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The writer of this work is perfectly sensible of the advantages to be derived from extending in every country the communication by canals; and the instances adduced by him of their utility in various countries, confirm his general positions. Many allowances are to be made for his style, as he is an American, and has not acquired the art of giving an easy flow to his ideas. He looks out for pompous words and forced expressions, when the plainest language would have better suited his purpose. But this flight interruption to the reader can scarcely be called an impediment to the train of reasoning purfued in the work; and the improvements suggested, particularly with reference to the port and city of London, claim the attention of the engineer, the merchant, and the statesman.

The greater part of the volume relates to the docks intended to be made in Wapping, chiefly for the benefit of the WestIndia trade; and a good account is given of the design. Of this so much has been already said, that little can be added for the information of the public. Mr. Sharpe's and Mr. White worth's plans of canals are very properly introduced; and this leads to a general project for insulating the inetropolis by means of canals, by which commodities may be received into, or fent out of, every part of London, with the utmost ease, and a very great saving of expense. The insulating line begins a little above Battersea-bridge, goes through Paddington, Camden-Town and Illington, passes near Hackney-road, and stops at Limehouse; is revived below Greenland-Dock, passes south of St. Helena tea-gardens, to Surry-Square and KenningtonCommon, and terminates above Battersea-bridge. Within this line are cuts which are to connect the great canal with basins in different parts of the metropolis. On the south-side of the Thares no contrivance is necessary to supply the canal with water, as it will flow from the Thames above Battersea 10 some inferior point in the Thames below Greenland docks; and, by the opening of the sluice at Battersea, it may be filler at pleasure. On the north side, the height of the ground, over which the line passes, seems to be a formidable objection, as about eleven miles of canal are to be supplied by engines from the Thames, or from streams to the north of London. The facility by which the water may be derived from the Thames is manifested by a fact; and the generality of persons are more willing to give credit to a plan when a thing is proved to have been done, than when the possibility of is being done is de. monstrated in the clearest inanner. At the Shadwell water, works, water is raised by means of the steam-engine to the height of ninety feet; and this is so nearly the height required for the canal, that, from the estimation of the expense in these works, a just calculation may be made of the expense of filling and supplying the canal with water. This calculation

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is made; and the interest of the money expended in the erece tion of the engine, che coal consumed in it, and all the neces. fary charges, amount, on a liberal computation, to 79777. 10s. annually. We may here observe, thit, trifling as this expenfe is to the general profit of such a canal, it may be diminished by the profits derived from the application of the engine to other purposes, when the canal is filled, and wants but a small suppiy; or, if the water of the canal should be conveved to diffcrent parts of the town by pipes, tlie supplying of the inhabitants with water will more than answer all the expenies of the engine. But, before a plan of this kind is adopted, we muít inculcate on our countrymen the magnani. mity of the Chinele monarch, who, when a work for the public good passes through his pleasure-grounds, takes up the ípade himself, and, beginning the work, imprelies on his sube jects the maxim, that private pleasure or private interest ought never to obitruct general improveinent. , The work is enriched with several plates, which elucidate the plans for the improvement of London, or illustrate the generai modes of canal communications. From the specimen now before us, we hope thie author has met with sufficient encouragement to induce him to put to the press another yoluine which he has already prepared on the same subject.

Christianity vindicated, in a Series of Letters, addressed to Mr.

Volney, in tower to his Book called Ruins, or a Survey of

the Revolution of Empires. By the Rev. Peter Roberts, A. M. 8vo. 55. Boards. West and Hughes. 1800.

A VINDICATION of Christianity from the effufions of so trifting a writer as Volney (iifling we mean in this re'pee) was scarcely necessary. It is evident that he has never given himielf the trouble of studying it at the fountain-head, and that, throughout his work, he confounds the gospel with the idle vaditions of popery, makes no diftinction between the acrions of men profehag Christianity and the actions required of real Christians, and, carried away by the prejudices of his pacional infidelity, is incapable of nalilig a good use of the learning and experience which he acquired by his retidence in the East. Thele faults in the tronch writer are judiciously pointed out in the work before us. Much found learning is displayed in the attempt to refer to a confiftent origin many parts of the heathen mytho, bogy, aixi alto in the description of the sphere; but such a mode of reaioning is, we fear, entirely thrown away upon the modern unbeliever, and is of no great use in the vindication of our religion.' To the incontistencies of the French -writer in his theories of government are opposed the maxims which have been laid down in this country by men of much thought and real experience; and, in thele times of innova. tion, they may be perused with advantage by those who are warped by the new fyftem of politics.

The infidel and the profesling Christian ought to attend to our author's reinarks on religious sects.

• As to religious fects, they are the offspring not of religion, but of human nature, of ignorance, of pride, and sometimes of a scru. pulous conscience, and a zeal for the truth. Ignorance finds diffi. culies, and it will find them every where; pride makes them and affects novelty, in order to attain diftin&tion, and supports them to support the character. The feets which have arisen from a zeal for the truth have in proportion to their fincerity been tolerant, and it is a just tribute to the mentory of Luther, that when mistakenly urged to intolerance, he ftedfattly and successfully opposed it, and “ the church of England, in the zenith of her power, has followed his great example. As to the difference of seets, who agree in ef. sentials, if profeffing themselves Christians, they persecute each other, they are certainly guilty of a breach of the first Christian duty to man, charity. The conduct of their adversaries is no plea for them; they ought neither to persecute nor encourage error, but they ought to prevent and reform it as far as they can.' P. 82.

