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be made by those traveling in a circumscribed manner, and relate principally to agriculture and the natural scenery.
The Dutch ambassy to Peking in 1795, under Van Braam, does not appear to have inade many remarks concerning the natural history of the districts through which it passed. From the time of that ambassy to the one under Lord Amherst in 1816, very little was done in this branch of knowledge in China. When that expedition was proposed, the advantages that would accrue from having an able and scientific naturalist were duly appreciated by the projectors. Such an one was found in Dr. Abel, and the result showed that the expectations of those who recommended him were not ill founded. Everything necessary to enable him to transport the specimens, whether on shore or on board the ship, was done, and no expense spared in affording him all the facilities possible during the journey. From Teëntsin to the capital, the way was closely examined. But from Peking to Canton, few observations were made, or specimens collected on account of the rapidity of traveling. Besides, Dr. Abel was taken sick on his return, and prevented from making personal research to the extent he wished. The gentlemen of the ambassy, however, brought him every specimen they saw worthy of notice. At Canton, the whole collection of plants, minerals, and other objects, which had been collected were put on board the Alceste, the ship that brought the ambassy to China. The loss of that vessel in Gaspar straits, and with her, Dr. Abel's entire collection and the notes appended to it, deprived the world of much valuable information. Except a very few specimens he gave to some friends at Canton, everything he had collected perished with the Al
Among these preserved specimens, sir Joseph Banks found some new plants, one of which, Abelia Chinensis, commemorates the zeal of the naturalist.
Since this expedition, nothing of importance has been done in any department of natural history, excepting botany. To this branch, a few of the gentlemen attached to the honorable E. I. Company's Factory have paid some attention. 'The Horticultural Society of London, in 1819, sent out Mr. Kerr, a gardener, to collect and buy living plants and send them home; but his success was only partial. Some new plants have been discovered among those which have been sent home by the residents at Canton. The steady demand for these, both among foreigners and natives, has induced the Chinese to bring rare plants to this city : they are kept for sale at the Fah te, or flower gardens,' near Canton. The number of plants shipped to Europe and America yearly is considerable, and the demand is increasing. According to Livingstone, not one in a thousand reaches their destination, yet from the immense number sent in a long course of years, we may safely infer that one-half of all known Chinese plants have been discovered and named in this way. Great care is necessary to preserve thein on board ship in a voyage of such length, and from ihe want of this care many of them consequently die. Different plants require such different attention, that what saves one kills another. But the number of names probably far exceeds the num
ber of species, for the Chinese gardeners are skillful in altering the appearance of flowers, and finding it for their interest so to do, they devote much time to the pursuit.
From this short sketch it appears that in the natural history of the Chinese empire, much remains to be done. The Chinese works on this subject are voluminous, and they contain dissertations on plants of all kinds and qualities, chiefly those used in medicines; on gems of which they are fond, on quadrupeds, birds, fishes and insects; and even shells and mollusks are not overlooked by them. On the same pages we also find accounts of tiger-elephants, dragons, and other similar fantasies. The entire range of natural science in the Chinese empire, will require thorough investigation, for what has been done, needs to be done again. Botany has attracted the most attention, and the progress now made in it from various sources is consid erable; but the grasses, the cryptogamic plants, and some other branches of the study, are nearly unknown. The works of the Jesuits contain notices of the animals of China ; but with the other branches of its zoology we are imperfectly acquainted. The birds and the fishes, the insects and the mollusks, will each afford sufficient materials for many interesting volumes. Mineralogy is on the same level, but the precious gems, the beautiful crystals of quartz, the white copper, and the gypsum seen in Canton, show the abundance of its mineral treasures; the variety of metals cannot be small, but their full extent is yet known.
Of the geology of this empire very little knowledge has been gained by Europeans; and of the organic remains, which we may expect to be considerable from those found in Ava and Siberia, still less is known. It will be apparent then, that the investigation of China and its dependencies, will open a field of research, that is unequaled in the world. From Samarcand to Formosa and Japan, and from Saghalien to Camboja, is a field which is nearly unknown. Peopled from the remotest antiquity with wandering nomades, who have despised agriculture, and employed themselves in enslaving their neighbors, Tartary is about the same now as it was a thousand years ago. China has undergone many alterations, and the face of the country by increase of population has assumed the appearance of an extended garden, when compared with the countries on her western boundary. We hope this interesting and wide field will soon be carefully surveyed in all its departments. The Chinese are not so savage as the Arabs, nor so deceitful as the Moors, nor so wandering as the N. A. Indians, in whose countries travelers have passed many years. From the appearance of the times, we expect the Chinese empire will soon be open to foreigners; and we trust that the naturalist will not be slow to enter on a field abounding with objects worthy of his attention.
