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grains and edible plants. Every inch of ground is improved to the best advantage. Low lands are ploughed with oxen, steep and high ones by men; and whosoever doth not cultivate his ground for the term of one year, forfeits his title to possession.'
Of beasts, birds, fishes, reptiles, and insects, the Japanese have long catalogues, including some which are merely chimerical, not existing in nature, nor yet invented by themselves, but borrowed from their neighbors the Chinese.' Those who wish for an account of these chimeras' must go to Kämpfer, where they will find full descriptions illustrated with plates. The doctrine of the transmigration of souls being received almost universally, so says the writer just named, the natives eat no 'flesh-meats;' and living as they do chiefly on vegetables, they know how to improve the ground to much better advantage, than to turn it into meadows and pastures for breeding cattle. Horses are used for riding, and for carriages and ploughing; buffaloes, oxen, and cows are employed only for the two latter purposes. Of milk and butter the Japanese know nothing. They have no asses, mules, camels, or elephants. Sheep and goats were kept formerly by the Dutch and Portuguese at Firando, and might be bred in the country to great advantage. Of swine they have very few; but of dogs and cats they keep an abundance. Among their wild animals are deer, bears, hares and foxes.
The principal fowls in Japan are ducks, geese, herons, pheasants, woodcocks, pigeons, cranes, storks, falcons, hawks, ravens, snipes, sparrows, swallows, and a few tame fowls. The common European crows and parrots are said not to be found in that country. Of fish, the Japanese have almost every kind that can be mentioned. The first and most mischievous of reptiles, according to Kæmpfer, are the white ants; next are the millipedes, which are more venomous than the scorpion. Snakes are not common in Japan. Of the flying insects there are among others, bees, wasps, gnats, beetles, bugs, butterflies, and a singular kind of night-fly, 'which by season of its incomparable beauty is kept by the ladies among their curiosities; it is about a finger long, slender, round-bodied, with four wings. The following fable owes its origin to the unparalleled beauty of this little creature. They say that all other night-flies fall in love with it, and that to get rid of their importunities, it maliciously bids them (for a trial of their constancy) to go and fetch fire. The blind lovers scruple not to obey the commands, and Aying to the next fire or candle, they never fail to burn themselves to death. The female is not near so beautful as the male, but gray, ash-colored, and spotted.'
The origin of the Japanese is a subject about which historians have differed exceedingly; the question still remains unsettled. Kæmpfer, Siebold, Golownin, and Klaproth agree in the opinion that the people of Japan did not derive their origin from the Chinese. Siebold thinks that they derived their pedigree from the Tartars inhabiting the northeastern part of the continent of Asia : Klaproth, Kæmpfer, and Golownin dissent from this opinion. The last-named writer thinks their origin is buried in the obscurity of the remotest antiquity;
but maintains "that the. Japanese and Kuriles once were one and the same nation, and are descended from the same stock." To Kæmpfer, it seems the most probable conjecture, "that they are descended from the first inhabitants of Babylon, and that the Japanese language is one of those, which the all-wise Providence hath thought fit, by way of punishment and confusion, to infuse in the minds of the vain builders of Babel.” He gives reasons which induced the Japanese to travel eastward, and marks out the course by which they passed across the continent to the country of the Rising Sun: he shows at the same tine also, that at different periods, Chinese and other people have come in and settled among them. Klaproth is, likewise, of the opinion that if any people have a title to be considered as aborigines, the Japanese have, and that they have been civilized by colonies from China. We will here introduce his views of the subject, and nearly in his own words.
At first sight, the Japanese seem greatly to resemble the Chinese in form and exterior. In carefully examining their characteristic features, however, and comparing them with those of the Chinese it is easy to perceive a difference between them. The eye of the Japanese, although placed almost as obliquely as that of the Chinese, is wider near the nose, and the centre of the lid appears drawn up when opened. The hair of the Japanese is not uniformly black, as with the Chinese, but of a deep brown hue. In children below the age of twelve, it may be found of all shades, even to A-xen. There are also individuals to be met with who have their hair completely black, and almost crisped, with eyes very oblique, and a skin extremely dark. The complexion of the lower orders appears yellowish; that of the inhabitants of the towns is diversified according to their mode of life; while in the palaces of the great may be seen complexions as fair and cheeks as ruddy as those of European females. The vagabonds in the highways, on the other hand, have a skin of a color between copper and a brown earthly hue. This is the prevailiag complexion of the Japanese peasantry, of those parts of the body particularly which are inost exposed to the sun.
