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to that of nature, their thoughts were stronger and more energetic, their style riever in ideas than words, and their expreffions loaded with metaphors which often appeared exaggerated, because they were not familiar with those gradations and thades which cultivated nations have introduced in painting their ideas. . The language afterwards became polihed, and freed from its rudeness at the time when the conquering Arabs made themselves acquainted wiili Greek literature. By forming their Ityle on the model of the excellent works in this language, and tranfving them in their own, they purified their taste and refined their native tongue.
" However, even at this period the imitation of the Greek poetry by the Arabian authors was not fervile : in receiving a spirit of order and regularity from the Greeks, the poetry of the Arabs has preserved its original tone, and that characteristic shade of difference which distinguishes it from that of every other nation. Its demea:)our is entirely its own, it preserves its own manner of thought, of expression, of arrangement of ideas.' P. 136.
Ex pede Herculein !
• Transcript of the Arabian ode, conformably to the harmonic alphabet of M.L- S.
• At length the dawn of happiness breaks upon us ; the time dei. tined by God has arrived ; an atmosphere of felicity surrounds us; the resplendent star of viétory which guides the French warriors has fhed upon us its dazzling light; fame and renown go before them ; fortune and honour accompany then.
• The chief who marches at their head, is impetuous and terrible; his name terrifies kings; princes bow their haughty heads before the invincible Bonaparte, the lion of battles; his courane sway's irrevocable destiny, and the heavens of glory are proítrate before him,
All must yield to his might! Woe to whoever lifts up against him the standard of war! To declare enmity to him is to bring on inevitable ruin: he humbles before hiin the mighty who refst him, but his generosity to vanquished nations is a fea that knows no bounds,' P, 140,
• Report of the Commissioners charged with the Examination of a Monument near the great Aqueduct of Cairo. By M. Denon.'
These remains are not of importance. The building is comparatively modern, from fome ancient ruins defaced and disfigured by the tasteless repairs of later architeås. .. Observations on the Colour of the Sea. By M. Costaz.'
The colour of the sea is blue, and from the thore appcais green, only from the yellow sand at the bottom. The blue is of the indizo hue, rendered lighter by the mixture of the whj.e light of the sun, as it rises ligger or is more inicnfe.
• Plans for Schools of Design, and an Agricultural Establishment in Egypt; by M. Dutertre and M. Nectoux,'
Offer nothing of iinportance to the English reader.
• Extract of Observations by M. Ceresole, Physician in Ordinary to the Army, during a Journey along the Western Banks of the Nile, from Cairo to Siout.'
These minuter traits of Egyptian manners and constitution are not uninteresting to the curious inquirer, but are incapable of analysis, and will not appear of importance even in an extract.
• An Attempt to translate a Fragment of the Koran into · Verse. By M. Marcel.'
« On the Dyeing of Cotton and Flax, by Means of the Carthamus.'
The Egyptian method of dyeing cotton with the carthamus is more important, as the European dyers find it difficult to impart to cotton a sufficiently rich colour. The difference between theirs and the European method consists in immersing the cotton in a hard water, grinding the carthamus with the alkali by means of a mill-stone instead of a single inixture, and the bath is a little heated. The colour, by this method, is very superb, but does not resist the action of soap, yet a slight action of this alkaline substance may be in some degree counteracted by afterwards immersing the cotton in the juice of citron, though it has then somewhat of a lilac hue, The fun weakens the colour without destroying it.
Memoir relative to the Lake Menzaleh. By Andreofly, General of Artillery.'
The mouths of the Nile abound with lakes; and, though the delia is gained from the sea, these appear to be of posterior formation, and to have been produced by a subsequent inundation of the river. To comprehend the formation of this Jake, situated between the Pelulian and the Phanitic branch, or that of Damietta, we must remark, that the interclosed space once contained at least two other mouths of the Nile, the Mendchian and Tanitic; but the water, having been drained by the canals above in part from their branches, they were no longer able to oppose the incroaching sea, were consequently repressed by it and overwhelmed the adjoining land. This is proved by the foundings, the direction of the islands, &c. which are now inhabited by a peculiar race. We shall transcribe our author's description of the islanders, as it ferves to show what changes are effected in the same men by modes of life cffentially different.
• The Menzaleh abounds in fish; the entrance of the mouth is frequented by porpoises. We saw but few birds, but there are many in such of the marshes along the sea as had been abandoned by the waters.
.* The lake is navigated by means of fails, oars, and poles; a contrary wind, provided it be strong, renders the passage twice or thrice as long as it would otherwise be. They anchor by means of two poles, which they ea fly stick in the mud, one at each end of the vessel. The fishing boats are nearly of the same form as those on the Nile; that is to say, the prow is about seven decimeters more elevated than the poop. In the former, the stern also dips more into the water ; this affords a greater degree of facility to the fisherman, who stands on the deck on purpose to hand, to throw, and to draw up his net.
" When the inhabitants of Matharyeh intend to fish at a distance from their own ifles, they take on board a quantity of fresh water in large jars, which are tied to the foot of the masts of their gerines; each germe carries one.
• The fishermen of Matharyeh appear to form a separate class. As they prohibit their neighbours from enjoying the advantages of the lake, they have but little coinmunication with them. Nearly always naked, generally employed on the water, and occupied continually in a laborious calling, they are strong, vigorous, and determined. They possess fine figures, but their aspect is savage; their skin is burnt with the sun, and their beard, which is both black and harsh, renders their appearance still more hideous. In presence of their enemies, they utter a thousand barbarous cries, accompanied with a most furious howl; they at the same time strike a kind of tambourin, the decks of their boats, or any thing that will occasion a noise; they apply the buccina to their mouths, and make its conet utter the famous roubh; 6 if we were militia,” exclaimed our volunteers, “ this noise would affright us, and we should jump into the water.” It is thus that the French soldier on every occasion preserves his gaiety, and by means of some merry-saying, either prevents the tedium of life, or banishes every idea of danger,' P. 196.
