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out of five hundred inoculated died of it, though the death of this child is not, in our opinion, fairly imputable to the cow-pox, Several were, however, seriously ill. When the disease has been violently postular, it seems to have been communicated by effluvia; but our author thinks, that, by a proper choice of matter, the number of pustules may be in a great degree diminished, and will be very easy to separate a patient, who has many pustules, from those whom he may be likely to infect. We shall transcribe Dr. Woodville's account of the comparative effects of the small-pox and cow-pox on the human body.
• The vaccine disease, as it has lately been called, affords a striking example, and perhaps the only one yet discovered, of a disorder which can be transferred from brute animals to man, and carried back again from him to the brute. A remarkable instance of this is related at page 62, which shows, that the matter of the cow-pox, as reproduced by inoculation in the human animal, and inserted into the teat of a cow, produced the disease. Similar attempts were also made with variolous matter, which had no effect; hence in this refpect these two morbid poisons appear to differ. The cow-pox also differs from the small-pox in acting upon the constitutions of those who have undergone the latter disease, as was fully exemplified in the case of Frances Jewel. However, I am disposed to think, that the matter of the cow-pox is not so capable of affecting perfons, who have had the small-pox, as has been represented. I made feveral trials to inoculate this disease in patients at the hospital, who were recovering from a full eruption of the natural small-pox, but in no instance did any tumour appear on the arm; neither does the insertion of the variolous matter, in such cases, excite the least inflammation in the skin. It is probable, therefore, that the matter of the cow-pox, like that of the small-pox, does not manifest any local action upon persons who have lately undergone the variulous disease. If a person has casually received the infection of the smallpox, and be inoculated with variolous matter three or four days before the eruptive symptoms supervené, the inoculated part does not tumify, as in other cases, but becomes a simple pustule ; on the contrary, if a person has been inoculated, and the progress of the inocu. lation be so far advanced that the patient is within one day of the approach of the eruptive fever, and be then inoculated a second time, the tumour produced, from the second inoculation, will become niearly as extensive as the first, and be in a state of fuppuration a few hours after the fever commences. Hence it appears, that the process of variolation in the natural and in the inoculated small.pox is ditferent. The cow.pox, in every case with which we are acquainted, has been introduced into the human conftitution through the medium of external local inflammation, and is therefore to be considered as an inoculated disease: the virus of it seems also to affect a limnilar mode of aftion, and to be governed by the same law's as that of the smalla pux. Thus, if a person be alternately inoculated with variolous matter, and with that of the cow-pox every day till fever is excited, all the inoculations make a progress; and, as soon as the whole fyftem becomes disordered, they appear to be all equally advanced in maturation. However, the local tumour excited from the inoculation of cow.pox is commonly of a different appearance from that which is the consequence of inoculation with variolous matter ; for if the inoculation be performed by a simple puncture, the consequent tu. mour, in the proportion of three times out of four, or more, assumes a form completely circular, and it continues circumscribed, with its edges elevated, and well defined, and its surface flat throughout every ftage of the disease ; 'while that which is produced from variolous matter, either preserves a pustular form, or spreads along the skin, and becomes angulated and irregular, or disfigured by numerous veficulæ.
• Another distinction, still more general and decisive, is to be drawn from the contents of the cow-pox tumour; for the Auid it forms, unless from some accidental circumstance, very rarely be. comes puriform, and the scab which succeeds is of a harder texture, exhibits a smoother surface, and differs in its colour from that which is formed by the concretion of pus. All the appearances here de. scribed, however, do not constantly attend the disease, but are some. times so much changed, they can in no respect be distinguished from those which arise from the inoculation of the small.pox. When the disease thus deviates from its usual appearance at the inoculated part, its effects upon the constitution have commonly, though not alprays, been felt more severely than where the tumour was diftin&tly characterised.' P. 143.
1 P О ET RY. Saint Paul at Athens, a Seatonian Prize-Poem. By William Bola ·
i land, M. A. &c. 410. 15. Rivingtons. 1800. To this publication we have nothing to object but its brevity. It is animated by the true poetic spirit, and is at the same time chaftely correct. Happily for the author, he is not infected by the false taste of the times, which betrays so many of our poets into the turgid when they aim at the sublime, and into carelessness when they condescend to the familiar. His versification flows smoothly, and his pauses are happily varied; his topics are aptly chosen, avd his ornaments are appropriate. Upon the whole, we heftate pol to pronounce that this specimen of the powers of Mr. Bolland's early genius will justly excite in the lovers of genuine poeiry a high expectation of his future accomplishments.
