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of duly or affe&tion to family or friends, his most prevailing im. pulse is the love of ease ; and indolence and vanity at once direct his choice to religious retirement. The multitude fatter with their adıniration the penitential devotee; and motives, perhaps merely temporal, falsely obtain the praise of exalted piety.

• It will be obvious from hence, Gince population is opposed by two such powerful bars as ambition and religion, how great a diminution in the number of inhabitants must inevitably be the result, In fact, the higher orders of men, entirely engrossed by political or ecclefiaftical duties, leave to the husbandman and labourer, to those who will the fields, and live by their industry, the exclusive charge of propagating the species. P. 170.

(To be continued.)

Persian Lyrics, or scattered Poems, from the Diwan-:-Hafiz :

with Paraphrases in Verse and Proje, a Catalogue of the Gazels as arranged in a Manuscript of the Works of Hafiz in the Chetham Library at Manchester, and other Illustrations, 410. 155. Boards. Harding. 1800.

THE lyric oles of the Perlians, and indeed of all the oriental nations, are denominated ghazels, or as the present authur, following the orthography of tir Williain Jones, writes it in the publication before us, gazels. They are generally dedicated to subjects of love and wine, and possess an occa. fional interinixture of moral sentiments, and reflexions on the virtues and vices of mankind. Like the Italian sovnet, tho gazel is limited in its length and its rhymes: yet, unlike the lonnet, which conlilts but of one thought or idea from its commencement to its close, the gazel admits of the most sudden and abrupt change in every beit or stanza of which it consists, In a legitimate ode these stanzas are never fewer than five, nor more, according to Meninski, than eleven; beyond which number the gazel allumes the denomination of russide or elegy, The elegant and accomplished baron Revinski aíferos, however, that the gaze may extend to thirteen beits without forfeiting its purity; and D'Herbelot, that it is still a pure and classical gazel if protracted to not less than eighteen. Toan European, the abrupt and unconnected sentiinents of which these different beits conlit, give the Pertian ode the appearance of defect and want of arrangement; but the bard of Iran is not within the jurisdiction of an European tribunal, nor subject to the faine fvitein of laws; and consequently we have no right to condemn hini for deviations from a code to which he will not submit. All oriental poetry exhibits something of this sudden and precipitous wandering from thought to thought, from subject to Subject; and it is iinpoxible to peruse even the Song of Solo, mon, which has considerable pretensions to regularity, and is the finest pastoral that ever was written in human language, without perceiving some decree of the laine poctical infraction.

But the gazel has more apology to offer for such abrupt tranlicions, if it were necessary, than any other species of meirical compofition. It pretends to be an extemporaneous rhapsody, ipoken at a public banquet, and over the most deJicious wines, when imagination takes the lead of judgement, and the whole foul vields itself over to the capricious sallies of wit, and the swiftly glancing emotions of tenderness and love, Dr. Darwin has happily compared the detached and isolated pictures of which his Botanic Garden confifts to feitoons of flowers united by the medium of a fine and delicate ribband; and the comparison, if we were in want of one, would equally. apply to the disjunctive and independent couplets of ihe gazei, But Hatiz himsek, the great maiter of the Persian lyre, has fornithed us with an analogy of more beauty and brilliance still; he illustrates the ditlerent stanzas of his oce, conjoined and harmonious, though separate and unconnected, by a row of pearls strong with carelefsness, and the sprinkling of the 1tars in the firinament. It is thus he concludes the most clegant gazel, perhaps, that he ever composed :

