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wanted. This system is now in general use in Fubkeën, as the former is in Canton. They are both 80 plainly unfitted for finding the sounds of characters, that their only object must be to point out the written forms of words already known, and the different senses of the same character.

After these two, a system of classification according to the component parts of characters gradually came into use. The most conspicuous portions of characters were adopied as heads of tribes,' which in Europe have been called keys and radicals; and all characters in which the same 'head' appeared conspicuously, were classed together as one ' tribe. No uniform system having been adopted, lexicographers have differed very much in the number of tribes ; some having upwards of five hundred, others three hundred; but the best modern dictionaries, including the standard one of the emperor Kanghe, have only 214; and these are capable of being considerably diminished, as has been shown by Gonçalves of Macao, in his “ Arte China,” and “ Diccionario China-Portuguez,” in the last of which he reduces them to 127.

The radicals (so we continue to call the 'heads of trihes') rarely have any relation to the sounds of the characters of which they form component parts. Sometimes they are mere unmeaning strokes, or combinations of strokes, or, though themselves possessing meaning, yet do not at all affect the sense of the compound characters. At other times, on the contrary, portions the least conspicuolls in the eye bave been selected as radicals, because connected in sense with the compounds. But in the great majority of cases, the radicals are conspicuous to the eye, and at the same time significant characters, serving to point out the general sense of the compounds. They are in these cases usually combined with syllabic portions, which limit the general sense pointed out by them. This is particularly observable in words belonging to natural history, though instances are numerous also in words relating to other subjects. Radicals of this last kind are readily discovered ; ut with regard to the others, particularly those that are not conspicuous to the eye, difficulties and irregularities frequently occur. The position of radicals varies; but their most usual place is on the left side of the compound. Some, however, occupy always the right; others have no fixed place; some occupy the top; others the bottom. A few are divided, part being placed on one side and part on the other, or part at top and part at the bottom. Some form receptacles within which the compound parts are written. Several have composite forms, each having a different locality. In the list of the 214 radicals which is given below, these composite forms are also included. The following examples will serve to illustrate the manner in which the radicals combine with the other portions of characters. The number attached to each character is that of the radical to which it belongs, in the order of the list of radicals which follows. 全阻

分刊阻孔孟季 琴衍衰因 9 9 18 18 163 170 39 39 39 39 144 143 22 31

a cover.

à curve.





LIST OF THE HEADS OF TRIBES OR RADICALS. The figures placed after the definitions indicate the number of characters classed under each "head of a tribe,' according to u nalive dictionary, which contains thirty thousand characters. OF ONE STROKE.

122 Fāng, a square receiving Yeih, one, the same, to re1


57 duce to one state.

32 2 1 Kwăn, tu descend perpena 23 [ Hé, a place to conceal,

13 24 + Sheih, ten, perfect, super, 3. Choć, a point, a flame, a

lord, a chief. 4) P’ešh, drawing to the left 25 Pủh, to divine by the lines

on a tortoise.

19 22 5 2 Yeik, curved, to mark with 26 T U Tseě, ancient seal, a


35 a crooked line.

21 6) K'euě, a barb, to draw as 27 Hàn, an overhanging hill,

a shelter.

96 by a hook.

28 4 Szė, perverse, a seducer,

17 Urh, two, second, repeti-29 7 Yèw, the right hand,


60 tion.

22 La Tow, an undefined cha


OF THREE STROKES. 911 Jin, a human being, 30 K*ów, the mouth, an open,


989 10 JL Jin, man (placed at the 31 Kwūy, an inclosure, a bottom).


92 a1 Jún, passing in, to enter, 32 £ 7*06, the ground, one of entering.

the five elements. 480 12 1 Pă, back to back, to se- 33 + Sze, a scholar, a moral parate, eight. 18 philosopher.

18 13 ) Kering, distant boundar)34 Ché, to follow.

desert. 14 - Meih, to cover as with a 35 $ Sūy, to walk slowly. 19 napkin.

25 15 Ping, water flowing, an 36 thing Scih, the setting moon,

the evening

29 16 / Ke, a stand, a niche, a 37 * , large, great; to

16 enlarge, much. 110 17 H Kún, a hollow receiver, a 38 # Neu, female of the human

species, a daughter. 834 18 J Thou, a knife, a

T'szé, a child, a son, term sword, lo cut.

of respect. 19 | Ležh, sinews, strength, to 40 M, Mcēn, a covering, the roof use


of a house. 20 pavu, to fold up, to enxe. 41 7 Tsun, tenth of a Chinese

foot. 21 Ploils

. Sprooli, to arrange 12 il secon. little, pelly, como

a man.


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a wild.










13 TAIL Wang,

57|66 *£ Püh, a slight strik

ing, to touch. 44 P She, lying as dead, a 119 67 Ź Wa"n, to draw lines, lite

corpse. 45 H1 Chě, a plant taking

68 7

Tów, a measure of caparout, a sprout.

ciry, used for grain. 27 46 H, Shan, a hill, mountain,

69 FT

Kin, u weight of 13b. 574

avoirdupois, a catty. 47 % ( { |||

Chuēn, ri

70 th Fang, two boats joined, vulets. square, place.

68 48 I Küng, art, a work

71 % Woo, destitute of, man, workmanship. 11 49 2 Ké, self, selfish, pri )

Jeth, the sun, the day, a

19 50 of Kin, a napkin, bonnet,


Yuě, to speak, to say,
сар. .

to call.

23 51 F Kän, to oppose,

a shield.