The distinct origin of the Chinese and Japanese is completely established by the language of the latter, which is wholly different, in respect to radicals, from that of all the nations in the vicinity of Japan. Although it has adopted a considerable number of Chinese words, those words do not form a radically integral part of the language; they have been introduced by Chinese colonies, and principally by Chinese literature, which has formed the basis of that of Japan. The Japanese radicals have a little resemblancc to those of the Corean tongue; they are equally alien from the dialects of the Kuriles or Aynos, who inhabit Yeso; neither has the Japanese language any affinity to the dialects of the Mantchous and the Toungouse, who inhabit the continent opposite to Japan.
The Japanese regard Sinmoo as the founder of their empire. He came, B.c. 660, from the western part of their country, to conquer the island of Nippon. It is extremely probable that he was of Chinese
origin, and that his family had ted from China during the disorders which agitated this country under the Chow dynasty, and that he took refuge in a country farther to the east. T'his conjecture seems more probable from the fact, that the Japanese know positively nothing of the occurrences in their own country prior to the epoch of Sinmoo. This conqueror found Nippon already peopled, and only settled in it. Hence it appears that, at that period, the whole of the island was occupied by the ancient aborigines, who as civilization spread in the western portion, were gradually impelled towards the east, and for that reason received the denomination of Atsumayebis, or eastern barbarians. These people maintained themselves for a considerable time in the north-west of Nippon, principally in the kokf or department of Moots. They were not completely dispersed and blended with the other Japanese till the eleventh century of our era. If it be admitted that Sinmoo was of Chinese origin, it is not, therefore, necessary to suppose that he came direct from China to Japan. The Chinese annals inform us that the most eastern countries of Asia were at a period much more remote, peopled by Chinese; for in the year B. c. 1195, the inhabitants of the eastern parts of China, oppressed by the tyranny of the emperor Wooyeih, embarked in vast numbers, nien, women, and children, and sought the neighboring islands, where they founded colonies. After the time of Sininoo, other Chinese settlers arrived in Japan, and particularly an expedicion consists ing of three hundred couples of young people, sent by the emperor Che Hwangte, across the eastern sea, in search of the liquor of immortality! According to the Japanese annals, having sought the drug in vain, the young party, under the direction of Seufuh, a skillful Chinese physician, arrived in Japan, B. c. 209, and landed at Kuma in the southern part of Nippon. The leader, after having introduced among the natives, arts and sciences which were unknown there before, died on mount Fusi, and to this day the Japanese pay him divine honors.
In proceeding to speak of the early history of the Japanese, a few short paragraphs, in addition to what we have said concerning their origin, must suffice. It has already been remarked that, anterior to the time of Sinmoo, the Japanese theurselves knew nothing of their history. They have however their mythological records, which trace their descent directly from the gods. “At first," so say the Japanese,
" the heavens and the earth were not separated; the perfect princi; le me (in Chinese yang) and the imperfect principle o (in Chinese yin) were not disjoined; chaos, under the form of an egg, contained the breath or vapor (self-produced) which included the germs of all things. Then what was pure and perfect ascended and formed the heavens or sky; whilst what was dense and impure coagulated, was precipitated, and produced the earth. The pure principle formed whatever is light, whilst whatever was impure and dense descended by its own gravity; consequently the sky was formed prior to the earth. After the completion of heaven and earth, kami, a divine heing, was born in the midst of them. Ilence it lias been said, that
at the reduction of chaos, an island of soft earth emerged, as a fish swims upon the water. At this period, a thing resembling a shoot of the plant assi, the Eryanthus Japonicus, was produced between the heavens and the earth. This shoot was metamorphosed, and became the god who bears the title of Kuni toko kutsi no Mikoto, i. e. 'the Venerable One who constantly supports the empire.' Thus arose the first order of celestial beings; they were seven in number, and ruled for an incomprehensible series of centuries. The last of these seven and his wife are held in high veneration by the Japanese, who regard them as the progenitors of another order of superhuman beings, five in number, of whom descended a third race—the present inhabitants
Siomoo, in Chinese, Shin Woo, the Divine Warrior,' who stands as head and founder of the nation and the present line of monarchs, is according to the Japanese, the lineal issue of Ten-si o daï-sin, who in his turn stands at the head of the second order of beings mentioned above, and who moreover, is the legitimate descendent of Kuni toko kootsi no Mikoto, the first of the first order of the celestial gods. Thus on account of their being supposed to derive their origin from the ancient divinities of the country, Sinmoo and his successors to the throne of Japan, are denominated ten-si ; but in conversation they are more commonly called dairi : ten-si is the same as the teën-tsze, or son of heaven, of the Chinese ; daïri signifies the court,' or 'the interior of the palace,' and is employed to denote the emperor, because his subjects are forbidden to utter his name, of which in fact, they are generally ignorant. The daïri are looked upon as persons most holy in themselves, and
as popes by birth.'