غزل کتی ودر سفتی بیا و خوش بخوان

جانا که بر نظم تو افشاند فاكا عقد ثریارا

Thou haft accomplished thy gazel, and strung thy pearls--Come,

recount them sweetly, O Hafiz! For heaven has sprinkled over thy poetry the bright and lucid circle

of the Pleiades.' The • Persian Lyrics' in the volume before us are selections from the Diwan, or complete productions, of this inimitable minstrel. The work is written by Mr. Hindley, and delicated to W. Ouseley, eiq. now fir W. Quseley, a gentlema!whole critical knowledge of eastern literature the public have been long acquainted with; and it opens with some valuable introductory observations' on the Persian language, and particularly the flyle of Hafiz; and the expediency of encouraging the study of the Perfian tongue in Great Britain, now that the interests of Asia are so minutely connected with our own, and fo large a portion of Hindustan is become a part of the British empire. From these observations we shall select the following paragraphs:

To give a literal or perfect tranftution of our author metrically, or even prosaically, into English, may be confidently pronounced

in posible. An obvious proof of this affertion will be found, on considering for a moment those oppugnancies, which occur so generally in the idiomatic constructions of the languages of England and Iran, and which must ever most effectually nilitate against such closeness of version. Whatever might be looked for from favourable analogies, the frequent and varied alutions froin words of limi. lar sound and formation, though generally of exactly opposite lige nifications, as well as the lively and often recondite lujus virborum so common in the Arabic and Perlan, and whichi, though Grange, if not trilling, to an European ear, are, to the habitual feelings of the Agaric, both choice and exquisite. These obstacles, I say, must alone render every chance of tranflative imitation in this case completely hopeless.

' Another insuperable impediment is presented to us in the peculiar genius of the Persian language, which, independent of its extreme melodiousness, its fimplicity, and the delicacy of its construction, so abounds in compounds, as at times to croud whole stanzas with compound epithets. This luxuriance, however graceful in its own idiom, is too exuberant, we apprehend, ever to be ea lily, if at all, appositely imitable in ours. Nor is it as yet by any means certain, that we have acquired a fufficien:ly extensive knowledge of the Persian particles, or of :heir force in composition, to do full justice to a work so replete with them as the Diwan of Hafiz.

We meet with a further, and not less formidable difficulty, in the mysterious and often sublime allusions to commonly represented to us in the Sufi poetry, under objects of sensual and voluptuous gratification. The delicate management of this imagery, so as to comport with the moral feelings of an English reader, muft require the greatest nicety in a trantlator, and demand the conítant exercise both of his taste and judgment. Although it may constitute a peculiar grace in the origina', it can only be copied with a very wary and cautious hand. It would, therefore, on this occafon, be prudent, if pollible, to avail hinifelf of fome of the more celebrated commen. taries, particularly those written in the Turkish language by Feridun and Sudi, especially the latter, not only on account of his eminent success in correcting the exuberances of this fanciful and extravagant mode of interpreiation, but of the singular happiness with which he has illustrated the ambiguous and more oblolete allusions of the poet; and to read again and again what has been already said upon this subject by two of the first authorities in Perlian literature.' P. 5.

"Were it neceffiry to mention the languages, in our opinion, best calculated to produce this effect, (viz. a genuine and accurate verfior) many reasons might incline us to selea, for that purpose, the Latin and the Italian. A variety of obvious causes, however, strongly tend to preclude, and, we trust, will continue to preclude, the general adoption of any language but our own, as a medium for conveying the more valuable reliques of Asiatic genius to our eountrymen. If the Persian language abounds in composition wortly the intimate knowledge of any nation in Europe, every motive, literary as well as political, must clearly concur in pointing out such Oriental compositions as objets of more particular attention to the people of Great Britain. But it must at the same zime be evident, that we can never look to the attainmerit of these desirable objects, viewing them in ever so distant a perspective, with any feasible hope of universal success, except through the natural and most promising channel of the English language. P. 17.

