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ing shagreen. Those who follow this occupation at its extremity a weight, is attached to each end not only gain considerable profit by the sale of of the skin, to keep it in its position while their production to the Tartars of Cuban, Astra- under the hands of the workman. It is then can, and Casan, who ornament with it their smoothed and scraped by two different instruTurkey leather boots, slippers, and other articles ments. The first is a piece of sharp iron bent made of leather, but they derive considerable like a hook, with which the surface is pretty advantage from the great sale of horses' hides, closely scraped to remove all the projecting inewhich have undergone no other process than that qualities. This operation, from the hardness of the of being scraped clean, and of which several skin, is attended with difficulty; and great cauthousands are annually exported, at the rate of tion is required that too much of the impression from seventy-five to eighty-five roubles per 100, of the alabuta seed be not destroyed. After all to Persia, where there is a scarcity of such these operations, the shagreen is again put into hides, and from which the greater part of the water, partly to make it pliable, and partly to shagreen manufactured in that country is pre- raise the grain. As the seeds occasion indentapared. The hind part only of the hide, however, tions in the surface of the skin, the intermediate which is cut out in the form of a crescent about spaces, by the operations of smoothing and scrapa Russian ell and a half in length across the loins, ing, lose some part of their projecting substance; and a short ell in breadth along the back, can but the parts which have been depressed, and properly be employed for shagreen.

The re

which have lost none of their substance, now maining part is improper for that purpose, and swell up above the scraped parts, and thus form is therefore rejected. The preparation of the the grain of the shagreen. To produce this effect skins, after being cut into the above form, is as the skins are left to soak in water for twentyfollows :- They are deposited in a tub filled with four hours; after which they are immersed sevepure water, and suffered to remain there for se ral times in a strong warm ley, obtained by boilveral days, till they are thoroughly soaked, and ing from a strong alkaline earth named schora, the hair' has dropped off. They are then taken which is found in great abundance in the neighfroin the tub, one by one, extended on boards bourhood of Astracan. When the skins have placed in an obtique direction against a wall, been taken from this ley they are piled up, while the corners of them, which reach beyond the warm, on each other and suffered to remain in edges of the board, being made fast, and the that state several hours ; by which means they hair with the epidermis is then scraped off with swell and become soft. They are then left a blunt iron scraper called urak. The skins thus twenty-four hours in a moderately strong pickle cleaned are again put in pure water to soak. of common salt, which renders them exceedingly They are then taken from the water a second white and beautiful, and fit for receiving any time, spread out as before, and carefully scraped color. The color most usual for these skins is a on both sides. They then take frames, made of sea-green ; but old experienced workmen can a straight and a semicircular piece of wood, dye them blue, red, or black, and even make having nearly the same form as the skins. On white shagreen. For the green color nothing is these the skins are extended in as even a manner necessary but filings of copper and sal ammoniac. as possible by cords; and, while extending them, Sal ammoniac is dissolved in water till the water they are several times besprinkled with water, is completely saturated ; and the shagreen skins, again moistened, and carried into the house, still moist, after being taken from the pickle, are where the frames are deposited close to each washed over with the solution on the ungrained other on the floor with the flesh side next the flesh side, and, when well moistened, a thick ground. The upper side is then thickly be- layer of copper filings is strewed over them: the strewed with the black, smooth, and hard seeds skins are then folded double, so that the side of a kind of goose foot. (chenopodium album), covered with the filings is innermost.

Each and, that they may make a strong impression on skin is then rolled up in a piece of felt; the the skins, a piece of felt is spread over them, rolls are all ranged together in proper order, and and the seeds are trod down with the feet, and they are pressed down by some heavy bodies thus deeply imprinted into the soft skins. The placed ever them, under which they remain frames, without shaking the seeds, are then car- twenty-four hours, after which the skins are ried out into the open air, and placed in a re- spread out and dried. For the blue dye indigo clining position against a wall to dry. In this is used. About two pounds of it, reduced to a state the skins are left several days to dry in the fine powder, are put into a kettle : cold water is sun, until no moisture is observed in them, poured over it, and the mixture is stirred round when they are fit to be taken from the frames. till the color begins to be dissolved ; five pounds When the impressed seeds are beat off from the of pounded alakar, which is a kind of barilla or hair side, it appears full of indentations or ine- crude soda, are then dissolved in it, with two qualities, and has acquired that impression which pounds of lime and one pound of pure honey, produces the grain of the shagreen. The opera- and the whole is kept several days in the sun, fion of smoothing is performed on an inclined and often stirred round. The skins intended to bench or board, which is furnished with an iron be dyed blue must be moistened only in the nahook, and is covered with thick felt of sheep's trous ley schora, but not in the salt brine. When wool, on which the dry skin may gently rest. still moist they are folded up and sewed together The skin is suspended in the middle of the at the edge, the flesh side being innermost, and bench to its iron hook, by one of the holes made the shagreened hair side outwards; after which in the edge of the skin for extending it in its they are dipped three times in the remains of an frame as before mentioned ; and a cord, having exhausted kettle of the same dye, the superfluous

