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O'er Britons wield the sceptre of their choice; government; to ver. 47. The several establishAnd there, to finish what bis sires began,
ments of Liberty, in Egypt, Persia, Phænicia, A prince behold! for me who burns sincere,
Palestine, slightly touched upon, down to her Ev'n with a subject's zeal. He my great work great establishinent in Greece; to ver. 91. GeoWill parent-like sustain ; and added give
graphical description of Greece; to ver. 113. The touch, the Graces and the Muses owe.
Sparta and Athens, the two principal states of For Britain's glory swells his panting breast;
Grecce, described; to ver. 164. Influence of And ancient arts he emulous revolves :
Liberty over all the Grecian states; with regard His pride to let the smiling heart abroad,
w their government, their politeness, their vir. Through clouds of pomp, that but conceal the man; tues, their arts and sciences. The vast suTo please his pleasure; bounty his delight;
periority it gave thein, in point of force and And all the soul of Titus dwells in him."
bravery, orer the Persians, exemplified by the Hail, glorious theme! but how, alas! shall verse, action of Thermopylæ, the battle of Marathon, From the crude stores of mortal language drawn, and the retreat of the ten thousand. Its full How faint and tedious, sing, what, piercing deep, exertion, and most beautiful effects in Athens; The goddess flash'd at once upon my soul. 382 to ver. 216. Liberty the source of free philoFor, clear precision all, the tongue of gods,
sophy. The various schools, which took their Is harmony itself; to every ear
rise from Socrates; to ver. 257. Enumeration Famihar known, like light to every eye.
of fine arts: eloquence, poetry, music, sculp: Meantime disclosing ages, as she spoke,
ture, painting, and architecture; the effects of In long succession pour'd their empires forth; Liberty in Greece, and brought to their utmost Scene after scene, the human drama spread; perfection there; to ver. 381. Transition to And still th' embodied picture rose to sight.
the modern state of Greece; to ver. 411. Why On thou, to whom the Muses owe their flame; Liberty declined, and was at last entirely lost Who bidd'st, beneath the pole, Pamassus rise, among the Grecks; to ver. 472. Concluding And Hippocrend flow; with thy bold case, 392
Thus spoke the goddess of the fearless eye;
And at her voice, renew'd, the vision rose.
“ First in the dawn of time, with eastern swains, Ver. 83. L. J. Brutus, and Virginius.
In woods, and tents, and cottages, I liv'd; Ver. 242. Via Sacra.
While on from plain to plain they led their docks, Ver. 247. M. Angelo Buonaroti, Palladio, and
In scarch of clearer spring, and fresher field. Raphael d'Urbino; the three great modern masters These, as increasing families disclos'd in sculpture, architecture, and painting.
The tender state, I taught an equal sway. Ver. 273. Tusculum is reckoned to have stood Few were offences, properties, and laws.
10 at a place now called Grotto Ferrata, a convent of Beneath the rural portal, palm o'erspread,
The father-senate met. There Justice dealt, monks.
Ver. 276. The bay of Mola (anciently Formiæ) | With reason then and equity the same, into which Homer brings Ulysses, and his com
Free as the corninon air, her prompt decree; panions. Near Formiæ Cicero had a villa. Nor yet had stain d her sword with subject's blood, Ver. 284. Naples then under the Austrian govern- The simpler arts were all their simple wants
Had urg'd to light. But instant, these supply'd, ment.
Ver. 288. Campagna Felice, adjoining to Capua. Another set of fonder wants arose,
Ver. 290). The coast of Baïæ, which was former. And other arts with them of finer aim ; ly adorned with the works mentioned in the follow. Till, from refining want to want impella, ing lines: and where, amidst many magnificent The mind by thinking push'd her latent powers, 20 ruins, those of a temple erected to Venus are still And life began to glow, and arts to shine. to be seen.
