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by the reviewer; and form the to be "receiving in themselves that basis of his argument. But the recompense of their error which was missionaries in 1799 (that is, about meet.' the period of Turnbull's voyage), Mr. Malthus's theory is accused assert the number of the inhabitants of a tendency to create a positive to be 16,050. Their mention of the check on the progress of charity; odd fifty seems incidentally to prove since every assistance given to the that their census was the result of lower orders encourages the mar actual enumeration. However, the riage of young persons, who expect force of the arguments respectively the same gratuities which were confounded by Mr. Malthus and the ferred on their parents, to be bereviewer, is strangely weakened by stowed on themselves, when they the missionary evidence. The in- venture into domestic troubles. But fanticide praciised in the island, is a any individual, with a judgment circumstance which may be account- liberalized by Christianity, will be ed for independently of any sup- charitable in practice, at the very posed arrangement on the part of the time when his political theories conparent to check the population; at demn the cause which cails forth least, where the parent is not a ple- the exercise of his principles. He beian. . It seems, then, that the po- may advise moral restraint, while pulation of Otaheite never amounted he silently determines to relieve the to the calculation of Cook, nor de- subject of his admonition, should scended to that of Turnbull. Arith- circumstances render relief neces: metic has always been hostile to
Whatever consequences he hypothesis; though it is conceded foresees, or thinks to be inevitable, in the present instance, that both will not be suffered to suspend an Malthus and the reviewer fairly act of present duty; for this simple judged their rival systems to be be- reason, that the results of all things friended by simple addition. But so may safely be left with Omniscience. much for rival systems, each built But I would here remark, that the on misinformation! Pinkerton, no alarm excited in some serious minds incompetent judge of statistical by the system of Mr. 'Malthus, questions, thinks that the whole of seems to me to wear the appearance Australasia and Polynesia does not of a disposition to question the powers contain above 300,000 souls; and of Providence to meet the exigenhe chastises Forster for computing cies of a supposed crisis in the the population of Otaheite at 160,000; affairs of the world; or to doubt the though so considerable a deduction Divine mercy in eventually permite from the number assigned by Cap- ting a scarcity so calamitous in its tain Cook,
consequences, as even to occasion The reviewer has unaccountably the destruction of half the species. given us to understand, that no ex. Supposing such a scarcity actually traordinary measure of vice is to be lo depopulate balf the earth once in found in this island; whereas the every generation-will it be thought reverse is notoriously the fact; and romantic to make this inquiry, equally notorious is the positive Would mankind consent to purcheck”it affords to the natural pro- chase, by submitting to this periogress of population. The profligacy dical scourge, a perfect immunity of the inhabitants is at least in pro- from all other evil; from every disportion to the envied climate, exu- quietude of mind, including the berant vegetation, and luxurious usual sources of domestic uneasiness scenery, of this Hesperian region ; (trifling indeed when contemplated but by the righteous arrangement of individually, but far otherwise in Providence, their abuse of its boun- the aggregate); the desolation of ty is recoiling upon these children of spirit occasioned by the wounds, or nature; and they seem at this hour the loss of friends, the distractions
of remorse, of shame, of defeat, of flow at the reflection of having fear, of jealousy, of insulted pride; rashly encountered distresses which the perturbation of guilt and de- already oppress, and will inevitably spair;-an immunity from every de. oppress more. There would be no rangement of the animal system; sentiment, no sympathy, no strugthe languor of protracted debility; gle of a delicate mind, to suppress the throbs of protracted torture; tender upbraidings; no conflict of from all that appals the imagination passionate love, with the bitter conin prospect, or maddens with excess sequences of poverty and self-conof agony when actually endured ; demnation. All this would be saan immunity also from the effects of tisfactorily escaped. There would popular commotion; from the ter- be a sordid house; a more sordid sors of war" upon the earth, dis- wife; with no cause of aMiction to tress of nations, with perplexity; her, but such as would " make Tom men's hearts failing them with fear, Butcher weep.” Of the two evils, I and for looking after those things should advise a man of genuine feelwhich are coming on the earth; ing to choose the
laundress. nation rising against nation, and At all events, it is the evil which kingdom against kingdom”-the fire the Anti-Malthusian deserves himand the sword? Would men gain, self to taste, by way of ascertaining or would, they not gain, by this the full and fair value of his own compromise? Let those think out hypothesis. Let this desperate spean answer to this inquiry who have culator understand, that marriage, if taken the dimensions of buman mi- it mean nothing more than the legal sery, from a fair knowledge of the union of Robert and Catherine, is world, added to their own practical only a permanent penance, fitted to acquaintance with sorrow and pain. expiate the crimes of Napoleon the
The Anti-Malthusians talk unad- Great; but if it realize its own invisediy in asserting that individuals tent, and fill its own capacities, we in the middle and higher ranks, must condescend to provide against though of small fortune, may marry, the incursion of vulgar wants; and Their statement amounts to this : regulate our cautionary measures by the 2001. or 4001. a year, which that true pbilosophy of human nasuffice for a bachelor, would suf- ture, which instructs us that the fice for a family; but with the mis most refined emotions of the mind taken assumption, that persons may are far from being independent of accommodate their married babits to the soul's union with its “ muddy their single jocomes; as if (to say vesture of decay.” Foolish ventures nothing of the hardier sex) a wo- are indeed made, and will be made, man of refinement could step down in spite of Mr. Malthus, and from a life of comparatively luxu- of this paper. Young persons will rious ease, to the coarse house- offer and receive addresses in the wifery of a farm-bouse. The ques- spirit of affected sentiment; and tion is not, whether inexperience, after marriage will have full leisure encouraged or deluded by strong for repentance. attachment, would persuade her to Respecting the general subject of venture into such servitude; but population, I do not presume to whether a man, who deserved to be have more than a general opinion. bappy with her, could bring himself On looking over the very cursory to propose this dark descent. If an remarks here offered, I thought indigent bachelor must marry, be more than once that I felt the would most probably consult his ground beginning to sink; and own happiness, and most certainly therefore hurried out of the way of bis convenience, by soliciting the danger. Perhaps some of your corhand of his laundress's daughter, respondents will force me to try the whose tears would not be likely to surface again, which I will do
