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arts had been cultivated with redoubled zeal; trade and manufactures were reviving from a state of languor; and a better prospect began to open in every direction. Such were the statements, views, and predictions, of the three counsellors of state (Regnier, Najac, and Gouvion St. Cyr), who were ordered to give an account of the situation of the republic.
On the expiration of the truce, the court of Vienna protesting against a separate treaty with France, the war was renewed with apparent alacrity. The troops under Augereau had a conflict with those of Mentz at Aschaffenburg, on the 24th of November; and, on the 29th, Moreau, to whose exertions the French chiefly trusted for the humiliation of his imperial majesty, re-commenced hostilities near the river Inn. The works of Wasserburg were 'quickly forced by his men; but, on the ist of December, he was lefs fuccefsiul in a battle with the archduke John, who advanced with three columns to attack him near Haag. The action was obstinate, and the Austrians were repeatedly driven back; but the French were at length defeated. In an engagement at Rosenheim, on the same day, the corps of the prince ale Condé acquired reputation by a display of courage and firmness; and, on this occasion, the prince's son and the duke d'Angoulême exerted themselves with considerable effect in repelling the enemy. Encouraged by this success, the archduke soon risqued another conflict. On the 3d, he assaulted the post of Hohenlinden, memorable for the riguature of the lait convention. A heavy fall of snow and fleet had so retarded his march, that only the central column bad arrived at the place of destination at a time when all the divisions ought to have been ready to act; and the left, under general Risch, lost its way. One division of the French, conducted by Richepanse, pierced between the left and the centre, reached the great road behind the centre, and assaulted the left flank and rear of that column, at a time when it had formed in front, and had commerced an attack. The Auitrians fought for several hours with alertness and gallantry; but, their centre being repelled by the impetuosity of the republicans, great confusion ensued. Their left wing was also defeated ; and the battle Teemed to be completely decided in favour of the French, when a vigorous attempt was made by the right wing to wrest from them the honours of victory. Grenier suitained this unexpected charge with firmness; and, being well fupported, threw his adversaries into the utmost diforder. The baffled troops retired towards the heights of Ramsau, with very heavy loss; and general Kienmayer, being attacked on his march by a corps from Aerding, likewise luffered severely in that retreat, to which he was driven by intelligence of the disaster that had befallen the main army. *Above 10,000 of 'the Austrians, on this unfortunate day, are supposed to have been killed or made prisoners : of the French about 3000 lost their lives or were wounded. Klenau and the other Austrian generals are accused of having ima prudently extended their lines, so as to give Moreau a de. cisive advantage. The victorious republicans pursued the fugitives with little intermission, and, after some conflicts which we need not specify, took poffeffion of the city of Salızburg. Prisoners, artillery, and various stores, daily accrued to them; and their progress menaced the emperor with the conquest of bis capital.
Three other armies (the Gallo-Batavian army, that of the Grisons, and that of Italy) were in the mean time employed, though with less brilliant success, in promoting the cause of the republic. Augereau gained an important advantage near Bamberg, on the day which was dillinguished by the batile of Hohenlinden ; and, in other engagements, he prevailed over the imperial forces. Macdonald, defying the obstacies wbich an Alpine winter presented, passed from the country of the Grisons into the Valteline, drove the enemy before him, and opened a communication with tlie army of Italy. A part of the last-mentioned force, under Dupont, defeated the Austrians at Mascaria; and, on the 26th of December, the republicans passed the Mincio afier an obstinate contest, though on the preceding day they had lost many men in fruitless efforts for that purpose. Lieutenant-general Delmas, in attempting to pass near Monzanbano, was exposed to a severe attack; but he soon bafled his adversaries, and croiled the flream. Dupont, when he had effected a passage near Molino, was harassed by a charge so vigorous, that he would probably have been obliged to retire, if he had not been powerfully aided by Gazan with a fresh division. On the following day, new advantages ucre obtained; and, in these conflicts, above 7000 Austrians were captured.
While extreme confternation prevailed at Vienna, the archduke Charles repaired to the camp, to animate the troops to fresh exertions; but, instcad of attacking the enemy, a due sense of the inutility of further contest induced him to propose an armistice, which was concluded at Steyer on the 25th of December. Though the French had · acted dishonourably in dismantling the towns whichi bad been delivered to them merely as pledges by the convention of Hohenlinden, the emperor now consented to the surrender of many other posts, relying on the promise of restitution. Indeed, he was so humbled by the succeis of the foe, that he declared himself ready to detach himnielf from his allies, and recede from his former determination of agreeing to no other than a general peace. The British court, in coniideration of the perilous predicament in which he stood, released him from his engagements; and it is probable that a treaty between him and the French will foon be adjusted at Luneville..
At this critical poriod, 'while the emperor was in danger of losing his territories, his formidable adversary, the chief consul, incurred the risque of a loss of life. On the 24th of December, when he was on his way to a place of theatrical amusement, a sudden explosion broke the windows of his carriage, killed several persons, and wounded others. This mischief was occafioned by a barrel, in which were combustibles and a kind of musquet, placed on a small cars riage that was so disposed as to obstruct the passage through the street. In all governments, plots are sometimes fabricated to dupe the people; but that this was a real conspiracy is generally believed, and the Jacobins are fupposed to have contrived it. Many individuals were apprehended on suspicion of being concerned in the plot; and fome, after a judicial process, have been condemned to death; but we have not yet been informed of the execution of the sentence.
