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at the public processions. Tha most ancient of the brotherhoods is that of our Lord of Mercy ;' those of our Lady of the Rosary' and of our Lady of the Remedies' are in most remarkable for the ele. gance, splendor, and riches displayed in their processions. "St. Anthony is a favorite saint, particularly with the sailor population. At times the devotee falls on his kuees, worships, and solicits the potent intercession of his saint. But no sooner does the claimant fancy that the request has either been slighted or the favor provokingly postponed, than the image is taken from the shelf, unbraided, and beaten: likewise, no sooner does the supplicant presume that the saint has granted his protection, than the darling of the petitioner's heart is caressed and adored, and tapers and incense burnt before the wonden Anthony. "We shall proceed from the ainusing," says our author, "to the most seriously melancholic procession. The Sunday of the cross, to judge from the emblems exhibited in this procession, represents a transition from heathenism to Christianity. The Redeemer, an image of the size of a man, clad in a purple garment, wearing ou his head a crown of thorns, and on his shoulder a heavy cross, bends one of his knees on the bottom of a bier, supported by eight of the most distinguished citizens. The bishop with the secular and regular clergy, the governor, the minister, the nobilitỳ the military, and the whole Roman catholic population, it may be seid, assist, deeply affected by a scene which prognosticates a divine sacrifice to be made for the sake of reconciling man to his Creator. Young children, both of clear and dark shades, arranged in fancy dresses of angels, with beautiful muslin moving wings at their shoulders, carry in miniature shape the instruments which were required in the act of crucifixion. This procession takes a range over almost the whole city; and when finished, the image of Christ is deposited in its shrine at the convent of St. Augustine."
In 1503, the senate reported to the king of Portugal that Macao had a cathedral with two parishes, a misericordia with two hospitals, and four religious bodies, namely, Augustines, Dominicans, Jesuits, and Capuchins.' In 1833, there were foar Augustine, three Dominicans and three Capuchins, two of whom had in charge the spiritual and temporary concerns of the nuns, then thirty-seven in number.
Previous to the overthrow of the inquisition at Goa in 1812, delinquents were sent thither for chastisement, and various measures were adopted to free Macao from the Chinese theatres and religious processionis. In one instance, a stage on which the Chinese were acting, was, by order of the vicar-general, broken down: the viceroy of Goa, in a letter to the senate, dated 1736, disapproved of this conduct, and gave orders to the chapter to reprehend the vicar-general, and reconmend him in future to abstain from similar behavior. “This salutary admonition (says our author) was set asiile by a letter of March 18th, 1758, in which the tribunal of the inquisition prohibits any kind of Chinese theatricals or processions. In he suffered liowever, several of the governors, recollecting that the Por uguese can oxercise no
jurisdiction over the Chinese, were prudent enough to connive at their Heering recretions; but in 1780, at the instigation of a delegate frorn i he holy office, then residing at Macao, the senate gave orders to the procurator to demolish scaffolds, which had been erected on occasion of a solemu festival, which was to wander through the place. His zeal was frustrated. Having permission from the mandarins to raise temporary stands, the insult of throwing them down would be resented; and the Chinese advised the Portuguese not to provoke tumult by an act of intemperate zeal. Convinced that no effort of the civil police could hinder a pagan festival, duly prepared, from showing itself in the town, a bishop resolved to try spiritual influence on his fock. His excellency, dom Fr. Francis de Na Sra. da Luz Cachim, issued a pastoral admonition, which the curates published in their respective parishes. It was dated 15th of April 1816, aud breathes a fatherly exhortation, that all Christians should, for the sake of the salvation of their souls, abstain from having a peep either through the window from behind the Venetian blinds, or in the street, at the pageants the Chinese were going to carry through the city. Disobedience was threatened with the penalty of the great excommunication; a punishment which could not be applied, because out of the whole population there were perhaps not fifty adult Christians, who had resisted the impulse of curiosity; and others gratified it by look. ing at the georgeous ceremonies, repeated by the Chinese during three days, and by gazing at night, in the bazar, at ingenious illuminations, theatrical jests, and amusements."