dye being each time expressed; and, after this imbibed and diffused. The liquor each time is process, they are dipped in the fresh dye pre- expressed : after which they are fit for being pared as above, which must not be expressed. dried. Skins prepared in this manner are sold The skins are then hung up in the shade to dry; at a much dearer rate than any of the other kinds.' after which they are cleaned and paired. For SHAHABAD, a large fertile district of the problack shagreen gall-nuts and vitriol are employed. vince of Bahar, Hindostan ; it is advantageously The skins, moist from the pickle, are thickly be- situated between the rivers Soane and Ganges, as strewed with finely pulverised gall-nuts. They they approach their confluence. It is estimated are then folded and laid over each other twenty- to contain a million of inhabitants, in the profour hours. A new ley, of bitter saline earth or portion of nineteen Hindoos to one Mahomelan. schora, is prepared and poured hot into small Its towns are Chunar, Boujepore, and Arrah. troughs. In this ley each skin is several times It constitutes one of the British Bahar collectordipped ; after which they are again bestrewed ships, and is governed by a judge, who is amenwith pounded gall-nuts, and placed in heaps for able to the circuit court of Patna. Its capita! a certain period, that the galls may thoroughly is Arrah. •penetrate them, and they are dried and beat to SHAHJEHANPORE, a town of Hindostan, free them from the dust of the galls. They are in the province of Delhi, and district of Bareily, then rubbed over, on the shagreen side, with on the east side of the Gurrah River. Long. 790 melted sheep's tallow, and exposed a little in the 53' E., lat. 27° 51' N. sun, that they may imbibe the grease. The SHAHJEHANPORE, a town of Hindostan, proshagreen makers roll up each skin separately and vince of Malwah, on the banks of the Sagorsqueeze it with their hands to promote the ab- mutty River, belonging to the Mahrattas. It is a sorption of the tallow. The superfluous particles place of consequence, being the capital of a disare removed by a blunt wooden scraper; and, trict. Long. 76° 18' E., lat. 23° 38' N. There when the skins have lain some time, a sufficient are several other places of the same name, called quantity of vitriol of iron is dissolved in water, after the emperor Shah Jehan. with which the shagreen is moistened on both SHAHNOOR, SAnore, or Sevanoor, an exsides, and thus acquires a beautiful black dye. tensive district of Hindostan, province of BejaTo obtain white shagreen the skins must first be pore, belonging to the Mahrattas. It is situated moistened on the shagreen side with a strong so between the Kistna and Tungbudra, and lat. 15° lution of alum. When the skin has imbibed this N. The country is fertile and under a good liquor it is daubed over on both sides with a government would be very productive. paste made of flour which is suffered to dry. The Shahnoor, SANORE, SEVANORE, or Savapaste is then washed off with alum water, and noor, a city of Hindostan, the ruined capital of the skin is placed in the sun till it is completely the above mentioned district. It was formerly dry. As soon as it is dry it is gently besmeared fortified, contained a palace and many good with pure melted sheep's tallow, which it is suf- buildings, and is said to have been taken by the fered to imbibe in the sun; and, to promote the Mahometans so early as the year 1397. In the effect, it is pressed and worked with the hands. course of time it became the capital of one of the The skins are then fastened in succession to the many nabobs who arose into power on the decline before-mentioned bench, where warm water is of the empire of Delhi. The first who is menpoured over them, and the superfluous fat is tioned is the person who attended the Nizam scraped off with a blunt wooden instrument. Nasir Jung, when he entered the Carnatic in Shagreen perfectly white is thus obtained, and 1749, and in the following year took a part in nothing remains but to pare the edges and dress the mutiny which cost Nasir Jung his life; in it. But this white shagreen is not intended so the year 1751 he was himself killed in a second much for remaining in that state as for receiving rebellion. The successor of this nabob seems to a dark red dye; because, by the above previous have sought protection from the Mahrattas against process, the color becomes much more perfect. the viceroy; for in 1756 a French army, in the The skins destined for a red color, after they service of the Nizam Salbut Jung, advanced to have been whitened, must be left to soak in the Sevanore, 'to exact the tribute due from the napickle for twenty-four hours. The dye is pre- bob; but, by the intrigues of the Mahratta chief, pared from cochineal. About a pound of the Morari Row, this object was defeated. In 1763 dried herb tschagann, which grows in great Hyder Aly sent to the nabob of Shahnoor, soliabundance near Astracan, and is a kind of soda citing his alliance, and that of the two other Afplant or kali (salsola ericoides) is boiled a full shaun nabobs of Cuddapah and Kurnoul, against hour in a kettle containing about four common the Mahrattas; but, the former having rejected pailfuls of water ; by which means the water the overture, Hyder invaded his dominions, totally acquires a greenish color. The herb is then defeated him in a general engagement, and comtaken out, and about half-a-pound of pounded pelled him to submit to humiliating terms. Subcochineal is put into the kettle, and the liquor is sequently his country was invaded by the Mahleft to boil a full hour. About fifteen or twenty rattas, who took permanent possession of one drachms of orchilla is added, and, when the liquor half of his dominions. In 1779 Hyder com-has been boiled for some time longer, the kettle pelled the nabob to enter into a double marriage is removed from the fire. The skins taken from with his family, the nabob taking Hyder's sister the pickle are then placed over each other in for wife, and giving his daughter to Kereem Satroughs; and the dye liquor is poured over hib, the second son of Ilyder. This, however, them four different times, and rubbed into them could not save the nabob from the merciless with the hands, that the color may be equally treatment of Tippoo Sultan, who, in 1786, took

