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ficiently express its effects, we see no reason why it may not be termed the exciting or simulating note, in order to avoid the adoption of a Gallicism which the idiom of our language refuses to ratify.

In page 10 we have an exhibition of a series of 6ths which may be safely played or sung, by placing the minor scale above the major.' 3ds and oths, though called imperfect concords, are the only intervals that can be borne in regular suca cession.

In p. 11, bar 7, in the second violin, there is an error in the press: the d was never meant by the composer of that ingenious fragment, but B; which not only completes the series of 6ths, but avoids two ociaves with the base.

We are glad Mr. Shield has not indulged dilettante idleness, by totally banishing the tenor clef. Whoever is unacquainted with ihe tenor scales is not only unable to read a score of the present time, but all music for keyed instruments composed forty or fifty years ago ; and foreign music in general becomes a cypher, as unintelligible as Egyptian hieroglyphics, particularly the vocal music of Italy. The score of French operas at present, and the harpsichord lessons of Germany, till within these ten years, were all written and printed in tenor clefs.

The first and principal discord, the 7th, is well explained and illustrated, p. 12, as are its derivatives of and 4, with its inversion of 4.

Page 16. The author has stigmatised two passages for which we can see no reason. We always thought it allowable to inove from one part of a common chord to another, if octaves were avoided.

Mr. Shield has made good use of a Russian air with respect to allowances and disallowances of successive fifths. · At p. 22 a very important lesson is given for students to

practise in all keys. This the French call la régle de l'ottave, or rule for accompanying the octave ascending and descending. This harmonic formula, according to Rousseau, was first published by M. Delairc in 1700. It is a rule which, at a young musician's fingers' ends, would enable him to accompany with out figures any modern composition in which there is no extaneous modulation

Page 25. The author begins a new and useful expedient for teaching thorough-bass to performers on instruments, which are chiefly confined to the melody of a single part, and in. capable of playing chords. The figuring preludes 'for treble inltruments, in the ascending and descending scales, is well

imagined. It has not, as far as we know, been attempted her fore. In all the books of instructions for the violin and Geró. man flute that we have seen, the rules and precepts are wholly confined to the performance of melody, or a single part, with- . vur informing the student whence that melody is derived. The reducing melody to chords is a useful expedient in teaching accompaniment on keyed-instruments, for which all treatises on harmony seem written. A violoncello player particularly wants thorough-bass in accoinpanving recitatives ; but this. never seems to have been thought of in teaching that instruinent. The harmony of the scales, ascending and defcending, which Mr. Shield has given for the violin and fute will do nearly as well for the violoncello and haubois.

Page 28. We have the oth and its accompaniments explained. In a note at the bottom of this page Mr. Shield gives an iinportance to this discord from some high but anonymous authority, to which we cannot subscribe. Nor can we poffim bly assign any reason for his fixing on the gth, in preference to every other discord, for a young composer to study in the works of Correlli «till he fully comprehends every treatment he has given to it; and then, if he bas genius, he might begin to compose.' The gth is neither the moil agreeable, the most difficult to treat, nor the most frequently wanted of all the dira cords upon what then can this great inan's opinion be erected? It has been said in a book of maxims, that the opinions of inen of great abilities are respectable before they have given their realons for them ; but afterwards they are upon a level with the opinions of other men: for they will then depend upon seasons for support. not upon the authority of the character.'

The examples Mr. Shield has given of the treatment of the 9th on the three subsequent pages are very good.

But after bowing down to this great authority with respect to the superior importance of the gih, in the preliminary adveruitement to the second part, Mr. Shield obliges his readers to renounce all authority in judging of the compofitions he has felected to illustrate his precepts. Compoßtions (says he, p. 33) are frequently over-rated and undervalued by prejudice, therefore it appeared to me to be the most liberal plan, to let every inufical illusirative example recommend itself by its own intrinsic merit, and not by the name of the author.'

Whether Mr. Shield bestows praife, or (which seldom hape pens) censure on professors, he never mentions the perion implied or alluded to. This suppression of names is teafing, and aníu crs no purpose where praile is given, and, for aught we know to the contrary, may be due. It Athenæus, in his misa cell ny of fragments, had concealed the naine's of authors whony he cites, policnity would have been deprived of much fatisfaction. His compilation is now become invaluable, by preserving

Bot only beautiful passages to be found no where else, but also the names of the writers. Mr. Shield calls his work an harmonical miscellany, and our descendants may wish to know the names of authors of many specimens of excellence in various ftyles of composition ; particularly that inferted, p. 34, as a model of grave, solemn, and grateful harmony, which must delight all those who can mount up to times when true lune plicity could please the learned as well as the ignorant.

The fanelus, inserted p. 36, is a Itronger initance of good fense and propriety in the author of ii, than ingenuity of come position.

Part II. The scale of intervals at the beginning of this part will be very useful to a young musical student; and perhaps if the synonimous founds on keyed-instruments had been linked together by a semi-circle or ligature thus, cx db, d*eb, &c. the identity would have been still more inanifcit.

Page 38. In treating of major and minor semitones, the notes, we fear, will puzzle the text. Perhaps the tyro would understand the following fin:ple rule : the same note made accidentally flat, sharp, or natural, is a minor femitone, (to say why requires ratios ;) when the note changes place from a line to a space, or space to a line, it is a major feinitone..

