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a country of plantation, first look about what kind of victual the country yields of itself to hand : as chestnuts, walnuts, pine-apples, olives, dates, plums, cherries, wild honey, and the like; and make use of them. Then consider what victual, or esculent things there are, which grow speedily, and within the year; as parsnips, carrots, turnips, onions, radish, artichokes of Jerusalem, maize, and the like : for wheat, barley, and oats, they ask too much labour; but with pease and beans you may begin, both because they ask less labour, and because they serve for meat as well as for bread; and of rice likewise cometh a great increase, and it is a kind of meat. Above all, there ought to be brought store of biscuit, oatmeal, flour, meal, and the like, in the beginning, till bread may be had. For beasts, or birds, take chiefly such as are least subject to diseases, and multiply fastest; as swine, goats, cocks, hens, turkeys, geese, house-doves, and the like. The victual in plantations ought to be expended almost as in a besieged town; that is, with certain allowance : and let the main part of the ground employed to gardens or corn, be to a common stock ; and to be laid in, and stored up, and then delivered out in proportion; besides sone spots of ground that any particular person will manure for his own private
Consider, likewise, what commodities the soil where the plantation is doth naturally yield, that they may some way help to defray the charge of the plantation; so it be not, as was said, to the untimely prejudice of the main business, as it hath fared with tobacco in Virginia.d Wood commonly aboundeth but too much ; and therefore timber is fit to be one. If there be iron ore, and streams whereupon to set the mills, iron is a brave commodity where wood aboundeth. Making of bay-salt, if the climate be proper for it, would be put in experience : growing silk, likewise, if any be, is a likely commodity : pitch and tar, where store of firs and pines are, will not fail ; so drugs and sweet woods, where they are, cannot but yield great profit : soap-ashes, likewise, and other things that may be thought of; but moile not too much under ground, for the hope of mines is very uncertain, and useth to make the planters lazy in other things. For government, let it be in the hands of one, assisted with some counsel ; and let them have commission to exercise martial laws, with some limitation ; and above all, let men make that profit of being in the wilderness, as they have God always, and his service, before their eyes : let not the government of the plantation depend upon too many counsellors and undertakers in the country that planteth, but upon a temperate number; and let those be rather noblemen and gentlemen, than merchants ; for they look ever to tho present gain. Let there be freedoms from custom, till the plantation be of strength ; and nat only freedom from custom, but freedom to carry their commodities where they may make their best of them, except there be some special causo of caution. Cram not in people, by sending too fast company after company ; but rather hearken how they waste, and send supplies proportionably ; but so as the number may live well in the plantation, and not by surcharge be in penury. It hath been a great endangering to the health of some plantations, that they have built along the sea and rivers, in marishf and unwholesome grounds : therefore, though you begin there, to avoid carriage and other like discommodities, yet build still rather upwards from the streams, than along. It concerneth likewise the health of the plantation, that they have good store of salt with them, that they may use it in their victuals when it shall be necessary. If you plant where savages are, do not only entertain them with trifles and gingles, but use then justly and graciously, with sufficient guard nevertheless; and do not win their favour by helping them to invade their enemies, but for their defence it is not amiss ; and send oft of them over to the country that plants, that they may see a better condition than their own, and commend it when they return. When the plantation grows to strength, then it is time to plant with women as well as with men ; that the plantation may spread into generations, and not be ever pieced from without. It is the sinfullest thing in the world to forsake or destitute a plantation once in forwardness ; for, besides the dishonour, it is the guiltiness of blood of many commiserable persons.
d Times have much changed since this was penned : tobacco is now the staple commodity, and the source of the main business" of Virginia.
e To labour hard.