& n. s.

Shahnoor, plundered it of every thing valuable,

Not my firm faith and forced the nabob to take refuge with the Can by his fraud be shaken or seduced.

Id. Mahrattas. At the conclusion of the war Shah Let' France acknowledge that her shaken throne, noor was included in the portion of territory as

Was once supported, Sir, by you alone.

Roscommon. signed to the Mahrattas. SHAIL, v. n. Belg. and Teut. schail. To Like leaves saluted by the wind.

A shaking through their limbs they find,

Waller walk sideways. A low word.

Say, sacred bard! what could bestow
Child, you must walk straight, thout skiewing Courage on thee, to soar so high?
and shailing to every step you set. L'Estrange. Tell me, brave friend! what help'd thee so
SHAKE, v. d., v. N.,

Saxon sceacan;
To shake off all mortality ?

Id. Sua'ker, n. s.

Swedish shaka ;

Him I reserved to be answered by himself, after I Goth. skeeka. To agitate; make to tremble or had shaken of the lesser and more barking creatures. totter, or to throw down by violent motion ;

Stilling fleet. to drive off ; drive away by such motion; some- With terror trembled heav'n's subduing hill,

He shook the sacred honours of his head : times taking off : to be agitated, driven, &c., And from his shaken curls ambrosial dews disuil. in this way; be in terror : and, as a noun-substan

Dryden. tive, the concussion or motion produced : shaker Taxallan, shook by Montezuma's powers, corresponding.

Has, to resist his forces, called in ours. Id. I shook my lap, and said, So God shake out every

Can I want courage for so brave a deed?

Id. man from his house; even thus be he shaken out and I've shook it off : my soul is free from fear. emptied.

Nehemiah v.

He, short of succours, and in deep despair, Darts are counted as stubble : he laugheth at the Shook at the dismal prospect of the war. Id. Eneid. shaking of a spear.

Job xli. 29. He looked at his book, and, holding out his right I will shake mine hand upon them, and they shall leg, put it into such a quivering motion, that I be a spoil to their servants.

Zech. ii. 9. thought he would have shaked it off. Tauler. The stars fell unto the earth, even as a fig-tree

How does thy beauty smooth casteth her untimely figs when she is shaken of a The face of war, and make even horror smile! mighty wind.

Rev. vi. At sight of thee my heart shakes off its sorrows. When ye depart, shake off the dust of your feet.

Addison. Matt. x. The freeholder is the basis of all other titles : this Be not soon shaken in mind, or troubled, as that is the substantial stock, without which they are no the day of Christ is at hand. 2 Thess, ii. 2. more than blossoms, that would fall away with every Who honours not his father, shake of wind.

