps, and so left to ferment eight as soon as brought from the mill, they are steeped days, or, if they have been left to dry after Hay- in a fit lixivium, taken out, stretched on a round ing, then fifteen days. Then they are washed wooden leg, and the hair is scraped off with the out, drained, and half dried ; laid on a wooden knife; this makes them smooth, and, in working, leg, or horse, the wool stripped off with a round to cast a kind of fine knap. The difficulty is in staff for that purpose, and laid in a weak pit, the scraping them evenly. lime whereof had been used before, and has lost

SHAM'ROCK, n. s.

The the greatest part of its force. After twenty-four Irish name for three-leaved grass. hours they are taken out, and left to drain twenty If they found a plot of watercresses or shamrocks, four more; they are then put in another stronger there they flocked as to a feast for the time. pit. This done, they are taken out, drained,

Spenser on Ireland. and put in again, by turns; which begins to dis SHANGALLA, a race of negroes, on the pose them to take oil; and this practice they northern frontier of Abyssinia, particularly on continue for six weeks in summer or three months the lower part of the Mareb and Tacazze. The in winter: at the end whereof they are washed tract which they occupy consists of a belt varyout, laid on the wooden leg, and the surface of ing in breadth, though averaging about forty the skin on the wool side peeled off, to render miles. It is entirely covered with almost imthem the softer; then made into parcels, steeped penetrable forests, fit only for the production of a night in the river, in winter more, stretched wild animals. The Shangalla are complete six or seven over one another on the wooden leg, savages, who go naked, neither sow nor plant, and the knife passed strongly on the flesh side, and have no fixed habitations. During the dry to take off any thing superfluous, and render the part of the year they live under the shade of skin smooth. Then they are steeped as before, trees, the lowest branches of which they cut near in the river, and the same operation is repeated the stem, on the upper part, planting the ends of on the wool side; they are then thrown into a the branches in the earth. Having then covered tub of water, with bran in it, which is brewed them with the skins of beasts, and cut away the among the skins till the greatest part sticks to interior branches, they form a spacious pavilion, them, and then separated into distinct tubs, till which, at a distance appears like a ient, the they swell

, and rise of themselves above the trunk serving for the pole, the top overshadowing water. By this means the remains of the lime it. During this season every tree is a house, are cleared out; they are then wrung out, hung peopled by a family. In the rainy season the up to dry on ropes, and sent to the mill, with soil dissolves completely into mire, and it is no the quantity of oil necessary to scour them : the longer possible to live above ground. The Shanbest oil is that of stock-fish. Here they are first galla then seek their winter quarters in caves of thrown in bundles into the river for twelve hours, the mountains, which are of a soft gritty sandthen laid in the mill-trough, and fulled without stone, easily excavated. Here they live upon the

Irish scam rag:

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