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parts of the immense landscape. We had around us such a numerous variety of mountains, valleys, lakes, and streams, each re. ceding behind the other, and bounded only by the far distant horizon, that ihe eye almost ftrained itself with looking upon them. 'These majestic prospects were foon lut from our fight by the gathering clouds, which now began to close in much heavier than they had done before, and it was in vain that we waited near an hour
for another opening; we were therefore at length obliged to descend, · in despair of being gratified any more with thefe Tublime views.
• We again patled Clawdd Coch, and soon afterwards, turping to the left, descended into the mountain vale, called Cwm Llân, and followed the course of a stream which runs from hence into Llyn y Dinas in Gwynant. This little rivulet en ertained us much in its descent, by being frequently thrown over low rocks, and forming small, but sometimes elegant cascades.,
• Atier two hours walking, we came into Gwynant, the vale I had with so niuch pleasure traversed a day or two before, and palling Llyn y Dinas and Dinas Einrys, we soon reached Beddgelert; somewhat fatigued with our long mountain walk.
"I observed near a cottage in Cwm Llan, several children employed in gathering the berries of sorbus aucuparia, the mountain ash. I was informed that they were gesting them to make a liquor, which the Welli call diod-griafol. This is said to taste somewhat like perry, and is made by inerely crushing the berries, and putting water to them, which, after they have remained about a fortnight, is strained off for use.' Vol. i. P. 375.
Quitting Caernarvonshire, Mr. Bingley entered Merionethshire, and visited the towns of Harlech and Dolgelle. His next resting place was Machynlleth, through which town he paflied on his way to Montgomery; from whence he proceeded to Weich Pool and Oswestry. Deviating a little from the road which leads from Olwestry to Ruabon, he vilited Chirk castle. Leaving Ruabon, he next directed his course to Wrexham, Mold, Ruthin, Denbigh, and Llangollen The beauties of the celebrated vale of Llangollen he delineates with the hand of a master. Reluctantly quitting this enchanting spot, he passed through Corwen to Bala. From Bala he journeyed to Shrewsbury. Of this ancient town he gives an 'abridged history, for the materials of which he is indebted to Mr. Pennant,
We doubt not that our readers will be gratified by the perufal of the following extract from the twelfth chapter of the second volume, in which Mr. Bingley describes the manners and customs of the Welch... ..16 From ancient, I will now descend to modern times, from that bardy race of warlike characters, which were with so much difficuliy
fubdued by the English monarchs, to their present peaceful state, in which they enjoy, happiness, that, in feudal times, they never experienced. . .
• In those mountainous or secluded parts of the country, that are scarcely known to the English tourist, where their manners itill retain the greateit degree of originality, the lower class of the inbabitants apprar to poliese an innocence and simplicity of charaEter, unknown in the populous parts of our own country; and amongst these it is that we are to search for that native hospitality, so much boasted of by the Welsh writers: but, wherever the English have had frequent communication, from their being in general fa profuie of their money, and from the temptation that this has afforded to pra&tile impositions on them, I have found the people but little differing from the like class amongst 11s. On the great roads, they seem to take a pride in over-reaching, in most of their little bargains, their Saxon neighbours, as they denominate the English. A Welth genileman informed me, (and in many instances I have experienced its truth) that it is a common practice amongit thein, to alk nearly as much more for an article as they mean to take, and, with those who know them, it is always usual to offer thein less. This is the case, in fome neasure, in our own country, but certainly not so frequently as in Wales.
• The Well people have in general a rustic bashfulness and reserve, which by strangers linused to their manners has been ofien mistaken for fullenness. They are generally said to be very irarcible. This may be fo; but I am inclined to think, that the na. tural rapidity of their expreflion, in a language not understood, has alone been frequently construed into paffion, when there has been nothing of the kind. Persons who form ideas from the opinions of others, without taking the prius to niake observations for themselves, are very often milied, and such I am confident has been the case a thousand times, in the judgements that have been formed of this circumstance.