The poem opens with an invocation to the holy martyrs who have suffered in the cause of religious truth, Among these Paul holds a distinguished rank. From tender compassion for his sorrows, the poet is roused to the contemplation of the holy energy with which he explained the mystery of godliness at Athens.
• Uphorne on tow'ring Fancy's eagle wing,
There is another and a better world. P.4. After touching on the prominent features of Paul's discourse, the nature of God, and of the service which he requires from man, he apostrophises the court of Areopagus, reproaching it for its folly in treating the message of the Apostle with contempt. He then proceeds thus :
• Who fall describe the senate's wild amaze
In heav'n's impenetrable armour cloth'd,
And breaks in harmless murmurs at his feet.' Mr. Bolland now institutes a comparison between the fage of Tare sus and the illustrious philosophers and orators of Greece. From the ancient heathens he is naturally led to the consideration of modern infidelity, which he laments in plaintive and indignant numbers ; and concludes by an address to his native Britain, exhorting her sons to place their hopes of mercy, in the day of trouble, on God alone, and to hold him in remembrance in the season of profperity.
Epifle from the Marquis de la Fayette to General Washingtor.
8vo. 25. Longman and Rees. 1800. The heroic epistle is one of the most pleasing vehicles of sen. timent. We are delighted by the versatility of mind which ena. bles the poet to identify himself, as it were, with various characters, to enter into their griefs, and to exult in their joys. But it is obvious that this species of composition is most likely to be successfully cultivated when the author chooses for his hero fome emi. nent person who has paid the great debt of nature. When the entire outlines of a man's life have been presented to our contemplation, still it is frequently a matter of no small difficulty to imagine the train of his ideas in any given circumstances : bold, there. fore, is the man who endeavours to penetrate the heart of living eininence, and to trace the concealed current of its thoughts : ftill bolder is he who assumes the character of one of the most distin. guished living actors in a most diftinguished æra, and in his name makes a recantation of his principles, and laments the consequences of those measures which he once regarded as the basis of his future glory: yer this has been the case with the author of the cpistle under our consideration, which might justly have been enti, tled the amende honorable of La Fayette. Whether the marquis will acknowledge the sentiments which are here attributed to him we know not. Should he, by any future declaration of his political faith, controvert them, the soul of the poem will be annihi. lated. Ignorant as we are of the notions which have been entertained by the ci-devant commandant of the national guard, since he first thought it expedient to quit the French army, we cannce pretend to decide upon the accuracy of the sentiments of this poem, as attributed to him ; we can only say, that these fentiments are expressed in easy fuent verse, which seldom rises to any extra. ordinary pitch of merit ; but which still more seldom links below the standard of approbation. "
The following analysis, prefixed to the poem, will at once present to our readers a detail of its topics :
· Fayette, released from his dungeon at Olmutz, perceives his health rapidly declining, and feels symptoms of approaching decay. To vindicate his fame, he addresses general Washington; reminds him of their ancient friendthip; asserts his own upright views in the French revolution; description of the horrors and crimes which attended it; contrasted with the virtue and happiness of America. Folly of thinking fo corrupted a people as the French were capable of liberty. Character of Necker; his presumption ; his fate. Character of the Illuminati ; their fate. Final destiny of France. Address to Great Britain; to America, American war. Conduct of British generals. Eulogium on General Washington ; his parting with his army ; anticipation of his fate. Fayette's misery; his expiring prayer. The conclusion.' "
As a specimen of the author's poetical powers,' we insert the following quotations. He thus expresses the sensations of La Fayette on his deliverance from captivity :-- :
" Imperial Justice, 'blushing at my wrongs,
To soothe the sad remembrance of my woe.” P. 2. In the following lines be describes, in energetic language, the excelles of the French revolution :
But ah! what horrid sights around me rise!
And phrenzy dancing 'midst the mangled dead.' P.4. It is presumed that all parties will agree in adopting the following sentiment :
• The mind that floops, to fordid vice a Nave, Is neither truly free nor truly brave.