without force, if they will provide France, adjusts itself to the scheme me stills, and dry stockings, in the of universal goodness; and I will event of reaching the quicksand. dare to promise them full satisfacWhen I began these observations, tion on every branch of the hypomy chief design was, an! chief it thesis, which, right or wrong, bas remains, to write for the sake of ob- persuaded me to adopt the general taining information from others, sentiments, and, in the present comwho, from their habits of investiga. munication, the signature of, tion on subjects of this nature, are
Sir, your a priori reader, qualified to repress the dogmatism of all positive and fretful theorists. I have been told that Mr. Piti's views of population were coincident To the Editor of the Christian Observer. with the new system. Of course, My education and habits of life as a he regarded the matter as a branch tradesman have inclined me bitherto of political philosophy. The read- to be but little of a politician. I ers of your work will connect it have in general contented myself with the moral government of God, with the regular routine of my busiFar from wishing to violate this ness; and, excepting the attention hallowed connection, I would en- which is at times forcibly called to deavour to strengthen it; but by the important occurrences of the inquiring again, whether the worst present eventful period, I have left supposable consequences of the ob- state affairs to wiser heads than noxious hypothesis may not be mine, thankful to Providence that as reconcilable with the arrange- my humble sphere did not expose ments of Providence, as the pro- me to many of those severe trials, portion of evil actually known to which I am sure they must expebe infused into the system of this rience, who, being called upon to world. Human vindications of the decide in matters of state, on quesDivine procedure must be founded tions of the most intricate nature, on Divine revelation, as illustrated at the same time wish to preserve a by the visible creation.
conscience void of offence towards When Milton ventured 10 justify God and man. Providence, he took care to occupy But it has unfortunately hapthe vantage ground of Scripture; pened, of late years, either from the and the didactic part of his perform- unbounded spirit of adventure in our ance is merely a poetical amplifica- merchants, or from the too ready ear ulon of the simple statements of the which our Government has lent to Bible. Then came the twin philo- their statements, that commerce and sophers, Bolingbroke and Pope, with politics have become so much conthe beggarly elements of human nected with each other, as to require wisdom. Yet the Essay on Man from the merchant, and those concontains many a noble sentiment; cerned with him, an accurate knowand divinity at least as excellent as ledge of the politics of the day, in can be detected in the writings of addition to that of his own trade. such of Mr. Malthus's opponents Formerly, it was deemed a relaxaas deny (this is far from being the tion to take up the newspapers occacase, however, with the British Re- sionally, after the business of the viewer) the catholic doctrine of day was over ; but now, a man is original sin, while they revolt at the almost compelled to study them, in charge supposed to be brought by order to guard against being led into his system against the benevolence dangerous errors in his mercantile of the Deity. Let these persons ex. adventures, by the frequent changes plain how the permission of the in the measures of Government recrimes perpetrated during the last specting commerce. I confess, Mr. twenty-three years by revolutionary Editor, this is a matter which, 26 an old-fashioned man, I cannot ap: common sense and honesty, which prove of. I think it highly proper thank God, are still left in the nathat statesmen should make them- tion, whether that man must not be selves acquainted with the outa considered as degraded, who, merely lines of trade and commerce in ge- for his own emolument, will one day Deral, but I do not like to see too swear himself an Eoglishman, ano. many of our manufacturers and ther day an American, and a third merchants turn statesmen. One a German, just as the wind blows. cannot belp fearing, that, instead of Another objection to this trade, in a legislating for their country, upon political point of view, is the disan enlarged principle, their atten- proportion between the imports and tion may be too much drawn to the exports, and that the chief profit their own individual interests. arising from it goes into the pockets
These thoughts bave occurred to of foreigners. Another political me, in considering the many difficul-' evil, in my opinion, is the great ties which I have experienced of late number of foreign seamen, who are in carrying on my own trade, occa- by these means educated at our exsioned by ibe new-fashioned system pense for Bonaparte: (I think you of commerce; and which I cannot did allude to this subject in one of but thiok would have had no exist- your numbers*). These sailors acquire ence, if Government had not been an intimate knowledge of all our too anxious to please the mercantile coasts and harbours; and I think an part of the nation, at the expense attentive observer cannot but have (in my opinion) of sound policy, I been struck with the improved aphad almost said, at the expense of pearance of these men in the last every principle of morality. You few years. I am much in the habit will easily suppose that I allude to of seeing them, and used to feel some the present mode of exporting and elation in the comparison between importing goods to and from those them and our British tars; but I ascountries under the controul of sure you I see a wonderful alteration France, and which, with regard to now in their dress and manners, and us, are in the mongrel character of I hear a good deal of their seamanhalf friends, half foes. I was much ship; so that I entertain a far more pleased with some remarks which respectable opinion of them as sailors appeared in your work last year, than I ever used to do, and cannot particularly a paper, signed ProBus, but have my fears that we shall, on in your number for April 1810*, and some future day, feel the sad effects have been a good deal struck with of this great addition to the resources the fulfilment of his almost prophetic of our enemy. Besides these objecforebodings respecting many of the tions, it is a matter well worth con" nouveaux riches."
