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OF TIVELVE STROKES.
183 The bird.
211 Ché, upper foreteeth,
199 Mih, bearded grain,
Yo, musical instrument
The radicals are arranged in the best dictionaries according to the
compounds, all the characters being classed under each radical, according to the number of strokes in addition to the radical. Some knowledge of their mode of writing is requisite, therefore, for the pure pose of referring to their dictionaries. It is said by some that the elements of all the strokes are included in the subjoined character yung, eternal.
By others, one or two more strokes are added. This is, however, sufficient to exemplify the mode of writing. Horizontal strokes are drawn before perpendicular ones; central strokes before those on each side; and those on the left before those on the right; a single stroke often takes one, and sometimes two curves, as on the left side of the above character, which is formed of six strokes, in the following order.
The subjoined figure represents the Chinese mode of holding the pencil.
Note.- In the foregoing list of radicals, the figures show'ng the number of characters classed under each 'head,' have been taken from the grammar of Róinusat, who has followed the Tse-wei
Art. III. Homicides in China : cases in which foreigners and na
tives are concerned, difficult to be adjusted ; luh shă, or the six distinctions of homicide ; exceptions occasioned by the rank and
situation of natives; the usual exceptions not allowed to foreigners. The intercourse of Europeans and Chinese is rendered difficult on account of the principles of their education being dissimilar, and from their laws to punish violations of social order being different in the degrees of severity. These circumstances being really and truly various, require on both sides, an arnicable consideration and accommodation. But there is another and a more difficult obstacle to a kindly intercourse, arising from reciprocal pride and prejudice. In cases of homicide, this remark is strongly exemplified. We will explain it on one side, and leave our western readers, who are interested, to explain it on the other. The Chinese have a prejudice against all foreigners who approach them as equals, and their pride urges them to require the life of a foreigner, whenever the death of a native has been caused (no matter how) by his agency or instrumentality. The law of reason, of nature, and of nations, does not admit of this. But still, the law of all civilized nations is tender of human life. From an ancient law, derived from the highest authority in the universe, it is manifest that mani's blood, in which is his life, should not be wantonly spilt. The Chinese consider homicide as a debt; and a debt which can only be paid in kinil, by the creditor. “ He that sheddeth man's blood, by man shall his blood be shed.” He who kills another must forfeit his own life. This is the general rule; and in Chinese law the exceptions are few.
In Chinese law, as in all human laws, there is, as those who live by chicanery say, "a glorious uncertainty.”
a glorious uncertainty." Without entering into laws of property where the uncertainty is productive of profit to the lawyer, even in homicidal cases there is-inglorious uncertainty. M:mslaying is seldom a simple and unmixed crime. When it is deliberate, and preconcerted by “malice prepense,” the case is clear. In what we call “willful murder," there is no hesitation about the mode, awful as it is, of punishing the offender. But the crime of causing death to a fellow-creature, is not, perhaps in one case in ten, and it inay be, for aught we known to the contrary, not one in a hundred, that of preconcerted murder. Momentary pride, passion, Just, intoxication, anger, avarice, frolic, &c., have been the incipient causes which occasioned the fearful result of a fellow-creature's death. When the affray or the frolic began, there was no intention to slay. The deathblow came by "chance-medley.” English law allows for this, and spares the offender's life; Chinese law does not. ''There, there's the rub.' Most of the homicides committed by foreigners in China, are of this class, a class in which the law of Europe excuses the crimes in some degree, as to continue the life of the offender; but in which the Chinese links will only grant a milder death.
Having said so much, we will give the Chwese legal distinction of homicide. They are called the luh shă, the six modes of killing, man: 1. Mow shă, by previous design, whether an individual plois with his own heart, or with companions. 2. Koo shă, by instant design ; willful at the moment, though unpremeditated. This is Chinese" willful murder," but English" manslaughter." 3. Gore shă, by fighting in an affray ; chance-medley. 4. He shă, by dangerous sports, such as boxing, cudgeling, &c. Dueling would of course be included, as a rather dangerous “gentlemanly" play. 5. Woo shă, by mishap, hitting and killing the wrong person; one with whom you had no quarrel, and to whom you intended no hurt. The persons found guilty of any of these crimes, are by law, punished with " death;" some immediate, others after imprisonment;-a respite which raises hopes, often not fulfilled. 6. Kwoshih shă, killing by misadventure, by pure accident; as a hatchet Aying off from its hafi. This is censured as carelessness, but not considered a capital crime.