“ At first, on brutes alone the rastic war Ver. 303. All along this coast the ancient Ro- Lanch'd the rude spear; swift, as he glar'd along, mans had their winter retreats; and several popu. For then young sportive life was void of toi!,
On the grim lion, or the robber-wolf. lous cities stood,
Demanding little, and with little pleas'd:
But when to manhood grown, and endless joys,
Led on by equal toils, the bosom fir’d;
From the lone pilgrim and the wandering swain,
Sciz'd what he durst not earn. Then brother's blood
The last worst monsters of the shaggy wood, Liberty traced from the pastoral ages, and the Turn’d the keen arrow, and the sharpen'd spear.
first uniting of neighbouring families into civil | Then war grew glorious. Heroes then arose;
BEING THE SECOND PART OF
THE CONTENTS OF PART II.
Who, scorning coward self, for others livid, And balanc'd all. Spread on Furota's bank, Toild for their ease, and for their safety bled. 40 Amid a circle of soft-rising hills,
110 W'est with the living day to Greece I caine : The patient Sparta one: the sober, hard, Earth smil'd bencath my heam: the Muse before And man-subduing city; which no shape Sonorous flew, that low till then in woods
Of pain could conquer, nor of pleasure charm. Had tuu'd the reed, and sigh'd the shepherd's Lycurgus there built, on the solid base But now, to sing heroic deeds, she swellid (pain; Of equal life, so well a temper'd state; A nobler note, and bade the banquet burn. Where mix'd each government, in such just poise;
“ For Greece my sons of Egypt I forsook : Each power so checking, and supporting, each, A boastful race, that in the rain abyss
That firm for ages, and unmov'd, it stood, Of fabling ages lov'd to lose their source,
The fort of Greece! without one giddy hour, And with their rirer trac'd it from the skies. 50 One shock of faction, or of party-rage.
120 While there my laws alone despótic reign'd, For, draind the springs of wealth, corruption there Aud king, as well as people, proud obey'd : Lay wither'd at the root. Thrice happy land! I taught them science, virtue, wisdom, arts : Had not neglected art, with weedy vice By poets, sages, legislators sought;
Confounded, sunk. But if Athenian arts The school of polish'd life, and human kind. Lov'd not the soil; yet there the calm abode But when mysterious Superstition came,
Of wisdom, virtue, philosophic ease,
Confia'd, and press'd into laconic force.
His thymy treasures to the labouring bee,
Between llissus and Cephissus glow'd
Of active arts, and animated arms. of old Phænicia; first for letters fam'd,
There, passionate for me, an easy mov'd, That paint the voice, and silent speak to sight, A quick, refind, a delicate, humane, Of arts prime source, and guardian! by fair stars, Enlightend people reign'd. Oft on the brink First tempted out into the lonely deep;
Of ruin, hurry'd by the charm of speech, To whom i first disclos'd mechanic arts,
Inforcing hasty counsel immature, The winds to conquer, to subdue the waves, 80 Totter'd the rash democracy; unpois'd,
150 With all the peaceful power of ruling trade; And by the rage devour'd, that ever tears Earnest of Britain. Nor by these retain'd; A populace unequal; part too rich, Nor by the neighbouring land, whose palmy shore And part or fierce with want, or abject grown. The silver Jordan lari's. Before me lay
Solon, at last, their mild restorer, rose : The promis'd land of arts, and urg'd my flight. Allay'd the tempest; to the calm of laws
“Hail Nature's utmost boast! unrivallid Greece! Reduc'd the settling whole; and, with the weight My fairest reign ! where every power benign
Which the two senates to the public lent, Conspir'd to blow the flower of human-kind, As with an anchor fix'd the driving state. And lavish'd all that genius can inspire.
