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may be made to yield different shades of brown, valuable for their variety, cheapness, and permanency.

6 Endiometrical Observations. By M. Berthollet.'

These are valuable remarks, but it was not necessary to drink of the waters of the Nile to have produced them. The endiometers which our author prefers, are liquid alkaline fulphurat or phosphorus. The former requires a long time to have its full effect, but the latter is quicker, though the remainder is increased about io of its bulk by a solution of the phosphorus in the remaining azotic gas. This increase is constant, so that the accuracy of the experiment is not affected. By these trials, the air at Cairo appears not to be worse than that of Paris, containing about .22 of oxygen.

• Observations on certain Processes for correcting the Defects of particular Kinds of Steel and Cast Iron. By M. Leon le Vavaseur.' · These observations are highly valuable, though we can scarcely abridge them with advantage. We shall only remark that hot short iron is supposed to owe its peculiar qualities to a mixture of some other metal.

It has been thought to be arsenic or zinc; I rather am inclined to think that copper also has a share in producing this effect. The ore of the mines of Alevard, which supply the smelting furnaces, and furnith metal for all the forges in the department of Isere, often contains grey copper ore. There is likewise found another copper ore, called njarcafite, which is carefully rejected, because it makes the metal very bad, and difficult to work.

• I believe I have read in Jars, that a night addition of copper gave more body to the iron. The different degree of fusibility of these two metals occasions the difficulty which is experienced in attempting to forge this iron at the usual degree of heat. · If the alloy, whatever it be, enter into fusion before the iron, the union between the parts ceases, and the bar flies under the hammer. If the heat is so great as to foften the most refractory of the two metals, they will remain in union, and may be worked without riik : as foon, however, as the temperature is lowered, the incohesion recommences, and it is necessary to wait till the mass is become cold before it can be safely wrought, such are the circumstances that require attention in the working of hot-short iron. The effect of the high heat to which it is necessary to expose this kind of iron is obviously not the volatilisation of the alloy; if this was the case, the iron, after the volatilisation of that which rendered it hoi-hort, would become pure : but, on the contrary, hot-fhort iron always preserves its peculiar properties, and every time that it is worked the above precautions are absolutely necessary.' P. 335.

• Report on the Oases. M. Ripault presented to the Instin

tute, a Memoir, intitled, “ Researches on the Oases ;” and M. Fourier read the Report of the Commissioners appointed to examine that Memoir.'

The Oases are fertile spots in the midst of the desert. The Oalis Magna is in 26° 30', and the two others between 29 and 30 degrees. They are marked by Mr. Browne, in his map; and the third Oasis, at Siwa, is particularly described by that accurate traveller. The present is but a meagre analysis of M. Ripault's memoir, which must be very interesting if published at length.

• Remarks on the Use of Oil in the Plague. By M. Delgenettes.'

All the novelty in this memoir consists in an account of the success of oily fri&tions. The oil porters in Egypt and the tallow-chandlers in London, are said to have escaped the disease. Dr. Mitchell contends that the tallow-chandlers in America were equally exempted from the attacks of the yellow fever.

Report of the Observations made to determine the Geographical Position of Alexandria, and the Direction of the Magnetic Needle. By M. Nouet.

The longitude of the Pharos of Alexandria was found, by the watch, to be ih 50' 17 1" ; by astronomical observations 15 50' 46"; the latitude 31° 13' 5". The azimuth of the same {pot was 12° 49' 33" west. In examining the dip of the needle, we find the mean time in which the arches were de. scribed to be about 31". The mean of the dip, when the face of the limb was towards the east, was 47° 30'; when towards the west, 48° go'.

• Analysis of the Slime of the Nile. By M. Regnault.'

Since the modern practice of watering ground has been ges neral, we begin to doubt of any peculiar merit in the slime of the Nile. It was, however, an object deserving attention, though the result is not particularly striking. The folid con. tencs of one hundred parts of the slime, consists of nine of carbon, fix of oxyd of iron, four of silex, four of carbonat of magncfia, eighteen of carbonat of lime, and forty-eight of alumine. The proportions of filex and alumine vary, according to the distance from the bed of the river, the latter containing the largest quantity of sand, while, at a great distance, the clay is almost wholly pure. It is justly remarked, that, at different distances, clay fitted for all the varieties of porcelain may probably be procured.

• Remarks on the Management and Produce of the Land, in the Province of Damietta. By M. Girard.'

This article we cannot abridge. The rice produces about cighteen and wheat about four for one. Flax appears a much more valuable object of cultivation.

« Observations on the Fountain of Moses. By M. Monge.' The fountains of Moses are situated near Suez; and, thoughz the water is brackish, it is palatable and wholesome. The humidity round the fountains nourishes herbage, which arrests the fand, and gradually accumulates hillocks. When the weight is superior to that which presies on, and raises the water, the fountain becomes dry, and other springs burit out, The principal spring is, from this cause, now dry, and the water seems never to rise above forty feet. As this fountain was probably the chief watering place for ships in the Red Sea, there seems to have been a manufactory of jars in its neighbourliood for the conveyance of the fluid.

• Extracts from the Geography of Abd-er-rashid ElBakouv, on the Defcription of Egypt. By M. Marcel.'.

• Ditcourse of M. Denon, to be read at the Institute of Cairo, on his Return from Upper Egypt.'

These articles furnith little novelty, M. Denon accompanied the army in Upper Egypt, but his discourte is as rapid as the motions of the troops.