In the next page, the subjcet of intervais is further pursued in a very clear and useful manner.

Page 40. The 4th made a discord by the 5th is very well explained and exemplified. The objectionable ways of taking these chords aç D E F might be easily avoided by taking the chords in a different part of the instrument. And the auihor, after discovering the malady, should perhaps have prescribed a cure. Begin wich C uppermost and all will be well. .

Page 41. Pafilages for different instruments drawn from the harmony of the scale, ascending and descending. An admirable expedient for teaching thorough-hals to treble instru. ments, or such base instruments as usually play only single notes.

The four next pages contain excellent lessons of accompani. men: for all the best instruments in use. We only object, p. 43, to the author's confining the term relative entirely to minor keys a 3d below the major. But all keys are relative that have one or more notes in common with two chords : as not only A, but E F and G are relatives to C. And we think Mr. Shield has copied Rameau and Rousseau with rather too much servility in pp. 44 and 45: first, in accompanying the 4 with an 8th ; secondly, in the citles given to the 4th and the 6th of a key, or inversion of the chord of the 7th: calling them the

CRIT. Rev. VOL. XXX. Oslober, 1800.

great and small 6th. These titles have never been given by the Italians or the English to such chords. The is the appropriate chord to the 4th and major 7th of every key, ascending; and the major, the chord of the 2d of every key. If, in full harmony, the 2d were accompanied by the 6 and 8th, it would be apt to involve both the composer and player in two 8ths between the bass and one of the other parts.

Page 46. Highly praiseworthy; particularly the descending chromatic scale in treble and bass. We shall probably elsewhere have the accompaniment to the ascending chromatic fcale.

We are now arrived at what the author calls a · Repertory of chords and cadences, from the unison to the thirteenth,' which he prefaces in the following manner.

o I have lately met with an excellent little treatise on harmony, the reading of which has given me both pleasure and information ; the title is dated 1731, consequently it contains many exploded doctrines, but it likewise contains principles which will be the basis of theory in 18oo, or any other century.

• The author's biographers inform us that he became a pedant in the latter part of his life, and only valued the abstruse part of the science ; but, in the abovementioned work, he has condescended to explain his theory in such plain terms, that I have preferred his rules and examples, for the management of the unison, to my own.' P.47. · This excellent little book, of which our author boasts the Jiscovery, is not a very uncommon work in the libraries of musicians, and has, we believe, been described by Hawkins and Burney in their histories. It went at first under the naine of lord Cornbury, a scholar of Dr. Pepufch; and his lordship, from his fuperior knowledge of the English language to his master, may have drawn it up as it was dictated to him; but the doctrine was always supposed to be that of the learned or. ganist of the charter-house.

In the note * at the bottom of p. 48 there are some prohi. bitions for which we are neither told, nor can we discover, a reason; particularly that which forbids • the going from the . unifon to the 6th major.' . From 49 to 52. We have here excellent lessons of thoroughbass for the violin. We would only with, at the top of p. 50, that the word retards were changed to sustains or continues. The bass is a bound appoggiatura. Gracing the bass when it is the foundation of the harmony becomes jargon; but that is not the case here.

At the top of p. 51 a Marp is wanting to g in tlie treble

chord; and at the bottom, the notation of the transient shake is inaccurate. In rapid movements, there is not time for four notes : the first should be suppressed, and the Thake begin upon the note itself. · The laws of harmony are pursued through all the figures and combinations of chords, and practical lessons of thoroughbass given for the chief instruments in use, to p. 57, where fragınents of harmony are offered, of which some are curious. At p. 58, top, the 'trifling alteration proposed, is not trivial in its effects: it has lengthened the measure from six bars to eight, and rendered a pretty passage heavy, correctly dull, and uomeaning.

59 is a very useful page, furnished by an excellent German writer. But Mr. Shield is constant in concealing the names of authors whom he cites or alludes to, in order, we suppose, not 10 offend the living by praising the dead, or the memory of the dead, by encomiums on the living. As far as p. 59 no composer or musical writer is mentioned, except Handel once. But an implication now and then escapes the author, not difficult for the present professors to discover in the midit of all his purposed concealment.

Page 60. Here we have discords unprepared. These, the reader should be informed, are by the Italians called a pedale ; as at the cadences in Corelli's and Geminiani's solos, where tafto folo occurs, and where the chords are only played by the violin, while the right hand of the harpsichord player gives nothing but the octave of the bass.

By the fragments, which Mr. Shield quotes from different masters, he has convinced us of his having kept good company in his musical reading and practice, not confining himself to old authors, nor taking his examples from their works alone; yet never losing his respect for them. We have in this treatise all the modern combinations and bold licenses which great and original genius has dared to hazard; most of which have been adopted, and, as the French express it, fait fortune (made their fortune).

We cannot, however, quite agree with Mr. Shield in the difference he makes, p. 68, between the chords of the In his example of the first, the 4th cis but an appoggiatura of that single pote; and in the second there is an appoggiatura of the whole chord. The 7 here is one of the many modern licenses which are now become rules. Forty years ago the harmony of the 4 was sometimes continued in German symphonies during a whole bar, surprising every hearer and offending many.

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