Lectures on the Comparative Anatomy and Physiology of the Vertebrate Animals: Delivered at the Royal College of Surgeons of England, in 1844 and 1846

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Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans, 1846 - 308 Seiten
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Seite 303 - Transactions of a Society for the Improvement of Medical and Chirurgical Knowledge.
Seite iv - But ask now the beasts, and they shall teach thee; and the fowls of the air, and they shall tell thee: Or speak to the earth, and it shall teach thee: and the fishes of the sea shall declare unto thee.
Seite 213 - These currents, besides their effects on the living body, exercise all the other known powers of electricity : they render the needle magnetic §, decompose chemical compounds, and emit the spark.
Seite 43 - ... and by the diapophysis, or upper transverse process, which canal includes a vessel, and often also a nerve. Thus a typical or perfect vertebra, with all its elements, presents four canals or perforations about a common centre ; such a vertebra we find in the thorax of man and most of the higher classes of vertebrates, also in the neck of many birds. In the tails of most reptiles and mammals, the haemapophyses (as in fig.
Seite 214 - I thought the scene would have a tragic termination, and expected to see meet of the quadrupeds killed; but the Indians assured me the fishing would soon be finished, and that only the first attack of the Gymnoti was really formidable. In fact, after the conflict had lasted a quarter of an hour, the mules and horses appeared less alarmed ; they no longer erected their manes, and their eyes expressed less pain and terror. One no longer saw them struck down in the water; and the eels, instead of shimming...
Seite 125 - ... essential relations and characters appearing through every adaptive mask. According to the definition of which a vertebra has seemed to me to be susceptible, we recognise the centrum, the neural arch, the haemal arch, and the appendages diverging or radiating from the haemal arch. The centrum, though the basis, is not less a part of a vertebra than are the neurapophyses, haemapophyses, pleurapophyses, &c. ; and each of these parts is a different part from the other: to call all these parts 'vertebrae...
Seite 147 - Yet there are some who would shut out, by easily comprehended but quite gratuitous systems of progressive transmutation and self-creative forces, the soul-expanding appreciations of the final purposes of the fecund varieties of the animal structures by which we are drawn nearer to the Great First Cause. They see nothing more in this modification of the skeleton, which is so beautifully adapted to the exigencies of the highest organized of fishes, than a foreshadowing of the cartilaginous condition...
Seite 38 - Muséum, txp 344. bones, in the human skeleton ; for the ossification of the thigh-bone begins at four distinct points, one for the shaft, one for the head, one for the great trochanter, and one for the distal condyles : such deference, however, to the judgment of the great Comparative Anatomist has been withheld by the most devoted of his admirers ; whose disinclination to regard these parts and processes as distinct bones is justified by the fact that in birds and reptiles the femur is developed...
Seite 37 - ... is counted as a single component bone of the skeleton, is sufficiently obvious. The os innominatum is represented throughout life in most reptiles by three distinct bones, answering to the iliac, ischial, and pubic portions in anthropotomy. The sternum in most quadrupeds consists of one more bone than the number of pairs of ribs which join it ; thus it includes as many as thirteen distinct bones in the Bradypus didactylm. The arbitrary character of the definition of a bone, as ' any single piece...
Seite 39 - One sees not, for example, why the process of the scapula which gives attachment to the pectoralis minor, the coraco-brachialis, and the short head of the biceps should not be developed by continuous ossification from the body of the blade-bone, like that which forms the spinoua process of the same bone.

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