Handbook of Practical X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis
Burkhard Beckhoff, Birgit Kanngießer, Norbert Langhoff, Reiner Wedell, Helmut Wolff
Springer Science & Business Media, 18.05.2007 - 863 Seiten
X-Ray ?uorescence analysis (XRF) has developed into a well-established multi-elemental analysis technique with a very wide ?eld of practical app- cations, especially those requiring nondestructive analytical methods. Over a long period of time, steady progress of XRF was made, both methodological and instrumental. Within the last decade, however, advancements in te- nology, software development, and methodologies for quanti?cation have p- vided an impetus to XRF research and application, leading to striking new improvements. The recent technological advances, including table-top inst- ments that take advantage of novel low-power micro-focus tubes, novel X-ray optics and detectors, as well as simpli?ed access to synchrotron radiation, have made it possible to extend XRF to low Z elements and to obtain t- and three-dimensional information from a sample on a micrometer-scale. The development of portable and hand-held devices has enabled a more ?exible use of XRF in a variety of new situations, such as archaeometry and process control. Furthermore, synchrotron radiation provides high excitation ?ux and even speciation capabilities due to energetically tunable radiation. Because of these recent advancements, the editors decided to compile a practicalhandbookofXRFasaresourceforscientistsandindustrialusersthat providesenoughinformationtoconceiveandsetupmodernXRFexperiments foruseinawiderangeofpracticalapplications. Additionally,selectedsections consist of a concise summary of background information for readers who wish to gain a more in-depth understanding of the topics without conducting a lengthy search of the literature. The present handbook is not intended to be a textbook with interdependent chapters, rather a reference in which the information in each section is largely self-contained.
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absorption analytical angle anode applications atomic beam beamline Bragg Bragg angle Bragg–Fresnel calculated calibration Chem chemical coeﬃcients collimator components composition Compton scattering concentration count rate crystal deﬁned detection limits detector determined diﬀerent diﬀraction distribution EDXRF eﬀect eﬃciency electron emission energy resolution equation excitation ﬁeld ﬁlm ﬁlter ﬁrst ﬁxed ﬂux HOPG identiﬁcation incident inﬂuence coeﬃcients intensity layer light elements material matrix measurement metal method micro-XRF microprobe monochromatic monochromator multilayer Nucl Instrum Meth obtained parameters particles peak photon Phys pixel polycapillary proﬁle proportional counter quantitative range ratio reﬂection X-ray ﬂuorescence sample scanning scattering semiconductor detectors signiﬁcant signiﬁcantly silicon silicon drift detector speciﬁc specimen spectra Spectrochim Acta spectrometer spectroscopy spectrum standard suﬃcient surface synchrotron radiation technique thickness thin tion total reﬂection X-ray trace elements TXRF wafer wavelength X-ray ﬂuorescence analysis X-ray optics X-Ray Spectrom X-ray tube XANES zone plate