“ Nor was my forming care to these confin'd. Clear sunny climates, by the breezy main, 90 for emulation through the whole I pour'd, 160 Tönian or Egean, tomperid kind,
Noble contention! who should most excel Light, airy soils. A country rich, and gay; In government well-pois'd, adjusted best Bioke into hills with balmy odours cround, To public weal : in countries cultur'd high: And,bright with purple harvest joyous vales (flow'd: In ornamented towns, where order reigns, Mountains and streams, where verse spontaneous Free social life, and polish'd manners fair: Whence deem'd toy wondering men the seat of gods, In exercise, and arms; arms only drawn And still the mountains and the streams of song. For common Greece, to quell the Persian pride: All that boon Nature could luxuriant pour
In moral science, and in graceful arts. Of high materials, and niy restless arts
Hence, as for glory peacefully they strove, Frame into finish'd life. How many states, 100 The prize grew greater, and the prize of all. 170 And clustering towns, and monuments of fame, By contest brighten'd, hence the radiant youth And scenes of gorions deeds, in little bounds! Pour'd every beam ; by generous pride inflam'd, Froin the rough tract of bending mountains, beat Felt every ardour burn: their great reward By Adria's bere, there by i gran waves;
The verdant wreath, which sounding Pisa gave. To where the decp adorning Cyclade Isles
“ Hence tlourish'd Greece; and hence a race of In shining prospect rise, and on the shore
As gods by conscious future times ador'd: (men, Of farthest Crrte resounds the Libyan main. In whom each virtne wore a smiling air,
“ O'er all two rivai cities reard the brow, Each science shed o'er life a friendly light,
Each art was nature. Spartan valonr hence, Slept with the monsters of succeeding times. 249 At the fam'd pass, firm as an isthinus stood; 180 From priestly darkness sprung th' enlightening arts And the whole eastern ocean, waving far
Of fire, and sword, and rage, and horrid names. As eye could dart it's vision, nobly check d,
“ (, Greece! thou sapient nurse of finer arts ! While in extended battle, at the field
Which to bright science blooming fancy bore, Of Marathon, my keen Athenians drove
Be this thy praise, that thou, and thou alone, Before their ardent band, an host of slaves. In these hast led the way, in these excell'd,
Hence through the continent ten thousand Greeks Crown'd with the laurel of assenting time. l'rg'd a retreat, whose glory not the prime
“In thy full language, speaking mighty things; Of victories can reach. Deserts, in vain, 188 Like a clear torrent close, or else diffus'u Oppos'd their course; and hostile lands, unknown; A broad majestic stream, and rolling on And deep rapacious foods, dire-bank'd with death; | Through all the winding harmony of sound: 260 And mountains, in whose jaws destruction grinn'd In it the power of eloquence, at large, Hunger, and toil; Armenian snows, and storms; Breath'd the persuasive or pathetic soul; And circling myriads still of barbarous foes. Still'd by degrees the democratic storm, Greece in their view, and glory yet untouch'd, Or bade it threatening rise, and tyrants shook, Their steady column pierc'd the scattering herds, Flush'd at the head of their victorious troops. Which a whole empire pour'd; and held its way In it the Muse, her fury never quench’d, Triumphant, by the sage-exalted chief
By mean unyielding phrase, or jarring sound, Fir'd and sustain'd. Oh, light and force of mind, Her unconfind divinity display'd; Almost almighty in severe extremes !
And, still harmonious, form'd it to her will: The sea at last from Colchian inountains seen, 200 Or soft depress'd it to the shepherd's moan, Kind-hearted transport round their captains threw Or rais'd it swelling to the tongue of gods. The soldiers fond embrace, o’erflow'd their eyes « Heroic song was thine; the fountain-bard, With tender floods, and loos'd the general voice Whence each poetic stream derives its course. To cries resounding loud— The sea! the sea !! Thine the dread moral scene, thy chief delight!
“ In Attic bounds hence heroes, sages, wits, Where idle Fancy durst not mix her voice, Shone thick as stars, the milky way of Greece! When Reason spoke august; the fervent heart And though gay wit, and pleasing grace was theirs, Or plain'd, or storm'd; and in th' impassion'd All the soft modes of elegance and ease;
Concealing art with art, the poet sunk. (man, Yet was not courage less, the patient touch This potent school of manners, but when left Of toiling art, and disquisition deep.
210 To loose neglect, a land-corrupting plague, 260 “ My spirit pours a vigour throngh the soul, Was not unworthy deem'l of public care, Th’ unfetter'd thought with energy inspires,
And boundless cost, by thee; whose every son, Invincible in arts, in the bright field
Ev'n last mechanic, the true taste possess'd Of nobler science, as in that of arms.