"It is now exactly two hundred and fifty years since the Roman catholic missionaries were allowed to remain at Shaouking fuo, in the Province of Kwangtung. Two Jesuits were permitted to enter Peking in 1601, where they began clandestinely to teach a doctrine, the success of which has been various. It depended for upwards of a century on the connivance of local officers, till Kanghe, in 1692, enfranchised the new sect, and placed it on the same footing with those of Laoukeun and Budha. This favor Yungching thought proper to repeal : and in 1723, he prohibited in his vast dominions the exercise of Christianity. This prohibition was further enforced in respect to Macao, by the twelfth paragraph of a convention concloded in 1749, between the local government of Macao and the provin. cial magistrates of Kwangtung. These public impediments, and the scanty means that could be placed at the disposal of missionaries for ingratiating themselves with inferior officers, that they might wink at the violation of the laws, have greatly retarded the labor of foreign priests. At present, no European is residing among the Christian population, which, in 1830, amounted by approximation, in the bishopric of Macao, to 6090 Chinese. The spiritual care is entrusted in the devotion and zeal of seven Chinese catholic priests, who in obedience to the direction of their prelate, the bishop of Macao, or his substitute, the capitular vicar, visit by turn the six still existing missions : viz.
English Orthography. Chinese Christian.
6090 “In 1833, there where in Macao, and the villages of Patane, Monha, and Lapa, 7000 Chinese Christians: which (with the six above nam. ed missions.) make a total of 13,090. The salary of each of the priests is eighty-two dollars yearly. Traveling expenses, estimated at from forty to fifty dollars according to the remoteness of the place to which the priest is sent, the pay of catechists, and various other charges, are carried to separate accounts. To meet these pecuniary exigencies, of the inission, the revenue of a certain capital is applied ; its management is left by appoinment of the bishop to three canons, who are bound, at the expiration of a year, to lay before the prelate an accurate statement of the receipts and disbursements of the fund to which I have just alluded”
Such, according to our author, was the state of the Romish church at Macao, when he sent his book to press, about a year ago; how it will be affected by recent changes, which have taken place in the west, time will show; we hail, however, with jny the publication of the decree which we subjoin, copied from the London Morning Herald, for June 16th, 1834.
DECREE. “On the report of the minister of ecclesiastical affairs and justice, and with the advice of the council of state, I think fit, in the name of the queen, to decree as follows :
Art. 1. All convents, monasteries, colleges hospices, establishments whatsoever of monks of the regular orders in Portugal, Algarves, the adjacent islands, and Portuguese dominions whatever may be their denomination, institution, and rules, are benceforth extin guished.
Art. II. All the estates of these convents, &c., are incorporated with the national domains. Art. III. The sacred utensils and ornaments employed in the divine service are placed at the disposal of the respective ordinaries, 10 be distributed among the churches of their dioceses which have most need of them. Art. 1V. Each of the monks of the suppressed convents, &c., shall receive and annual pension for his support, unless he receives an equal or greater 'income from a benefice or a public employment. The following are excepted
(a) Those who took arms against the legitimate throne, or against the national liberty.
(6) Those who abused their ministry in the confessional or the pulpit, in favor of the usurpation.
(2) Those who accepted benefices or public employments from the government of the usurper.
(d) Those who denounced or directly persecuted their fellow-citizens for their fidelity to the legitimate throne and the constitutional charter.
(e) Those who accompanied the troops of the usurper.
(f) Those who, on the reëstablishment of the authority of the queen, or since, in the districts in which they reside, abandoned their convents, monasteries, &c.
ART. V. All laws and ordinances to the contrary are abolished. The minister of the ecclesiastical affairs of justice is charged with the execution of this decree.