The geology of the country between the city of Canton and the ocean is so simple that we shall make but few remarks concerning it. The general characteristics are priinitive, and the usual acconipaniments of the presence of such rocks are seen in the insulated
and barren peaks which line the coast. On the north side of the river the country rises into hills, which are forined, as far as we have had opportunity to examine, of a compact graywacke, probably belonging to the lower secondary class of rocks. This rock is found near the surface, but does not appear to be used to any great extent by the Chinese in building, or for other purposes. It is fine grained, and contains a large proportion of qnartz. Lying immediately beneath the graywacke, is the old red sandstone. This stratum is found varying from a bright red, fine grained rock, to a coarse conglomerate, full of large pebbles of quartz. It is seen outcropping in the middle of the river a few rods below the Factories, and from thence it extends southwards for many miles. At that place its dip, measured by an angle with the horizon, is a few degrees westward. This stratum also extends eastward, and most of the hills between Canton and Whampoa have this rock for a substratum, with the graywacke above. The finer varieties of the sandstone are used for building and flagging, usually for the latter. Below the sandstone is found the granite. This rock outcrops more and more as the river descends towards the sea, until below the Bugue it is the only stratum. The subspecies are numerous, and in some places it passes into gneiss and hornblend. The usual variety however is a dark colored, fine grained rock, somewhat fissile. At the mouth of the river, the granite is found rising up into peaks, which present to the voyager coming in from the ocean, a range of desert, uniuhabited and cheerless islets, ranging in height from 1200 to 2000 feet. When, however, the island is sufficiently large to allow a detritus to accumulate at the foot of the hills, the soil is good, and by the industry of the Chinese in manuring, is soon rendered productive. The entire number of these islands has never been ascertained, but it must amount to several hundreds, as the whole coast from Pedro Branco to the borders of Hainan is lined with them. On these islands, gre:at numbers of erratic blocks of rock are found; on the top of Lintin peak are three or four, each weighing several tons. The granite and its varieties are used to a great extent by the Chinese in the basements of buildings, for flagging and for pillars; for the latter purpose it is well adapted.
The minerals as yet found in these different strata are very few, consisting only of crystals of felspar, quartz, and pyrites, which occur sparingly in the granite. Further investigation may disclose more of those minerals usually found in primitive rocks. Crystallized, priinitive marbles are brought to Canton from the north and western paris of the province. The colors are mostly clouded blue and black. We have seen no transition limestone in Canton.
Coal is plentiful and extensively used. The soil of the country in this neighborhood is mostly alluvial; but on the declivites of the hills, it is decomposed sandstone, and of a reddish coloy. It generally produces two crops annually. The fields of rice are banked up on the river side, and at intervals sluices are constructed which allow every tide to cover them. In times of much rain, the quantity of soil beld in supension is
great, and when the water remains quiet a short time, it settles. In the river itself, where the current is slow, depositions soon appear above the surface, and many of the low islands have been formed in this way, and constant additions are making to all On the hills, the soil is more nearly primitive, and consists mostly of the decomposed rock underneath.
Map of the Choo Keang. This map is designed to illustrate parts of the two preceding papers concerning 'Chinese Pirates and 'the Natural History of China.' It includes the numerous islands in the bay of the river, and the river itself up as far as the provincial city; comprising in length 75 geographical miles of latitude, and in breadth one degree of longitude. The Bogue, which the Chinese regard as the mouth of the river, is guarded by three forts, at one of which foreign ships must show their passports. The principal inside anchorage is called Whampoa Reach, extending two or three miles, hetween the islands of Honam on the west, Whampoa and Junk island on the north, and French and Dane’s islands on the sonth. Lintin is the outside anchorage; but during the tyfoon months, it is forsaken for the harbors on the east and west, Xapsuy-moon (also written Capsing-moon) and Kumsing.moon. The Inner Passage is used only by native craft, it being wholly prohibited to foreign boats. The inap is constructed upon a scale of five miles to the inch. The latitude of the Foreign Factories at Canton is 23° 7' 10" N.; the longitude, 113° 14' 30" E. Lintin Peak is in lat. 22° 24' 30' N.; long 113° 48' 30" E. Macao is situated in lat. 22° 10° 30' N., long. 113° 32' E.