Of what had flavour to the nourish'd soul. Athenians thus not less intrepid burst
“ The sweet enforce of the poet's strain, The bonds of Tyrant darkness, than they spurn'd Thine was the meaning music of the heart. The Persian chains: while through the city, full Not the vain trill, that, void of passion, runs Of mirthful quarrel and of witty war,
In giddy mazes, tickling idle ears; Incessant struggled taste retining taste,
But that deep-searching voice, and artful hand, And friendly free discussion, calling forth 220 | To which respondent shakes the varied soul. 290 Froin the fair jewel truth its latent ray.
“ Thy fair ideas, thy delightful forms, O’er all shone out the great Athenian sage,
By Love i nagin'd, by the Graces touch'd, And father of philosophy: the sun,
The boast of well-pleas'd Nature! Sculpture sciz'd,
Exalting, blending in a perfect whole,
Or the sly graces of the Cyprian queen. Like the clear brook that steals along the vale; Minutely perfect all! Each dimple sunk, Dissecting truth, the Stagyrite's keen eye;
And every muscle swell'd, as Nature taught. Th'exalted Stoic pride; the Cynic sneer;
In tresses, braided gay, the marble wav'd; The slow-consenting Academic doubt; 240 Flow'd in loose robes, or thin transparentveils ;310 And, joining bliss to virtue, the glad case
Sprung into motion ; soften'd into fesh; Of Epicurus, seldom understood.
Was fir'd to passion, or refind to soul. They, ever-candid, reason still oppos'd
“ Nor less thy pencil, with creative touch, To reason ; and, since virtue was their aim, Shed mimic life, when all thy brightest dames, Each by sure practice try'd to prove his way Assembled, Zeuxis in his Helen mix'd. 'The best. Then stood untouch'd the solid base And when Apelles, uho peculiar knew Of Liberty, the liberty of mind :
To give a grace that more than mortal smild, For systems yet, and soul-enslaving creeds, The soul of beauty! call'J the queen of Love,
Fresh from the billows, blushing orient charms. Of rolling ages, light as fabrics look'd
That from the magic wand aërial rise.
390 That cruel-thoughted War th' impatient torch 321 “ These were the wonders that illumin'd Greece, Dash'd to the ground ; and, rather than destroy From end to end."-Here interrupting warm, The patriot picture, let the city 'scape.
" Where are they now?” (I cry'd) “say, goddess, “ First elder Sculpture taught her sister Art
where? Correct design ; where great ideas shone,
And what the land thy darling thus of old ?» And in the secret trace expression spoke :
“ Sunk!” she resum'd: “deep in the kindred Taught her the graceful attitude; the turn, Of superstition, and of slavery sunk! (sloon And beauteous airs of head; the native act, No glory now can touch their hearts, benumb'd Or bold, or easy; and, cast free behind,
By loose dejected sloth and servile fear; The swelling mantle's well-adjusted flow. 330 No science pierce the darkness of their minds ; Then the bright Muse, their elder sister, came; No nobler art the quick ambitions soul 400 And bade her follow where she led the way:
Of imitation in their breast awake. Bade earth, and sea, and air, in colours rise; Ev'n, to supply the needful arts of life, And copious action on the canvass glow:
Mechanic toil denies the hopeless hand. Gave her gay fable; spread invention's store ; Scarce any trace remaining, vestige grey, Enlarg'd her view; taught composition high, Or nodding column on the desert shore, And just arrangement, circling round one point, To point where Corinth, or where Athens stood. That starts to sight, binds and commands the whole. A faithless land of violenoe, and death! Caught from the heavenly Muse a nobler aim, Where Commerce parleys, dubious, on the shore; And, scorning the soft trade of mere delight, 340 And his wild impulse curious search restrains, O'er all thy temples, porticos, and schools, Afraid to trust th' inhospitable clime.
410 Heroic deeds she trac'd, and warm display'd Neglected Nature fails; in sordid want Each moral beauty to the ravish'd eye.