The Works of Robert Burns. (Continued from Vol. XXIX.

p. 409. New Arr.) BURNS arrived in Edinburgh in the month of November, 1786. His reception in the capital of Scotland was highly flattering. The literary and the fathionable world united in testifying their admiration of his talenış. Among those who cherished the rustic bard by their countenance and support are enrolled the respectable names of the late Dr. Robertson, Dr. Blair, Dr. Gregory, Mr. Mackenzie, Mr. Frazer Tytler, and though last, not the least in well-earned fame, Mr. Dugald Stewart

Though the society of these excellent characters must have tended to enlarge the sphere of Burns's knowledge, and to cultivate his talle, the benefit which he derived from this signal advantage was unfortunately more than counterbalanced by the intemperate indulgences into which he was betrayed by the thoughtless and diffipated, who deemed the participation of the luxuries of the table a sufficient recompense for the company. of a man of genius. Burns was naturally prone to excess in festive indulgences; and the unceasing round of dissipation 10 which he was introduced in the gay circles of the Scottish metropolis, gave still more seductive charms to those imemperate pleasures, whose less-refined ailurements had too frequently overpowered his virtuous resolutions. They were certainly not very considerate friends of the future exciseman who gave him a relish for the gilded vices of genteel life. . In a pecuniary point of view, Burns turned his journey to

hen pleasures of Eais biographer his poems,

Edinburgh to good account. He took advantage of the rising tide of popular favour to publish a new edition of his poems, the profits of which enabled him, as his biographer says, nos only to partake of the pleasures of Edinburgh, but to gratify a desire be had long entertained of visiting those parts of his native country most attractive by their beauty or their gran. deur.' Accordingly he set out on the 6th of May, 1787, on a tour through that part of the country which is washed by the Tweed, which may be juftly denominated the classic ground of Scotland. Having spent three weeks in this excurlion, he visited Northumberland, and returnedly way of Carl. ifle and Dumfries to his humble dwelling at Mossgiel.

• It will easily be conceived (says Dr. Corrie) with what pleafure and pride he was received by his mother, his brothers, and fiers. He had left then poor, and comparatively friendless; he returned to them high in public estimation, and easy in bis circumftauces. He returned to them unchanged in his ardent affections, and ready to share with them, to the uitermost farthing, the pictance that fortune had bestowed.' , Vol. 1. p. 167. :, :, • After a short refidence with his relations he again proceeded to Edinburgh, whence he immediately set out on a journey to the Highlands. From the Highlands he returned to Ayrthire, where he spent the inonth of July. In Auguit he again vifited the metropolis, where, after two more excursions, the one through Stirlingshire and Clackmannanthire, the other into she Highlands, he fixed his relidence during the winter of 1787.8, eagerly renewing his intercourse with the learned and the diffi pated. Dr. Currie has recorded the most interesting occur. rences which happened during these various peregrinations of the bard; but as they are not tit lubjects for abridgment, we must refer such of our readers as with to trace the foo: Steps of native genius, to the work itself.

In the month of February, 1788, Burns, upon feitling bis accounts with his publisher Mr. Creech, found himself mafier of nearly five hundred pounds. Two hundred pounds of this suin he advanced to his brother Gilbert, who had taken upon himself the support of their aged inother. With the remainder he determined to establith himself in a farm. He also looked forward to the possibility of increating his income by the end., luments of an exciseman's office, which liberal encouragement he had been led to expect from the munificent patronage of Caledonian aristocracy. Exhilarated by thefe bright prue spects, • his generous heart,' says bis biographer, turned to the object of his most ardent attachment, and, listening to no confiderations but thole of honour and aifection, he joined with her in a public declaration of mariage, thus legaliling their union, and rendering it permanent for life.'

After quoting an interesting extract from Burns's commonia place book, which gives a detail of his views and resolutions at the period of his marriage, Dr. Currie thus proceeds.

• Under the impulse of these reflections, Burns immediately engaged in rebuilding the dwelling-house on his farm, which, in the state he found it, was inadequate to the accommodation of his family. On this occasion he himself resumed at times the occupation of a labourer, and found neither his strength nor his skill impaired. Pleased with surveying the grounds he was about to cultivate, and with the rearing of a building that should give shelter to his wife and children, and, as he fondly hoped, to his own grey : hairs, sentiments of independence buoyed up his mind, pi&tures of domestic content and peace rose on his imagination; and a few days passed away, as he himself informs us, the most tranquil, if not the happiest, which he had ever experienced.' Vol.i. P. 196. .

But, alas! the airy visions of future happiness were soon diffipated. With an eye at once gifted with the penetration of philosophy, and suffused with the tear of sensibility, has the biographer of Burns investigated the progress of his impru. dences and of his misfortunes. May the ardent sons of gee nius profit by the melancholy tale Felix quem faciunt aliena pericula cautum.

At the time when Burns entered upon his farm at Ellisand, Mrs. Burns was obliged by her situation (being near the time of her delivery) to remain in Ayrshire.

It is to be lamented (says Dr. Currie) that at this critical period of his life, our poet was without the fociety of his wife and children. A great change had taken place in his situation ; his old habits were broken; and the new circumstances in which he was placed were calculated to give a new direction to his thoughts and conduct. But his application to the cares and labours of his farm was interrupted by several visits to his family in Ayrshire; and as the distance was too great for a single day's journey, he generally spent a night at an inn on the road. On such occasions he fometimes fell into company, and forgot the resolutions he had formed. In a little while temptation assailed him nearer home.

His fame naturally drew upon him the attention of his neighbours, and he soon formed a general acquaintance in the district in which he lived. The public voice had now pronounced on the subject of his talents; the reception he had met with in Edinburgh had given him the currency which fashion bestows; he had sur-, mounted the prejudices arising from his humble birth; and he was received at the table of the gentlemen of Nithsdale with welcome, with kindness, and even with respect. Their social parties too often reduced him from his rustic labours and his rustić fare, overthrew the unsteady fabric of his resolutions, and inflamed those propensities which temperance might have weakened, and prudence

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