GERMANY. Our communication with this country was supposed to be endangered when the king of Prusha, in the thonth of November, took pofTeflion of the bailiwic of Ritzebuttel, on pretence of an invasion of the rights of ncutrality in the capture of an Embden ship by the English, by whom it had been carried into Cuxhaven, a port belonging to the Ham. burghers. The senatc, alarmed at the menaces of that prince, endeavoured to pacify him by procuring a restitution of the vessel; but he persisted in his intention of garrisoning Cuxhaven, though he promised to pay due respect to the trade and intereits of the inhabitants. This prince is said to have promoted the late northern confederacy; but he disavows all views of hostility against Great-Britain. The sincerity of his declarations may perhaps be questioned by those who reflect on his friendly intercourle with our enemies.
RUSSI A. Instigated by French counsels, impelled by caprice, or stimulated by amuition, the northern emperor demanded the island of Malta from the English, as he enjoyed the title of grand master of the knightly order. They refused to admit his pretensions; and their opposition to his will fo inflamed his resentment, that he not only ordered an einbargo to be laid (in November last) on all British ships in his harbours, but subjected the seamen to imprisonment and other severities of treatment.
Our court in vain remonstrated against there arbitrary proceedings : Paul declared that the embargo should be continued, and menaced his late allies with further marks of þis displeasure. Taking advantage of the disgust of the courts of Copenhagen and Stockholm at our exercise of the right of naval search, he urged them to accede to an armed neutrality, into which they were too easily drawn. Having seceived intelligence of this league, his Britannic majesty ordered, on the 14th of January, 1801, that all the ships of the three nations, which were already in his ports or should afterwards arrive, should be strictly detained. To repress the eventual hostilities of the confederates, great exertions are necessary; but we may trust to our naval strength, and disregard their efforts.
IT AL Y. The only incidents of which we have occasion to take notice under this head, relate to Tuscany. After the battle of Marengo, the French had acquiesced in the neutrality of the duchy, without insisting on the diffolution of that armed corps which the inhabitants had formed for the defence of the country. But, being defirous of re-pofieiling that territory, they pretended that frequent outrages and depredations had been committed in the adjoining districts by the Tuscan brigands or robbers (as they ftyled the armed corps above-mentioned), and desired Sommariva, who acted as commander, to disarm and dismiss them without delay. This insolent requisition not being followed by prompt com. pliance, general Brune sent a detachment under Dupont to take possession of the duchy. This officer entered Florence on the 15th of Oétober, the Tuscans not venturing to obstruct his march. Brigadier Clement, soon after, perfuaded the Auftrian troops at Leghorn to surrender that town to him, on his assenting to a convention for the continuance of the Tuscan government, and the security of privileges and of property; but this agreement was not scrupulously obferved, though the British merchants were fortunate in preserving the greater part of their effcals, by the conve. nience of the ships in the harbour. Strong parties were now sent out against the armed Tuscans at Arezzo and other places; and, as some resistance was made by the latter, they were not subdued or dispersed without bloodthed.
GREECE. It is not the least remarkable circumstance in the politics of the times, that two empeiors, Paul and Selim, hare concurred in the establishment of a republic, consisting of Corfu, Cephalonia, and other islands near the Grecian coast. It is styled the Ionian republic, and will enjoy a nominal independence under the protection of those potentates.
EGY PT. The French general Menou appears to be very actively and zealously employed in fortifying the chief Egyptian towns, in regulating both the civil and military departments, and improving the state of the country. The grand vizir and fir Sidney Smith have endeavoured, without effect, to draw him into an agreement for the evacuation of the territory. Unwilling to abandon a province which he confiders as a scene of French glory, but which many will
justly denominate a scene of French barbarity, he provides for its retention with as much folicitude as if he had been the conqueror of the country. In a letter of the ist of November, addressed to the chief consul, he speaks in high terms of his proceedings and regulations; but we must make allowance for the gasconade and oftentation for which his countrymen are notorious.
The troops that landed near Ferrol and threatened Cadiz, are said to be destined for Egypt; and we hope that they will be more effcctively employed than they were in the expedition to Spain. Without their aid, the Turks are unequal to the task of dilodging the possessors of Grand-Cairo and Alexandria. If Egypt should be subdued, our ally the grand signor may perhaps be induced to resign his pretenfons to the English, under whose fostering care it would foon become a very valuable province.
NORTH- AMERICA. After a long course of dispute not absolutely hostile, the United States and the French republic have concluded a treaty of peace and commerce. The trade of both nations will be conducted on terms of equality ; and it is particuJarly provided, that, if one of the two parties should be at war, and the other at peace, there shall be no visitation or search of the ships of the neutral state, when they sail under convoy. In this instance, they mutually relinquish a claim without denying the existence of the right; but, in the official report of the affairs of France, prepared by Regnier and his associates, it is insinuated that no such right exists.
Having thus brought down the public affairs of the world in general, and of Great-Britain in particular, to the close of the eighteenth century, we are inclined to offer some rea trospective as well as prospective remarks which have occurred to us in the course of momentary reflexion. The century which has recently expired was distinguished by a variety of memorable events in the earlier part of its progress; and, in the last ten years, it exhibited perhaps a more stupendous scene than the world ever before witnessed. One circumstance has attended it through the greater part of its course ; it began with war, and it terminated with war. Hence arises a melancholy reflexion, that a practice which, it might be supposed, could only exist in the absence of civilisation, has been found to prevail in an age of refinement, when the arts and sciences have been improved, when morality has been purified and sublimated, and relia gion has been in a great measure diverted of bigotry and juperstition. If we were not witnesses of tliis Itrange degradation of the human understanding, we should not be dispoied to give credit to an absurdity la extravagant and so