Sunk, and debas'd, their beauty bcams no more. There, as th' imagin'd presence of the god, The Sun himself seems angry, to regard, Arous'd the mind, or vacant hours induc'd Of light unworthy, the degenerate race; Calm contemplation, or assembled youth
And fires them oft with pestilential rays : Bum'd in ambitious circle round the sage,
While Earth, blue poison steaming on the skies, The living lesson stole into the heart,
Indignant, shakes them from her troubled sides. With more prevailing force than dwells in words. But as from man to man, Fate's first decree, These rouse to glory; while, to rural life, 350 | Impartial Death the tide of riches rolls, The softer canvass oft repos'd the soul.
So states must die, and Liberty go round. 420 There gayly broke the sun-illumin'd cloud;
“ Fierce was the stand, ere virtue, valour, arts, The lessening prospect, and the mountain blue, And the soul fir'd by me (that often, stung Vanish'd in air; the precipice frown'd, dire, With thoughts of better times and old renown, White, down the rock the rushing torrent dash'd ; From hydra-tyrants try'd to clear the land) The Sun shone, trembling, o'er the distant main; Lay quite extinct in Greece, their works effac'd The tempest foam'd, immense ; the driving storm And gross o'er all unfeeling bondage spread. Sadden'd the skies, and, from the doubling gloom, Sooner I mov'd my much- reluctant flight, On the scath'd oak the ragged lightning fell; 359 Pois'd on the doubtful wing: when Greece with In closing shades, and where the current strays,
Greece With peace, and love, and innocence around, Embroil'd in foul contention fought no more Pip'd the lone shepherd to his feeding flock: For common glory, and for common weal: 430 Round happy parents smild their younger selves; But, false to freedom, sought to quell the free; And friends convers'd, by death divided long. Broke the firm band of peace, and sacred love,
“ To public Virtue thus the smiling Arts, That lent the whole irrefragable force; Unblemish'd handmaids, serv'd! the Graces they And, as around the partial trophy blush'd, To dress this fairest Venus. Thus rever'd,
Prepar'd the way for total overthrow. And plac'd beyond the reach of sordid care, Then to the Persian power, whose pride they scom'd, The high awarders of immortal fame,
When Xerxes pour'ā his millions o'er the land, Alone for glory thy great masters strove; 370 Sparta, by turns, and Athens, vilely sued; Courted by kings, and by contending states Sued to be venal parricides, to spill
439 Assum'd the boasted honour of their
Their country's bravest blood, and on themselves “ In Architecture too thy rank supreme !
To turn their matchless mercenary arms. That art where most magnificent appears
Peaceful in Susa, then, sate the great king;
And by the trick of treaties, the still waste
Effected what his steel could ne'er perform.
And by their listed orators, whose breath 450 Th’lonic then, with decent matron grace, Still with a factious storm infested Greece, Her airy pillar heav'd ; luxuriant last,
Rous'd them to civil war, or dash'd them down 'The rich Corinthian spread her wanton wreath. To sordid peace.--Peace! that, when Sparta shook The whole so measurd true, so lessend off Astonish'd Artaxerxes on his throne, By fine proportion, that the marble pile,
Gave up, fair-spread o'er Asia's sunny shore, Torna'd to repel the still or stormy waste
Their kindred cities, to perpetual chaios.
OEING THE THIRD PART OF
TIIE CONTENTS OF PART 111.
What could so base, so infamous a thought, celebrated Protogenes; he chose rather to raise In Spartan hearts inspire ? Jealous, they saw the siege than hazard the burning of a famous Respiring Athens rear again her walls;
picture called Ja!ysus, the master-piece of that And the pale fury fir'd them, once again 460 | painter. To crush this rival city to the dust.