We cannot pay the English language the ill compliment which Mr. Hindley here advances. We are ready to admit the difficulties attendant upon a spirited, yet faithful version, of Persian poetry into any European tongue, whether ancient or modern : but instead of judging the English language more una tit for the purpose than the lialian or the Latin, we Mhould prefer the former to all European tongues whatsoever, and think the two latter thould even yield to the German and the Greek. The distinctive characteristic of the Persian is iis facility of creating compound epithets, and hereby of ex, citing ideas, either altogether original, or more delicate, and, at the fame time, more powerful, than can be aroused by the disjun&tive use of the radicals of which those compound epis thets conlist. But the Greek tongue has this happy peculiarity nearly in an equal degree with the Persian itself; and, from the unrivalled mellifluence of its enunciation, poffeffes by far die advantage of the Latin. And great as is the inerit of the accomplished Revinski's Latin version of two of the gazels of Hafiz, fubfixed to the present work, we cannot but think that it yields to the fidelity and suavity of the exquisite idyll of fir W. Jones which accompanies it, and is a Greck version of ano:her gazel by the same poet. For the reason that we prefer the Greck to the Latin, we should recommend the English or even the German before the Italian. The Perfian ittelf has not a greater aptitude of creating compounds adjuncts than the German, and the English is not far behind it in the pofleflion of this curious felicity. The Italian, undoubtedly, has the advantage in volubility and softness; but, like the Latin, it is extremely deficient in this treasure of incítimable value. The Braith and guttural genius of the Gerinan may be supposed, ac fiift tighi, lo make it an inadequate vehicle for the elegance of Peilian founds ; but under the dedalian power of Gelner, the gaze of Iran might be translated into German prose, and of Kloprtok into German metre, without any great detriment to jis acknowledgco cuphony. At the same time we contend tra: the German tongue is naturally less musical than the Englit, and on tliis account we decidedly prefer the latter, as 2 medium of coinmunicacing to an European the beauties of Persian poetry, either to the former or to any other with which we are acquainted. It is not quite so voluptuous as the lialian, and consequently not altogether so well calculated to convey the tender tones that treat of love ; but it is far more terse and manly, and infinitely better qualified, independently of its power of creating compound epithets, for exhibiting the moral maxims with which all eastern poetry abounds. Upon the whole, there is no language that can rival it for this purpose but the Greek: the Greek, however, is a dead tongue, and it is not to be supposed thar the most accomplilhed scholar can em. ploy it with the same dexterity and success that he can his own.

It is an old and a just observation, that mankind are always most interested in the productions of an author whose history is rendered familiar to them; and we were surprised at the present introduction of the Persian lyrist to an English audience without a {ingle memoir or anecdote of his life. It is a defect not easily to be accounted for, and which we shall endeavour to supply by the following brief biography.

Mohammed Shemseddin, on account of the retentive faculries of his mind, surnamed (lish) Hafidh, or, as it is commonly written by Europeans, Hafiz, ' a man of great memory,' was born at Shiraz, the capital of Farfistan, the ancient Perlis, under the dynaity of the Modhafferians, and flourished in the period when Timur, or Tamerlane the Great, defeated the fultan Shah Mansor. He was inuch careffed by Tamerlane, as also by the sultan Ahmed Ilekhani, both of whom, but parti. cularly the latter, tempted him with the most fplendid offers to reside at their respective courts. But Shemseddin was not arr.bitious of riches or honours: his soul was formed for retirement and ease, and he preferred a life of seclusion, in the midit of a few select friends, to the pomp and pageantry of a palace. In the delightful and unbrageous Valley of Mosellay, the Tempó of Persia, about two miles distant from the city of Shiraz, and cooled by the lucid waters of the Rocknabad, hc fixed his peaceful abode ; and it is here his tomb was erected upon his death with as enthusiastic a regard for his nemory as that of Rouleau in the garden of Ermenonville. The inhabitants of Shiraz still affemble in the summer season in this ro. mantic retreat, and chaunt over his reinains a variety of the verses of their favourite bard. He died in the year of the Hegira 797, corresponding with the year 1394 of the Christian ære, at the very time when the sultan Bahar was triumphanily entering into his native city. His poeins, which were never perfectly arrangeal during his life time, were collected after his death into one voluine by Seid Carfemi Anovar, and have become the subject of universal admiration among the nations of the East. To a rich variety and briliuncy of thought, which

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