Id. Henry the fifth, that made all France to quake, Our salutations were very hearty on both sides, Shake he his weapon at us, and pass by. Shakspeare. consisting of many kind shakes of the hand. Id.

Macbeth is ripe for shaking, and the powers above Here we are free from the formalities of custom Put on their instruments.

Id. and respect : we may shake off the haughty impertiThe tyrannous breathing of the north

Collier. Shakes all her buds from blowing.

Id. When his doctrines grew too strong to be shock by A sly and constant knave, not to be shak’d. his enemies, they persecuted his reputation. Id. Cymbeline.

Atterbury. This respite shook

Go, then, the guilty at thy will chastise : The bosom of my conscience. Id. Henry VIII. He said ; the shaker of the earth replies. With the slave

Pope's Odyssey. He ne'er shook hands, nor bid farewell to him, Till he unseamed him from the nape to th' chops.

SHAKSPEARE, or SHAKESPEARE (William), Shakspeare.

the prince of dramatic writers, was born at Be pleased that I shake off these names you give Stratford-upon-Avon, in Warwickshire, on the

23d of April, 1564. From the register of that Antonio never yet was thief or pirate.

Id. town it

appears that a plague broke out there on Thy sight, which should

the 30th of June following, which raged with Make our eyes fow with joy, hearts dance with com- great violence; but fortunately it did not reach forts,

the house in which this infant prodigy lay. His Constrains them weep, and shake with fear and sor

Id,

father, John Shakspeare, enjoyed a small patrimoWhat said the wench, when he rose up again?

nial estate, and was a considerable dealer in wool; -Trembled and shook ; for why, he stamp'd,

his mother was the daughter and heir of Robert As if the vicar meant to cozen him.

Id. Arden of Wellingcote. Our illustrious poet, Nor can it be safe to a king to tarry among them being designed for the business of his father, who are shaking hands with their allegiance, under received no better education than the master of pretence of laying faster hold of their religion. the free-school of Stratford could afford. After

King Charles. applying some time to the study of Latin, he was If that thy fame with every toy be posd, called home to assist his father, who seems to 'Tis a thin web, which poisonous fancies make ; have been reduced in his circumstances. Before But the great soldier's honour was compos'd

he was nineteen he married the daughter of Mr. Of thicker ötuff, which could endure a shake :

Hathaway, a substantial yeoman near Stratford. Wisdom picks friends ; civility plays the rest,

This lady was eight years older than her husA toy, shunn'd cleanly, passeth with the best.

band. Having fallen into bad company, he was

Herbert. The rapid wheels shake heaven's basis. Milton.

seduced into some profligate actions, which drew Under his burning wheels

on him a criminal prosecution, and at length The stedfast empyrean shook throughout,

forced him to take refuge in the capital. In conAll but the throne itself of God.

Id. cert with his associates he broke into a park

nent.

me :

TOW.

belonging to Sir Thomas Lucy of Charlecote, and continued in it several years afterwards ; till, carried off some deer of his. If any thing can having acquired such a fortune as satisfied his extenuate his guilt in this it must be the opinions moderate wishes and views in life, he quitted the of the age. One thing is certain, that Shakspeare stage, and all other business, and passed the rethought the crime venial, and that the prosecu- mainder of his time in an honorable ease, at his tion which Sir Thomas raised against him was native town of Stratford, where he lived in a carried on with great severity. Shakspeare tes- handsome house of his own purchasing, to which tified his resentment against Lucy by writing he gave the name of New Place; and he had the a satirical ballad, which exasperated him so good fortune to save it from the flames in the much that the process was carried on with dreadful fire that consumed the greatest part of redoubled violence; and the young poet, to the town in 1614. In the beginning of 1616 he avoid the punishment of the law, was obliged to made his will, wherein he testified his respect to fly. Of this ballad tradition has only preserved his quondam partners in the theatre; he apthe first stanza :

pointed his youngest daughter, jointly with her A parliamente member, a justice of peace,

husband, his executors, and bequeathed to them At home a poor scare-crow, at London an asse. the best part of his estate, which they came into If lowsie is Lucy, as some volke miscalle it, the possession of not long after. He died on the Then Lucy is lowsie whatever befall it :

23rd of April following, being the fifty-third He thinks himself great,

year of his age; and was interred among his anYet an asse in his state,

cestors on the north side of the chancel, in the We allowe by his ears ut with asses to mate.