Ver. 442. So the kings of Persia were called by For now no more the noble social soul
the Greeks. Of Liberty my families combin'd;
Ver. 453. The peace made by Antalcidas, the But by short views, and selfish passions, broke, Lacedemonian admiral, with the Persians; by Dirc as when friends are rankled into foes,
which the Lacedemonians abandoned all the They mix'd severe, and wag'd eternal war; Greeks established in the lesser Asia to the doNor felt they, furious, their exhausted force; minion of the king of Persia. Nor, with false glory, discord, madness blind, Ver. 459. Athens had been dismantled by the Saw how the blackening storm froin Thracia came. Lacelemonians, at the end of the first PeloponLong years rolld on, by many a battle stain'd, 470 nesian war, and was at this timo restored by The blush and boast of Fame! where courage, art, Conon to its former splendour. And military glory, shone supreme:
Ver. 470. The Peloponnesian war. But let detesting ages, from the scene
Ver. 478. Pelopidas and Epaminondas. Of Greece self-mangled, turn the sickening eye. Ver. 480. The battle of Chæronea, in which At last, when bleeding from a thousand wounds, Philip of Macedon utterly defeated the Greeks She felt her spirits fail; and in the dust Her latest heroes, Nicias, Conon, lay, Agesilaus, and the Theban Friends : The Macedonian valtare mark'd his time, By the dire scent of Cheronea lur'd,
ROME: And, fierce-descending, seiz'd his hapless prey. .
“ Thus tame submitted to the victor's yoke Greece, once the gay, the turbulent, the bold;
" Volcss Corruption first deject the pride, 490 as this part coutains a description of the establishAnd guardian vigour of the free-born soul,
ment of Liberty in Rome, it begins with a view
of the Grecian colonies settled in the southern All crude attempts of violence are vain; For, firm within, and while at heart untouch'd,
parts of Italy, which with Sicily constituted the
Great Greece of the ancients. With these coloNe'er yet by force was Freedom overcome. But soon as Independence stoops the head,
nies the spirit of Liberty, and of republics, To vice enslav'd, and vice-created wants;
spreads over Italy; to ver. 32. Transition to Then to some foul corrupting hand, whose waste
Pythaguras and his philosophy, which he taught These heighten'd wants with fatal bounty feeds:
through those free states and cities; to ver. 71. From man to man the slackening ruin runs,
Amidst the many small republies in Italy, Rome Till the whole state unnerv'd in slavery siuks.” 500
the destined seat of Liberty. Her establishment there dated from the expulsion of the Tarquins. How differing from that in Greece; to rer. 88. Reference to a vicw of the Roman republic giver
in the first part of this poem: to mark its rise NOTES ON PART I
and fall, the peculiar purport of this. During Ver. 57. Civil tyranny,
its first ages, the greatest force of Liberty and Ver. 63. The pyramids.
virtue exerted; 10 ver. 103. The source Ver. 65. The tyrants of Egypt.
whence derived the heroic virtues of the RoVer. 138. A mountain near Athens.
Enumeration of these virtues. Thence Ver. 142. Two rivers, betwixt which Athens was
their sccurity at home; their glory, success, situated.
and empire, abroad; to rer. 226. Bounds of Ver. 157. The Areopagiis, or supreme court of the Roman empire, geographically described ; judicature, which Solon reformed, and improved : to ver. 257. The states of Greece restored to and the council of four hundred, by himn instituted. Liberty by Titus Quintus Flaminius, the highest In this council all affairs of state were deliberated, instance of public generosity and beneficence; before they came to be voted in the assembly of to ver. 328. The loss of Liberty in Rome. Its
causes, progress, and completion in the death of Ver. 174. Or Olympia, the city where the Brutus; to ver. 485. Rome under the emOlympic games were celebrated.
perors; to ver. 513. From Romne the goddess Ver. 180. The straits of Thermopylə.
of Liberty goes among the Northern Nations ; Ver. 197. Xenophon.
where, by infusing into them her spirit and Ver. 222. Socrates.
general principles, she lays the ground-work of Ver. 272. Homer.
her future establisunents; sends thein in venVer. 323. When Demetrius besieged Rhodes, geance on the Roman einpire, now totally enand could have reduced the city, by setting fire to slaved ; and then, with arts and sciences in her that quarter of it where stood the bouse of the train, quits Earth during the dark ages; to ver.