The French revolution is placed in a point of view not very common in the present times. From the neglect of tracing it to its true origin, many protestant writers have deviated into a defence of popery and the vilest superstition, instead of making a true distinction between the use and abuse of religion.

. That revolution is an useful leffon to mankind, of the danger of establishing an error.-I cannot proceed to consider the mistakes into which you have been led, without recurring to that period in which a shallow policy, and an unhappy remissness, to give it the gentlest name (I ought to call it a weak and linful surrender of the truih), prepared the scene of all the subsequent tragedy your nation has since put in action. The period I speak of is that when), at the close of the wars of the Lengue, your otherwise excellent monarch, Henry IV. became a member of the Romißi church. When wearied with conicntion, and threatened with aftaffination, he was persuaded to embrace an error. Alas! Sir, he was not alone to blame. The ininisters of religion, the poor wreck of the massacre of St. Bartholomew, harassed and faint after the storm, and raised at once into confideration, were cajoled, in the name of peace, in to a dereliction of that duty which could alone have secured it. They defended their caure at the conferences, says Sully, but weakly, or not at all. Some days they were even difpensed with entirely, while the zeal of their antagonists einployed all their effort to bring the king over to the church of Rome. And what was the event? Did they acquire peace? No --Did the king eilicet a reconciliation

as to himself? No.-Were the advantages of the protestants established: No.—But they established popery, as containing no dangerous error, which is contrary to the truth; and having establish, ed this, they had no right to object to the revocation of the edict of Nantz. Nor was this all: when the errors of popery were exposed by the enemies of Christianity in general, the nation at large, which had by their error falsely believed popery to be Christianity, mistook the subversion of the heresy for the subversion of the go, spel, and loging the hold on eternal life, has fallen at once into a dreadful void, wherein all the elements of society and of religion have become a chaos of fury and desolation, So tremendously have the fins of the fathers been visited on the children to the third and fourth generation of those whose dereli&tion of their God and their religion had all the effect of hatred to both. May God grant it may reft there, that the errros of the church of Rome may soon cease for ever, and that no endeavour to restore, or countenance or favour them, may draw a future vengeance down, of which we have lo terrible an example, that God will require the souls of those who, 'by neglect or favour, remain or perlift in error, at the hand of those who are the nieans or the accessaries.' P. 238.

We advise all who profess the Chriftian religion to attend to this remark; for, whatever may be their sect, whatever may be their opinions, let them be assured that the voluntary adoption of error, and a subscription to tenets which they do not believe, are highly offensive in the sight of God, and must be productive of great evil to civil society. From the remark of this writer on the French revolution, our readers inay learn his method of treating his antagonist: throughout he keeps him to the point, and reasons fairly with him on his objections to Christianity; and we need not say that in such a contest, where on the one side is truth, and on the other are violent prejudices, contracted from birth and habit, in the abode of tyranny and superstition, the protestant appears to great advantage.

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A Treatise on the Police of the Metropolis; containing a Detail

of the various Crimes and Misdemeanors by which public and private Property and Security are, at present, injured and ondangered : and suggefing Remedies for their Prevention. The sixth Edition, corroflid and considerably enlarged: By P. Culquhoun, LL. D. &c. 8vo. Ios. 6d. Boards. Mawman. 1800.

THE first edition of this valuable publication we very fully noticed *; and, as well-wilhers to the domestic security and

* See our XVIlith Vol. New Arr. p. 557, 321.

prosperity of this kingdom, we are gratified in perceiving the extensive circulation of a treatise so peculiarly calculated to promote those desirable objects. In the present edition the au. thor has given a more systematic arrangement to his work, and has introduced some new matter on subjects of political economy; collaterally connected with police. The impresGon which the original publication may have produced on the minds of the community is an interesting topic: it is alluded to in the following passage of the preface.

"The police of the metropolis, in every point of view, is a subject of great importance to be known and understood; Ance every innocent and useful member of the community has a particular interest in the correct administration of whatever relates to the morals of the people, and to the protection of the public against fraud and depredation. .

• Under the present circumstances of insecurity, with respect to property and even life itself, this is a subject which cannot fail to force itself upon the attention of all :-all are equally concerned in the information which this work conveys; the chief part of the des tails in which are entirely novel, not to be found in books, and never laid before the public through the medium of the press, previous to the first publication of this Treatise.

• It may naturally be imagined, that such an accumulation of delinquency, systematically detailed, and placed in so prominent'a point of view, mult excite a considerable degree of astonishment in the minds of those readers who have not been familiar with subjects of this nature; and hence a desire may be excited to investigate how far the amazing extent of the depredations upon the public here related, can be reconciled to reason and possibility.

• Four years have, however, elapsed, since these details have been before the public, and they still stand on their original ground, without any attempt, which has come to the author's knowledge, to question the magnitude or the extent of the evil. On the contrary, new sources of fraud and depredation have been brought forward, tending greatly to increase the general mass of delinquency.

• In revising the present edition, the author felt a strong impulso to reduce his estimates ; but after an attentive review of the whole, excepting in the instances of the depredations on commercial pro. perty (which have been greatly diminished by the establishment of a marine police, applicable to that particular object), he was unable to perceive any ground for materially altering his original calculations. If fome clates of theft, robbery, and depredation, have been reduced, others have been augmented; still leaving the aggre. gate nearly as before.'

We are sorry that the exertions of the public to diminish the number of crimes against society, enumerated by the worthy magistrats, should bear so weak a proportion to tho

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