• They have every appearance of being moít miserably poor. Their cottages are frequently constructed of Itones, whose interstices are filled up with peat or mud; and so careful are they of glass, that their windows are scarcely large enough to light around their wretched (eds.
• Their general food is bread, cheese, and milk ; and sometimes, what they call fummery, which is made of oatmeal and milk mixed together, and then boiled. Animal food, or ale, are not among their usual fare.
• The women in the mountainous parts are generally about the middle fize, though more frequently below, than above it; and though their features are often very pretty, their complexions are for the most part somewhat fallow. They wear long blue cloaks that descend almost to their feet; these they are feldon to be seen. without even in the very hottest weather, oiving moit probably so
the sudden Thowers, which the attraction of the mountains renders them liable to be taken in. In North Wales they have all hats, similar to those of the men, and they wear blue stockings without any feet to them, which they keep down by a kind of loop that is pot round one of their toes. In the most unfrequented parts they seldom wear any shoes, except on a Sunday, or the market-day, and even then they often carry them in their hands, as they go along the roads; I have seen them by six or eight together, feated on the bank of a rivulet, after their journies from the neighbouring villages, washing their feet before they entered the towns. In these journies, if their hands are not otherwise employed, they generally occupy their time in kuitting, and I have sometimes fees that even a heavy fall of rain would not compel them to give it up. Their eniployment within doors is chiefly in spinning wool.
• The Welsh people are naturally inquisitive and curious, but this is by no means a circunstance peculiar to this country. In all wild and unfrequented parts of the world it is the fame, and it is only in such parts of Wales that this difpofition is the most obfervable. Dr. Franklin has told us that this curiosity prevailed fo much in America, that when he travelled in that country, if he only wished to ask the road, he found it expedient to save time by prefacing his question with “ My name is Benjamin Franklin-by trade a printer-am come from such a place and going to such a place; and now-which is my road?" In all travels through unfrequented countries, we find it very common; and from the inqui. fitive dispositions of men in general, where novelty lays such hold upon their attention, it would even seem strange were we not to find it so.
• They are much inclined to superstition. But in all countries there are weak and foolish people; in England many of our peafantry are ready to swallow, with the niofi credulous avidity, any ridiculous ftories of ghofts, hobgoblins, or fairies. In Wales it is more general, and the people are certainly more credulous than the generality of the English. There are very few of the mountaineers who have not by heart a whole ftring of legendary tales of those disembodied beings.
The Roman cavern, in Llanymynech hill, called Ogo, has been long noted as the residence of a clan of the fairy tribe, of whom the villagers relate many surprising and mischievous tricks. They have liftened at the mouth of the cave, and have sometimes even heard thew in conversation, but always in such low whispers that their words have been never distinguishable. The stream that runs across it, is celebrated as being the place in which they have been beard to wash their clothes, and do several other kinds of work.:
6. These busy little folk seeni to be somewhat allied to what are called knockers, which by the Welth are believed to be a species of aërial beings, that are heard underground in or near mines, who by their noises direct the ininers where to find a rich vein. The
following extraordinary account of them is from a letter of Mr. Lewis Morris, to his brother, Mr. William Morris, comptroller of the customs at Holyhead, dated O&tober the 14th, 1754. I will make no comment upon it, and only preface it by observing, that Mr. Morris was a very learned and sensible man, and a person whose judgment is esteemed of great weight, by every one who has been either acquainted with him or his writings. '; “ People who know very little of arts or sciences, or the powers of nature, (which in other words, are the powers of the author of nature) will laugh at us Cardiganshire miners, who maintain the existence of knockers in mines, a kind of good-natured impalpable people, not to be seen, but heard, and who seem to us to work in the mines; that is to say, they are types or forerunners of working in the mines, as dreams are of some accidents which happen to us. The barometer falls before rain or storms. If we did not know the construction of it we Ahould call it a kind of dream, that foretells rain; but we know it is natural, and produced by natural means comprehended by us. Now how are we sure, or any body sure, but that our dreams are produced by the same natural means? There is some faint resemblance of this in the sense of hearing; the bird is killed before we hear the report of the gun. However this is, I must speak well of these knockers, for they have actually stood my very good friends, whether they are aërial beings, called spirits, or whether they are a people made of matter, not to be felt by our gross bodies, as air and fire, and the like.