But Chinese law, even in homicides, depends much on the station or rank of the two parties. A master killing his slave, and a slave killing his master, are very differently punished. Even in the few cases of " se defendendo," making a justifiable homicide, much depends on the rank of the parties. For the Chinese jurists mix and blend the decisions of the code, in complicated crimes, in a manner that is truly puzzling. As for example : in ordinary cases, if a woman kills a man who attempts to violate her person, it is justifiable homicide : but if the assailant were her husband's father, a person to whom she owes great respect and submission, if she cause his death, she shall lose her own life. We have read recently of such a case; in which the innocent woman was murdered by the law. If killed in resisting the police, it is justifiable homicide. An injured husband taking immediate revenge on the spot, and killing both the adulterer and his own wife, is justifiable. Killing a man who enters clandestinely a house at night without cause, is justifiable.
The law says thai foreigners in China killing each other, may be punished according to foreign law; but it does not willingly concede this to a foreigner killing a Chinese. There are some cases which occurred many years ago in Macao, quoted in the Leŭh-le, wherein the emperor Keënlung declared that in order to intimidate foreigners, the local government of Canton should require life for life, without quoting the extenuating circumstances which the Chinese laws admitted when natives only were concerned. From this view of the law and public feeling, homicides in China will lony be a subject of difficult arrangement between foreign and native authorities. Governor lon, it is true, has recently declared, in reference to a case which is still pending, that assuredly there will be no forfeiture of life, because the affair emanated from no intention of the heart. We think it not unlikely that his excellency will contrive to render justice to the man and release him; but if that man is a foreigner," and
has in an affray caused the death of native,' according to the laws of the land he lias furfeited his life. The law is life for life,
Art. IV. Religious intelligence. 1. Mission in Ceylon reinforced ;
remarks concerning the principles and feelings with which Christian missions ought to be conducted. 2. Schools for the education of Chinese girls greatly necded,
but hitherto neglected. 1. We are informed by a late arrival from Calcutta, that the American mission in Ceylon has been strengthened by the accession of five laborers, four ordained missionaries and a physician, with their wives. 'This reinforcement was welcomed with peculiar gratitude and joy by the former members of the mission, who had received no addition to their number for thirteen years. The recruits above mamed, arrived in Oct. 1833 ; and since then two other missionaries and their wives have joined them. From returns which were made out for Government in Nov. last, it appears that the mission has under ils care 73 native free schools, in which there are 2700 boys and 400 girls; four central schools of a higher order than the former, containing 95 boys; and one central boarding-school for girls, with 52 scholars. The Sensinary, of which some account was given ju the Repository of December last, contains 138 students and 10 native teachers. The native church has 201 menibers in communion. The five native congregations on the Sabbath, number 1750 attendants, about three fourths of whom are children from the native free schools.
Some parts of the letter which has furnished us with these items of intelligence, contain so good an exhibition of the principles and feelings on which every mission should be conducted, that we are unwilling to withold them from our readers.
“To secure the best results,” says our correspondent, "in the great work to which we have been called, we shall find it necessary to cultivate, with singleness of resolution and untiring patience, all the fruits of the Spirit; and that not in their common measure, but as exhibited in the life of our Savior. We must love as he loved, be long-suffering as he was, gentle, good, meek, and temperate in the exhibition of every feeling, as he was, remembering that as the Father sent him into the world, so he hath seni us. order thus to put on Christ, we shall find great advantage in looking at each of these traits in the character of our Savior until our soul is suffused with adıniration and desire, iind then labor to transfer those graces individually into our own soul, as natural and spontaneous growths. Let us meditate by day and by night on the character of à Christian as brought to view in the following passages of Scripture. [John 3:6. Rom. 8: 6, 9. Isi Cor. 3:16,17; and 6: 19, 20. Eph. 4: 24. Gal. 3 : 18; and 6: 15. Mat. 22:30. Ist Cor. 15:47, 49.] Looking at each of these graces until our souls are filled with desires to make them our own, let us clothe ourselves with thein all “ ment, and bind them on as a bride doetb.".
Even private Christians would reap greitl advantages from the careful cultivation of this
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