sideration how far we should be As I before said, Sir, I am no poli- benefited by putting a total stop to tician; and perhaps it is on that the trade. I say benefited, because account that I am so 'utterly at a I believe, in this as in all other loss how to account for our Govern- cases, it will eventually be found ment persisting in sanctioning the that honesty is the best policy. present mode of trade. To me it Your correspondent, Mercatorf, has appears, in every point of view, some judicious remarks on this head. highly impolitic. I think it tends There are, I believe, few of the arti10 degrade the character of our cles we now get from the Baltic, merchants and seamen, by accus- which might not easily be raised in Loming them to every species of our own dominions, either at home fraud and dissimulation ; for what- or abroad. Surely, if British capital ever these Proteuses may think of and ingenuity were sufficiently exthemselves, 1 durst appeal to the
• See Vol. for 1810, p. 219. • P. 218.
+ Vol. for 1810, p. 217. CHRIST, Osserv. No. 12).
erted in Ireland and America, we you will agree with me, is a very should have no temptation to resort honest and useful calling. Occato such means as are now made use sionally I used to derive considerable of. I might go on to allude to the profit by importing my hemp and tar supply of naval stores which the direct from Russia myself. The moenemy receives by the abuse of our ment, however, I found that this was licences. It is impossible, upon the no longer to be done without fictitious present system, but that such abuses papers, false statements of the voyage should exist; and I fear, from wbat intended, a false protest of the preI have heard, that they exist to a tended loss or capture of the vessel, considerable extent, and that the in order to cancel a bond deceitfully minds of men have become so fami- given in Russia, and many other liarized with it as to think it no such like deceptions, accompanied, crime. Every thing, now-a-days, I fear, frequently with perjury: Mr. Editor, has some soft appella- "standing up to swear all true,"tion to disguise its enormity. For- I did not hesitate to relinquish any gery and perjury are merely a simu. concern in this part of the business: lated clearance; and a "slipping but it becomes a serious question voyage”, is the technical terin for with me, whether I ought to go fursupplies of naval stores conveyed to ther. There appears, however, no our enemies; which, if it could clearly alternative between giving up iny be brought home to some of our mer. business entirely, and throwing mychants, would probably give them self and family out of employment, at least a slipping voyage to Botany or buying my hemp and tar, as usual, Bay.
in the market, without concerning But I must check myself, or I myself by what means they come shall consume both your time and there. patience, before I come to my main I am aware that it will not avail reason for addressing you; and that one moment, to state how great the is, to ask how people in my situa- sacrifice must be in the former in tion ought to act under the present stance; such as extensive warehouses circumstances. I need not tell you, and machinery unoccupied, and la. after what I have written, that I bourers and mechanics deprived of disapprove entirely of the trade in their labour, &c. Still, however, in question, and should exceedingly proportion to the greatness of the regret having any thing to do with sacrifice, should be one's care to do it, directly. But indirectly, Sir, we nothing rashly, and to weigh well all must be concerned in it, in a whether duty really calls for that greater or less degree. The desk, sacrifice under the circumstances of for instance, on which I write, and the case. The matter seems to rethe candles which give me light, are solve itself simply into this ;-how of Russian produce, besides various far a man is called upon to investiother articles commonly used for gate the means by which another domestic purposes. The question is, obtains his goods. It is vain to where to draw the line; and I sbal disguise my suspicions that dishofeel myself much obliged to any of nourable means must have been your numerous correspondents who resorted to. But, on the other will give himself the irouble to re. hand, you will please to observe, flect a little on the subject, and favour that these goods are exposed fairly me with his sentiments through the to an open sale in the market, withmedium of your valuable publication. out the least infringement of the
My business consists in buying laws of one's country. I fear that hemp and tar of the merchants, and lies have been told, and frauds commanufacturing them into cordage for mitted, to obtain these goods. ! the use of the King's navy and the fear, also, the same may be said of merchant service;, and this, I think many other branches of trade. But