When the throne becomes vacant, the nearest heir, without regard to age or sex, is by the great ministers of the state raised to the rank of daïri. Sometimes, while the incumbent is yet alive, the crown is bequeathed to some one of the imperial family, that the succession may be effected without disturbance. The transfer is always made in the most secret manner possible. Yet there have frequently been those of imperial blood who have disputed the right of succession, and who have endeavored by force of arms to drive the daïri from his seat. Hence there have been wars and contentions. Princes have taken the field ; and their quarrels have seldom ended except with the entire destruction of one of the contending parties.
During the period of almost twenty-five hundred years, since the Divine Warrior' laid the foundations of the empire, the number of successions to the throne has been one hundred and twenty-one. To recount the names and exploits of so long a series of monarchs; to mark the years of their births and deaths, and describe the wars, rebellions, earthquakes, fires, famines, plagues, &c., which occurred during their successive reigns; and to notice the introduction of new religions, priests, idols, and the building of temples, with numerous festivals in honor of gods, saints, and heroes, would require a volume; but if such a work was well done, the history of Japan' would be one of the most interesting and instructive books in the world. The
Japanese have two principal eras. The first and most common begins with the reign of Sinmoo, B. c. 660; and is called nin-o. The second era is called nen-go, and was introduced A.D. 650. It includes a period of only a few years, commonly less than twenty, and is made use of in almanacs, orders, proclamations, journals, letters, &c. In printed books, such as relate to history and chronology, the current year of the first era, nin-o, is added to the nen-go. The present year of the Christian era, 1834, is the 2494th of the nin-o, or common Japanese era.
Sinnoo having established himself in Japan, proceeded immediately to civilize the inhabitants. He reformed the laws and government of the people, and introduced among them a system of chronology, dividing the time into years, months, and days. He took the title nino, 'the supreme of all men,' which is perpetuated in the name of the Japanese era noticed above; and having reigned seventy-nine years, and secured the throne to his posterity, he died in the 157th year of his age, B.c. 591. His third son succeeded to the throne, which he occupied thirty-three years. It was during his reign that the Chinese philosopher Confucius appeared, whose fame soon spread even to Japan, where after his death temples were erected to his memory. Kosio was the fifth emperor of Japan ; ascended the throne B.c. 476; and in the fifth year of his reign a war arose between two of the provinces of the empire, which is the first war mentioned by Japanese historians. In these early times the emperor was 'obliged to sit on the throne for some hours every morning, with the crown on his head, without stirring hands or feet, head or eyes, or indeed any part of the body, because by this means it was thought that he could preserve peace and tranquillity in his empire; for if unfortunately he turned himself on one side or the other, or if he looked a good while towards any part of his dominions, it was apprehended that war, famine, fire, or some other great misfortune, was at hand to desolate the country.' Kosio having thus sat on the throne during a period of eighty-three years, died aged 115.
Seusin, the tenth emperor from Sinmoo, came to the throne B. C. 97; and in the eleventh year of his reign erected the office of siogun, or generalissimo; and conferred this title on one of his sons. Shortly after this, merchant-ships and men-of-war began to be built in Japan. The successor of Seusin, who was his third son, held the reins of government 98 years; which period is memorable for several occur. rences in Japan; on one occasion it rained stars from heaven; and on another, a celebrated personage arrived from the Indies, riding on a white horse, and bearing in his hands a sacred book. This emperor died A. D. 70, and in the 140th year of his age.
The successor of the fourteenth dairi was the deceased emperor's relict.' She carried on war against the Coreans, and marched a numerous army into their country, commanding the expedition in person. She died after a glorious reign, aged 100 years, and was ranked among the goddesses of her country. Her son and successor was a hero; and in peace and war he was the true father of his people. He