great church of Stratford, where there is a If Lucy is lowsie, as some volke miscalle it,

handsome monument erected for him, inscribed Sing lowsie Lucy whatever befall it.

with the following elegiac distich in Latin :If the rest of the ballad were of a piece with this Judicio Pylium, genio Socratem, arte Maronem, stanza, it migh: assist us to form some opinion of Terra tegit, Populus mæret, Olympus habet. the irritability of the baronet, but could convey In 1740 another very noble one was raised to his no idea of the opening genius of Shakspeare. memory at the public expense, in Westminster Thus expelled from his native village, he repaired Abbey; an ample contribution for this purpose to London, where he was glad to accept a subor- being made upon exhibiting his tragedy of Julius dipate office in the theatre. It has been said Cæsar, at the Theatre-Royal in Drury Lane, that he was first engaged, while the play was April 28th, 1738. A mulberry tree, planted acting, in holding the horses of those who rode to upon his estate by his own hands, was cut down the theatre. As his name is found printed among not many years ago; and the wood being conthose of the other players, before some old plays, verted to several domestic uses was all eagerly it is probable that he was some time employed bought at a high price, and each single piece as an actor; but we are only told that the part treasured up by its purchaser as a precious mewhich he acted best was that of the Ghost in morial of the planter. The character of ShakHamlet; and that he appeared in the character speare as a dramatic writer has been often of Adam in As You Like It. In Ben Jonson's drawn, but perhaps never with more accuracy play of Every Man in his Humor, Shakspeare than by Dr. Johnson :- Shakspeare,' says he,“ is, is said to have played the part of Old Knowell. above all writers, at least above all modern See Malone's Chronology, in his edition of writers, the poet of nature; the poet that holds Shakspeare. But, though not qualified to shine up to his readers a faithful mirror of manners and as an actor, he was now in the situation which of life. His characters are not modified by the could most effectually rouse those latent sparks of customs of particular places, unpractised by the genius which afterwards burst forth with so re rest of the world; by the peculiarities of studies splendent a flame. Being well acquainted with or professions, which can operate but upon small the mechanical business of the theatre and the numbers; or by the accidents of transient taste of the times; possessed of a knowledge of fashions or temporary opinions; they are the the characters of men resembling intuition, an genuine progeny of cominon humanity, such as imagination that ranged at large through nature, the world will always supply, and observation selecting the grand, the sublime, and the beauti- will always find. His persons act and speak by ful; a judicious caution, that disposed him to the influence of those general passions and prinprefer those plots which had already been found ciples by which all minds are agitated, and the io please ; an uncommon fluency and force of whole system of life is continued in motion. In expression; he was qualified at once to eclipse all the writings of other poets a character is too who had gone before him. Notwithstanding the often an individual; in those of Shakspeare it is unrivalled genius of Shakspeare, most of his plots commonly a species. It is from this wide extenwere the invention of others, which, however, he sion of design that so much instruction is certainly much improved, if he did not entirely derived. It is this which fills the plays of Shaknew-model. Among his patrons, the earl of speare with practical axioms and domestic wisSouthampton is particularly honored by him, in dom. It was said of Euripides that every verse the dedication of two poems, Venus and Adonis, was a precepe; and it may be said of Shakand Lucrece; in the latter, especially, he ex- speare that from his works may be collected a pressed himself in such terms as gives counte- system of civil and economical prudence. Yet nance to what is related of that patron's distin- his real power is not shown in the splendor of guished generosity to him. In the beginning of particular passages, but by the progress of his king James I.'s reign (if not sooner) he was one fable, and the renor of his dialogue ; and he of the principal managers of the playhçuse, and that tries to recommend him, by select quotaticarse

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will succeed like the pedant in Hierocles, who, had filled the kingdom with theological learning ; when he offered his house to sale, carried a brick most of the topics of human disquisition had in his pocket as a specimen. Upon every other found English writers ; and poetry had been culstage the universal agent is love, by whose power tivated, not only with diligence, but success. all good and evil is distributed, and every action This was a stock of knowledge sufficient for a quickened or retarded. But love is only one of mind so capable of appropriating and immany passions; and, as it has no great influence proving it.' The works of Shakspeare consist upon the sum of life, it has little operation in of thirty-five dramatic pieces. The following the dramas of a poet who caught his ideas from is the chronological order, which Mr. Malone the living world, and exhibited only what he saw has endeayoured to establish, after a minute inbefore him. He knew that any other passion, vestigation, in which he has in general been suc. as it was regular or exorbitant, was a cause of cessful :happiness or calamity. Characters thus ample