Art. V. Burmah : sletch of the history of the Protestant mission
in that country; its present state; and notices of the Christian books written and published in the Burman language. By
RENEVOLENS. Oct. 1833. Continued from Vol. II, page 563. The object of this paper is to give a very brief history of the efforts which have been made to spread Christianity in Burmah. The labors of the Romanists can hardly be entitled to any notice here, for though they have resided in the country for about a century, they have effected comparatively nothing. They have four or five congregations, which consist alınost entirely of Portuguese and their descendants, many of whom wear the Burman dress, and conform to Burman customs in every respect, except that they eat pork, and make their prostrations before the cross or the Virgin, instead of the pagoda and the image of Gaudama. 'The priests have moreover written a few tracts, and had them published at Rome in the Burman character; and the present bishop, who arrived in 1831, brought as many as seventeen copies for the supply of his diocese !
Concerning the first attempts of Protestants, I shall give but a very brief view, because the affairs of that trying and eventful period, if explained in detail would occupy too much space, and because they have been already presented to the public in the Memoir of Mrs. Judson;a work which has established its character as a production of uncommon interest by having already passed through several editions,
CHI: REP: VOL. III,
both in England and America. To that I beg leave to refer those who wish for further information respecting the early history of the mission. Regarding more recent efforts I shall be more particular.
The first Protestant labors were commenced at Rangoon in 1807 by Messrs. Chater and Mardon, who went thither from Serampore. Mr. Mardon soon left the country, and his place was supplied by Mr. Felix Carey. Not long after, Messrs. Pritchett and Brian, from the London Missionary Society, reached the country. Mr. B. soon died, and Mr. P. removed to Vizagipatam ; Mr. Chater, after four years' residence, removed to Ceylon, but not till he had acquired the language and commenced the work of translation. Mr. Carey remained, and when Mr. and Mrs. Judson arrived in July, 1813, he had gone Ava by order of the king. Before he left the mission, he prepared and published a grammar, revised and published Mr. Chater's translation of the Gospel of Matthew, and made some translations himself; how much, is now unknown, as his manuscripts were lost. Mr. and Mrs. Judson at once commenced the study of the language. Ilaving no dictionary and but an imperfect grammar, they found it difficult; yet in the course of two years, they were able to hold some discussions with the natives. In 1815, Mr. Judson commenced and prosecuted with great zeal the study of Pali. They were alone, however, till joined by Mr. Hough, an American printer and missionary in Oct. 1816. Two tracts had been prepared, which were printed by Mr. Hough soon after his arrival.
Notwithsanding all the efforts which had been made, it was not till March, 1817, that the first serious inquirer into the truth of Christianity applied to Mr. Judson. His appearance and couversation awakened joy and hope, but it was fallacious. In December, 1817, Mr. Judson, worn down by ill health, and desirous of procuring some assistance from a Christian settlement near Chittagong, where the Burian language was spoken, embarked for that place. But by adverse winds, he was driven to the western peninsula, and was detained at Madras till July 20th, 1818. During his absence, Mr. Hough was severely harassed by the government, summoned to Court, and told in the most un feeling terms that if he did not tell all the truth relative to his situation in the country, "they would write with his heart's blood.” Further, as indicative of Burman feeling before the war, it should be mentioned, that at the court-house he was obliged to answer, through an interpreter, the most trivial questions, such as what were the names of his parents, how many suits of clothes he had, &c., which were all written down with great correctness. Sept. 19th, 1818. Messrs. Colman and Wheelock from Boston joined the mission. In July of the succeeding year, Mr. and Mrs. Hough departed for Bengal
. The same year, in April, Mr. J. commenced public preaching in a zayat, or open shed, erected near his house. Mrs. J. by a school and the religious instruction of females, did what she could to aid his design. In consequence of these efforts many serious inquiries were made. Noung Nau, the first convert, made his appearance il April 30th, 1819. After various instructions and important developments