74 Yuě, the moon, a lunar 15

month. 52 Yānu, slender, small,

75 * Müh, a tree, wood, one of young.

the five elements. 1242 53 Yén, the covering of

76 h Keèn, dispirited, to be a piazza, a shed. 226


193 51 L Yin, continued walking; 77 at Ché, to desist, to be still,

to impede. 55 H Kúng, the two hands

78 T Taé, perverse, bad, united. 33

190 56 € Yežh, to cast a dart,

79 Shoo, the handle of a an arrow-head.


spear, to kill. 57 Küng, a bow to shoot

80 l Woo, not, a prohibitory with


particle. 58 4 Kè, a hog's head,

81 tk , to compare, classify, contiguous.

14 59 > Sān, feathers of birds,

82 € Māvu, the hair of the long hair.

body, of brutes, &c. 156 60 T Cheih, a short step, 83 Æ She, the surname of to walk.

females. 345 ke, vapor, air, breath,

spirit. 61 / fo of Sin, human

85 7H Ý * Shwiy, water.

972 62 € Kõ, spear, military 86 K ... 06, Aame ascending: weapons. 87

543 63 Hoò, one leaved door,

87 M 1 Chaou, tatlons, claw's,

nails, 10 scratch. 233 64 FShów, the hand, the

ñ an head of a family, a fore-ari.

father. 65 $ C'hè, branches, to di

Ilrūuu, to blend, iu verre.





a genus.

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of seat.



to instruct.


of a






a cow.









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90 Chwang, a splinter, a kind , a sign from heaven, 91 P'een, a fragment, petal 114 th Jow, the print of a beast's 92 Ya, a tooth, the lower

115 #

, grain, growing corn,

paddy. 93 # #New, horned cattle,

le 116 * Heuě, a cave, a den, a 94 t K'euén, a dog, ferine

117 Ž
Leih, erect, to erect, to

okes 95 Keuēn, sky color, sombre: 118 115 hk Chăh, a reed, bam,

dark, . 96 E E Yük, gem, precious 119 * Mé, grain cleansed from stones, precious. 420

the husk, rice. 97 Kuvā, a melon, cucumber, 120 * . - Mišh and Szē, silki 98 TE Wá, tiles, brick, burat 121 Fów, crockery, earthen;

earthen vessels. 99 # Kän, sweet, pleasant,

122 AM I Wang, delight. 100 # Să ng, to produce, live, 123 * Yang, a goat or sheep, life, unripe.

the antelope, &c. 101 M Yùng, to use, use,

124 7 Yú, the long feathers

of the wing. 102 ! Theen, cultivated ground, 125 # Lúðu, aged, venerable, 103 E Seu Shoo, and Pežh, the 126 ) Urh, whiskers, and, but,

foot, a measure. 104 Neik, debility, sick

127 # Luy, a ploughshare, a

plough-handle. 1058 Po, to drive aside with 128 Urh, the ear, the ear or 106 Poh, white, pure, clear: 129 # Yüh, a stile, pencil, of 107 Pë, the skin, the bark,

130 PT Jūh or Jiro, flesh, a wrapper. 108 MIL

. Ming, vessels for eating 131 E Chin, a servant, a states

and drinking, 109 Müh, the eye, direction, 132 Tsze, from, self, myself,

himself, &c. 110 + Mow, a loug barbed wea: 133 E Chè, lo arrive at, to, very: w # She, an arrow, swift, true 134 EKéu, a mortar, to pound

grain. 112 T Shein, a stoie, rocks,

Shč, the tongue, laste. hard, firm.

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136 # Chien, uncertainty,

159 Chāy and Keu, a wheel

error, wandering


Chow, a boat, to trans-

160 # Sin, distressing, bitter,

port, to carry.



138 & Kàn, a limit, opposition, 161 Shin, 1o excite motion,


tiine from 7 to 9 Am. 14

Sih, color of the coun: 162 E i Cho, going on

tenance, quality. 20


140 Hut # Zsávu, herbage,


163 Ë I Vežh, a city, an



141 Huó, a tiger, variegated: 164 75 Véw, new wine, time from

5 to 7 o'clock p.M. 251

142 Hwúy, and Ch'ung, in-

165 * Prén, to separate, distin.

sects, reptiles.


143 il Hene, blood, the blend 166 ! Lé, a Chinese mile.

of .

144 11 Hing, Häng, to walk,

to do, a row.



, upper garments,

473 167 A Kin, metal, gold, one of

146 | Và, to overshadow, to

90 168 ăng, long, aged,

169 P9 Mün, a door, an entrance,


147 – Keèn, tu see, to notice, 170 B Fòw, a mound of

to appear.

earth, large. 282

148 Keð, a horn, a sharp 171 * Tač, to reach to, until


149 Ē Yèn, words, discourse, 172 Chūy, birds with short

to speak

150 Ti Kük, a valley, an aques 73 Vú, rain, to rain.

151 , leguminous plants. ! 174 Ts'ing, azure, natural

152 | Clié, or Shé, a pig, 175 3 F7, wrong, vicious,

a hoy, swine.

false, not.

153 3 Che, reptiles, animals

154 Pei, a shell, a pearl


176 mein, the human face,


the surface, fronting. 64

155 # Chrih, naked body, red,


177 Kih, untanned skin

156 ! Tsów, to go swiftly, to

173 To Wri, dressed leather


157 E Tsüh, the human

179 HE Kew, leeks.

foot, full.

153 Shăn, the body, trunk of a

tree, one's own person. 67

180 Yin, sound, news,


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