(Signed) Don Pedo, Duke of Braganza,
JOAQUIM ANTONIO D'AGUIAR. Palace das Necessidades, May 28th 1834."
With regard to the domestic and foreign relatlons of Macao, which form the subject of the remaining part of our author's little book, our remarks shall be brief and our extracts few. The domestic relations are considered both 'political and economical.' Under the first head, the author remarks concerning the municipal members and the subaltern officers of the city; and then proceeds to notice the Christian population generally. He notices the practice of the senate, in former times, of banishing and transporting the inhabitants; and as an instance to what length they stretched their authority, he cites the following sentence from a tranlation, dated 4712. “Nobody living under the jurisdiction of the senate, whatsover may be his qualification or situation, either citizen, inhabitant, pilot, boatswain, sailor, or common man, shall be allowed to transfer himself from one quarter or place of abode in the town to another, without a permission from the senate, in accordance with a royal provision, under the penalty of being held and treated like a suspicious person and enemy of the land, and punished with the loss of his property." The follow'ng edict, dated 1744, sir A. thinks may probably excite a smile : “it forbids, under a pecuniary mulct of ten taels, the natives from wearing a wig or carrying a paper umbrella!''
The wrter next tonches on the military and civil departments, and then gives the following account of the Chinese population :-“The Portuguese, since their first settlement at Macao, have constantly been at variance with those Chinese who wanted to establish themselves there, because at first it was policy to limit their number. From ancient records, we are led to believe, that all those Chinese, who tad no fixed abode, went out of the town at night; that not only the gates to the districts, but even the street-doors were shut. In 1691, it was resolved that no other Chinese than those whose names were inscribed on the registers of the senate should remain; the rest had orders by proclamation in leave the city within three days: the refractory were to be handed over to the mandarins as vagabonds.
No more than ninety coolies, selected by three petty police officers, were suffered to stay. In 1749, the senate obtained the consent of the mandarins, that only seventy workmen in wood, and bricklayers, ten butchers, four blacksmiths, and one hundred coulies, should live in the town; and to prevent them from fixing themselves in the place, the senate published an order that no house owner should either let or sell his house to a Chinese,-expecting by this ineasure that many of them would evacuate the place. Other expedients were also tried for the same purpose, but all proved ineffectual. At last, Francis da Cunha e Menezes, the governor-general, granted permission by his letter of April 29th, 1793, for the inhabitants to let their houses to Chinese."--In 1830, the Chinese population was estimated to be 30,000, and the foreign, at 4628 souls.
The financial concerns of Macao, or the domestic relations consia dered economically,' have for many years past, we believe, been in a very unsettled and unprosperous state.
Better things are now hoped for; and we trust that under present circumstances, and those in immediate prospect, Macao will rise and grow in importance. Its foreign relations to the consideration of which our author devotes several pages, are at present very limited and of biule value ; but the time was, when they were extensive and exceedingly profitable; and they may become so again. In several respects the situation of Macao is very favorable for commerce; and if the narrow policy of former years is exchanged for a liberal and enterprising line of conduct; if security for persons and property, liberty of conscience, and the freedom of the press, are guarantied to all; and (what is perhaps not less important than any of the other measures,) if Chinese interference is properly resisted, Macao may become in a few years one of the inost important cities in the east.
Art. II. Our country,—or national partiality among the Chinese,
the English, and Americans, with remarks concerning the cause and effects of that partiality. All those who are familiarly acquainted with the people of China, Great Britain, and the United States of America, may frequently have observed in each a strong inclination to extol themselves, even at the expense of others. In some instances, this disposition has been carried to a great extreme, and persons of excellent talents have employed their energies to depreciate, not to say vilify others, and simply because they did not belong to their own country. The foreign resident here sees this disposition exhibited by the Chinese in no dubious manner, and on numerous occasions. This feelin;- is cherished by parents and teachers, and by them it is communicated to the rising generation. The stranger who visits England, and be