Bay of Biscay Pilot, West Coast of France and the North Coast of Spain from Ushant to Cape Toriñana

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U.S. Government Printing Office, 1915 - 605 Seiten
 

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Seite 27 - For boarding a wreck, it is recommended to pour oil overboard to windward of her before going alongside. The effect in this case must greatly depend upon the set of the current and the circumstances of the depth of water.
Seite 12 - The chart on largest scale should always be used on account of its greater detail and the greater accuracy with which positions may be plotted on it. Caution in using small-scale charts. — In approaching the land or dangerous banks, regard must always be had to the scale of the chart used. A small error in laying down a position means only yards on a large-scale chart, whereas on one of small scale the same amount of displacement means a large fraction of a mile.
Seite 25 - The gradual change in the variation must not be forgotten in laying down positions by bearing on charts. The magnetic compasses placed on the charts for the purpose of facilitating plotting become in time slightly in error, and in some cases, such as with small scales, or when the lines are long, the displacement of position from neglect of this change may be of importance. The compasses are...
Seite 16 - Low water is lower than mean low water about half the time, and when a new or full moon occurs at perigee the low water is lower than the average low water of springs. At the equinoxes the spring range is also increased on the coasts of Europe, but in some other parts of the world, and especially' in the Tropics, such periodic low tides may coincide more frequently with the solstices. Wind or a high barometer may at times cause the water to fall below even a very low plane of reference. On coasts...
Seite 19 - In all such cases angles should be taken to several objects, the more the better; but five objects is a good number, as the four angles thus obtained not only prevent any errors, but they at once furnish a means of checking the accuracy of the chart itself.
Seite 14 - The intrinsic power of a light should always be considered when expecting to make it in thick weather. A weak light is easily obscured by haze, and no dependence can be placed on its being seen.
Seite 26 - Use of Oil for Modifying the Effect of Breaking Waves. — Many experiences of late years have shown that the utility of oil for this purpose is undoubted, and the application simple. The following may serve for the guidance of seamen, whose attention is called to the fact that a very small quantity of oil...
Seite 14 - The power of a light can be estimated by its candlepower or order, as stated in the Light Lists, and in some cases by noting how much its visibility in clear weather falls short of the range corresponding to its height. Thus, a light standing 200 feet above the sea and recorded as visible only 10 miles in clear weather, is manifestly of little brilliancy, as its height would permit it to be seen over 20 miles if of sufficient power. Fog signals. — Sound is conveyed in a very capricious way through...
Seite 53 - ... ready for use, and shall flash or show them at short intervals to indicate the direction in which they are heading; but the green light shall not be shown on the port side nor the red light on the starboard side.

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