“ Before the discovery of Esgair y Mwyn mine, these little people, as we call them here, worked hard there day and night; and there are abundance of honest sober people who have heard them, and some persons who have no notion of them, or of mines either; but, after the discovery of the great ore, they were heard no more.
" When I began to work at Llywn Llwyd, they worked so fresh there for a confiderable time, that they even frightened fome young workmen out of the work. This was 'when we were driving levels, and before we had got any ore; but when we caine to the ore, they then gave over, and I heard no more talk of thein.
6 Our old miners are no more concerned at hearing them blasting, boring holes, landing deads, &c. than if they were fome of their own people; and a single miner will stay in the work, in the dead of the night, without any man near him, and never think of any fear or harm they will do him; for they have a notion, that the knockers are of their own tribe and profession, and are a harmless people who mean well. Three or four miners together, shall hear them sometimes, but if the miners Itop to take notice of thein, the knockers will also stop; but let the miners go on at their own work, luppose it is boring, the knockers will go on as brisk as can be, in landing, blasting, or beating down the loose; and they are always beard a litile from them before they came to the ore.
“ There are odd allertions, but they are certainly facts, though Crit. Rev. VOL. XXX. September, 1800.
we cannot, and do not pretend to account for them. We have now very good ore at Llwyn Llwyd, where the knockers were heard to work, but have now yielded up the place, and are no more heard. Let who will laugh, we have the greatest reason to rejoice and thank the knockers, or rather God, who sends us these notices.”
• An intelligent friend of mine informs me that these noises of the knockers, as they are called, have very lately been heard in the parish of Llanvihangel Ysgeiviog, in Anglesea, where they continued at different intervals for some weeks. In accounting for these noises it has been observed, that they probably proceeded either from the echo of the miners at work, or from the dropping of water; but these feem by no means fufficient, if Mr. Morris's alsertion be true, that while the miners are going on with one kind of work they are going on with another, while for instance, as he says, the miners are boring, they are blasting, the former certainly cannot be true, and the blasting entirely puts the latter, conjecture out of the question, for the droppings of water could never produce any effect of that kind. As I am only acquainted with the subject from report, I am under the necessity of leaving the elucidation of these extraordinary facts to some who have better opportunities of inquiring into thein. I have only to express a hope that the fubject will not be neglected, and that those who reside in any neighbourhood where they are heard, will inquire into them carefully, and, if possible, give to the world a more accurate account of them, than the present.
"As soon as it is dark on the evening before Michaelmas-day, the Welsh people kindle great fires near their houses, and generally, where they can have it, on a large stone upon an eininence. These they call coelcerih, or bonfires; and Rowlands, in his Mona, sup. poses this custom to liave originated with the druids, and to have been intended by them as an offering of thanksgiving, for the fruits of the harvest. The druids had also another at the vernal equinox, to implore a blessing from the deity on the fruits of the earth. On Michaelinas-eve, several hundreds of these fires may sometimes be Teen at once, round each of which are numbers of the labouring people, dancing hand in hand, “in merry glee,” shouting and linging, in the most riotous and frantic manner. In many places they retain a custom of each throwing stones or puts into the flame, by which they pretend to foretell the good or ill luck that will attend them in the enfuing year. : . On the eve of St. John the Baptist, ihey fix sprigs of the plant called St. John's Wort over their doors, and sometimes over their windows, in order to purify their houses, and by that means drive away all fiends, and evil spirits, in the same manner as the druids were accustomed to do with vervain.
• They have a firm belief in witches; and, consequently, many · old women, merely because they happen to be old and ugly, are
forced to bear all the blame of the cows not yielding milk, or of the