1. First Part of King Henry VI. 1589 and general were not easily discriminated and

2. Second Part of King Henry VI. 1591 preserved; yet perhaps no poet ever kept his

3. Third Part of King Henry VI. 1591 personages more distinct from each other. Other

4. A Midsummer Night's Dream 1592 dramatists can only gain attention by hyperboli

5. Comedy of Eprors

1593 cal or aggravated characters, by fabulous and

6. Taming of the Shrew .

1594 unexampled excellence or depravity, as the

7. Love's Labor Lost

1594 writers of barbarous romances invigorated the

8. Two Gentlemen of Verona

1595 reader by a giant and a dwarf; and he that

9. Romeo and Juliet

1595 should form his expectations of human affairs

10. Hamlet

1596 from the play, or from the tale, would be equally

11. King John

1596 deceived. Shakspeare has no heroes; his scenes

12. King Richard II.

1597 are occupied only by men, who act and speak as

13. King Richard III.

1597 the reader thinks that he should himself have

14. First Part of King Henry IV. 1597 spoken or acted on the same occasion: even

15. Second Part of King Henry IV. 1598 where the agency is supernatural, the dialogue is

16. The Merchant of Venice

1598 level with life. Other writers disguise the most

17. All's Well that Ends Well

1598 natural passions and most frequent incidents : so

18. King Henry V. .

1599 that he who contemplates them in the book will 19. Much Ado About Nothing 1600 not know them in the world : Shakspeare ap 20. As You Like It

1600 proximates the remote, and familiarises the won

21. Merry Wives of Windsor

1601 derful; the event which he represents will not

22. King Henry VIII.

1601 happen, but, if it were possible, its effects would

23. Troilus and Cressida

1602 probably be such as he has assigned; and it may

24. Measure for Measure

1603 be said that he has not only shown human na

25. The Winter's Tale

1604 ture as it acts in real exigences, but as it would

1605 be found in trials to which it cannot be exposed.

26. King Lear
27. Cymbeline

1605 This, therefore, is the praise of Shakspeare, that

28. Macbeth

1606 his drama is the mirror of life; that he who has

29. Julius Cæsar

1607 mazed his imagination, in following the phan

30. Antony and Cleopatra .

1608 toms which other writers raise up before him,

31. Timon of Athens

1609 may here be cured of his delirious ecstacies, by

32. Coriolanus

1610 reading human sentiments in human language; 33. Othello

1611 by scenes from which a hermit may estimate the

34. The Tempest

1612 transactions of the world, and a confessor pre

35. Twelfth Night

1614 dict the progress of the passions.' The learning of Shakspeare has frequently been a subject of The first three of these, Mr. Malone thinks, there enquiry. That he possessed much classical is very strong reason to believe are not the knowledge does not appear, yet he was certainly original productions of Shakspeare; but that he acquainted with the Latin poets, particularly probably altered them, and added some new with Terence, as Colman has justly remarked, scenes. In the first folio edition, in 1623, these which appears from his using the word thraso- plays were entitled “Mr. William Shakspeare's nical. Nor was he unacquainted with French Comedies, Histories, and Tragedies.' They have and Italian. We are indeed told that the pas- been published by various editors. The first sages in which these languages occur might be folio edition by Isaac Jaggard and Edward impertinent additions of the players; but is it Blount; the second folio, 1632, by Thomas probable that any of the players so far surpassed Cotes for Robert Allott; the third, 1664, for Shakspeare? That much knowledge is scattered P. C.; the fourth, 1685, for H. Herringham, E. over his works is very justly observed by Pope; Brewster, and R. Bentley. Rowe published an but it is often such knowledge as books did not 8vo. edition in 1709, in 7 vols, and a 12mo. supply. There is, however, proof enough,' edition in 1714 in 9 vols., for which he received says Dr. Johnson, ó that he was a very diligent £36 10s. Pope published a 4to. edition in 1725 reader; nor was our language then so indigent in 6 vols., and a 12mo in 1728 in 10 vols., for of books, but that he might very liberally indulge which he was paid £217 12s. Theobald gave a his curiosity without excursion into foreign lite new edition in 8vo. in 1733 in 7 vols., another rature. Many of the Roman authors were trans in 12mo in 1740 in 8 vols., and received for his lated, and some of the Greek; the Reformation labor £625 10s. Sir Thomas Hanmer published

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