The following observations also deserve notice: it is well known, that modern geographers often differ to which quarter of the world Egypt belongs.
"l'pon a proper examination of the isthmus which divides the Red Sea from the Mediterranean, it will be seen that mount Mokatham and mount Casius (Louga) are the promontories of that sea of sand; and the point which almost insensibly unites them (scarcely perceived by the eye, but which nevertheless exists in nature) marks the separation of the gulph of Soues (Suez) from that of Gaza. Thus, topographically speaking, the Nile rather belongs to Africa than to Afia. The Nile running at the back of the mountains on the side of Africa, Mould have its course towards the welt; fince it is known that the waters of a river are subject to two declinations, the one in the direction of their length, and the other depending on the general topography of the country, which
latter determines the principal current of this river, by more parti. cularly affecting that of the two sluores, which are contrary to the general declivity of the country. .
" When the principal current meets with a counter-current, as happens in the Rhone, which is supplied from the mountains of the ci-devant Vivarais, it is not then so easy to form canals which originate from the coast; but at the same time no bursting of the banks need be dreaded; but the contrary takes place in different circumstances. Nevertheless there is nothing to prevent the direction of a river from being changed by appropriate works. .
What we have already faid appears to be confirmed in Egypt. The works of the canal of Youcef, of the lake Mæris, and those of the pier, which an ancient king of Egypt caused to be built, in order to turn aside, upon the right bank, the river which runs among the little hills of Lybia, and by that means struck with 1terility all the eastern part of the Delta,' p. 208.
It is a just observation, and deserves particular notice, that where a river is banked, and of course its depofits limited, the hed of that river will in time rise above the adjacent country, though that country was originally formed by the depositions of the river, when flowing unrestrained. This is at present the case with the Po. The draining of the lake Menzalch must depend on deepening the Tanitic and Mendelian branches, thus giving a greater momentum to their streams, which must be increased by deriving a portion of the waters of the Phanitic branch into thein, while the momentum of the sea is checked by proper flood-gates. The minuter details of the rest of this memoir, which, though ably, is harihly and obfcurely written, imperfe&ily translated, and incorrectly printed, need not detain us. The chart annexed differs considerably from that of D'Anville. We could have wished to have followed the author more minutely, for it is classic ground, and it is an interesting task to retread the steps of Alexander and Pompey.
9. Memoir on a Journey, made in the end of Frimaire (about the middle of December), on the Tanitic Branch of the Nile. By. M. Malus.'
MM. Fevre and Malus went from Cairo, on the canal of Moez, to lake Menzaleh. They think that this was truly the
Tanitic brauch, and the shores were once decorated with magnificent buildings and cultivated by a numerous population, The ruins of the former are every where observable. As this canal is navigable for eight months of the year for large jermes, our author thinks the route preferable to that by Danietta. .
i Particulars concerning the Valley of the Natron Lakes, and that of the old Bed of the River. By General Andreofli.'
As we have followed M. Sonnini in his journey to the
natron' lakes, it will be less necessary to describe them ininutely, or to point out the variation in the different narratives, The bahhar-hela-me is the most astonishing circumstance of the whole Egyptian system. It seems at least probable, as Herodotus has asserted, that the present bed of the Nile is the work of art, and that, from the lake Mæris, the river once ran to the west of its present course, through the hollow now left waterless. From our author's obfervations, and the remarks of other travellers, it is evident that this was once the course of a river communicating with the sea, and the traces of this former course may be discovered in a direction north-east from the fea, till it reaches the present bed of the Nile, nearly at the lake just mentioned. The patron lakes contain fea-falt, carbonat of foda, and sulphat of foda. The proportions of the two former are different, even in the immediate vicinity of each other, which appears to be owing to the salt ori inally being sea salt, and having been decomposed by the air and the aslistance of a calcareous foil. Where it rests on clay, the falt is neutral, and in the lakes which lie on tlint there is no falt of any kind. It is decomposed also, we have said, by the air, for the rushes are covered by crystallised talt, which is carbonat of loda, the dissolved salt riling through the lower crystals by capillary attraction. The red hue in some of the falis is from extraneous matter, M. Berthollet recommends purilying the natron before it is exported; for, as falt is often brought from these lakes with little distinction, the commerce may be injured by the large proportion of sea-falt sometimes irixed; and from the different solubility of sea-falt and natron, the separation will not be very difficult. Tlie natural productions of this valley are not very important. The progress of the sands is from west to east, but our author thinks that they will not reach the Nile, as has been apprehended, though they may ul. timately meet the river, as it gains on the western bank.
The Djeouabys are a hoipitable shepherd race, who annually frequent the patron lakes, and encamp there every winter with their flocks. They are merely thepherds, of mild inanners, and inoffensive in their conduct. The manners of the Arabs of the desert are described at length, but offer no thing new.
• Observations on the Natron, By M, Berthollet,
• Observations on the dyeing Properties of the Hnenne. By - MM. Descotils and Berthollet.
Of the hhennê we have lately spoken. It is of the family of salicaria, and abounds in colouris matter, which may be employed in dyeing wool. Alone, ii aifords a permanent fawn colour, which,, by means of alum and lulpat of iron,