I CANNOT call riches better than the baggage of virtue ; the Roman word is better, “ impedimenta; for as the baggage is to an army, so is riches to virtue ; it cannot be spared nor left behind, but it hindereth the march ; yea, and the care of it sometimes loseth or disturbeth the victory: of great riches there is no real use, except it be in the distribution ; the rest is but conceit; so saith Solomon,“Where much is, there are many to consume it; and what hath the owner but the sight of it with his eyes ?”a The personal fruition in any man cannot reach to feel great riches : there is a custody of them; or a power of dole and donative of them; or a fame of them; but no solid use to the owner. Do you not see what feigned prices are set upon little stones and rarities ? and what works of ostentation are undertaken, because there might seem to be some use of great riches ? But then you will say, they may be of use to buy men out of dangers or troubles; as Solomon saith, “ Riches are as a strong hold in the imagination of the rich man ; ;"b but this is excellently expressed, that it is in imagination, and not always in fact : for, certainly, great riches have sold more men than they have bought out. Seek not proud riches, but such as thou mayest get justly, use soberly, distribute cheerfully, and leave contentedly; yet have no abstract nor friarly contempt of them ; but distinguish, as Cicero saith well of Rabirius Posthumus, " In studio rei amplificandæ apparebat, non avaritiæ prædam, sed instrumentum bonitati quæri.”c Hearken also to Solomon, and beware of hasty gathering of riches : " Qui festinat ad divitias, non erit
The poets feign, that when Plutus (which is
a He alludes to Ecclesiastes v. 11, the words of which are somewhat varied in our version : “When goods increase, they are increased that eat them; and what good is there to the owners thereof, saving the beholding of them with their eyes ?”
6 "The rich man's wealth is his strong city.”—Prov. x. 15 ; xviii. 11.
• "In his anxiety to increase his fortune, it was evident that not the gratification of avarice was sought, but the means of doing good.”
d “He who hastens to riches will not be without guilt." In our version the words are: “He that maketh haste to be rich shall not be innocent.”—Proverbs xxviii. 22.
riches) is sent from Jupiter, he limps, and goes slowly; but when he is sent from Pluto, he runs, and is swift of foot; meaning, that riches gotten by good means and just labour pace slowly ; but when they come by the death of others e (as by the course of inheritance, testaments, and the like), they come tumbling upon a man : but it might be applied likewise to Pluto, taking him for the devil : for when riches come from the devil (as by fraud and oppression, and unjust means), they come upon speed. The ways to enrich are many, and most of them foul : parsimony is one of the best, and yet is not innocent; for it withholdeth men from works of liberality and charity. The improvement of the ground is the most natural obtaining of riches ; for it is our great mother's blessing, the earth's; but it is slow; and yet, where men of great wealth do stoop to husbandry, it multiplieth riches exceedingly. I knew a nobleman in England that had the greatest audits of any man in my time, a great grazier, a great sheep-master, a great timber-man, a great collier, a great corn-master, a great lead-man, and so of iron, and a number of the like points of husbandry ; so as the earth seemed a sea to him in respect of the perpetual importation. It was truly observed by one, “ That himself came very hardly to a little riches, and very easily to great riches;" for when a man's stock is come to that, that he can expect the prime of markets, and overcome those bargains, which for their greatness are few men's money, and be partner in the industries of younger men, he cannot but increase mainly. The gains of ordinary trades and vocations are honest, and furthered by two things, chiefly: by disigence, and by a good name for good and fair dealing ; but the gains of bargains are of a more doubtful nature, when men shall wait upon others' necessity : broke by servants and instruments to draw them on ; put off others cunningly that would be better chapmen, and the like practices, which are crafty and naught; as for the chopping of bargains, when a man buys not to hold, but to sell over again, that commonly grindeth double, both upon the seller and upon
• Pluto being the king of the Infernal regions, or place of departed spirits.
f Rent-roll, or account taken of income. & Wait till prices have risen.
the buyer. Sharings do greatly enrich, if the hands be well chosen that are trusted. Usury is the certainest means of gain, though one of the worst; as that whereby a man doth eat his bread," in sudore vultûs alieni ;") and besides, doth plough upon Sundays: but yet certain though it be, it hath Haws; for that the scriveners and brokers do value unsound men to serve their own turn. The fortune, in being the first in an invention, or in a privilege, doth cause sometimes a wonderful overgrowth in riches, as it was with the first sugarmani in the Canaries : therefore, if a man can play the true logician, to have as well judgment as invention, he may do great matters, especially if the times be fit: he that resteth upon gains certain, shall hardly grow to great riches; and he that puts all upon adventures, doth oftentimes break and come to poverty : it is good, therefore, to guard adventures with certainties that may uphold losses. Monopolies, and coemption of wares for resale, where they are not restrained, are great means to enrich ; especially if the party have intelligence what things are like to come into request, and so store himself beforehand. Riches gotten by service, though it be of the best rise, yet when they are gotten by flattery, feeding humours, and other servile conditions, they may be placed amongst the worst. As for fishing for testaments and executorships (as Tacitus saith of Seneca, " Testamenta et orbos tanquam indagine capi"),k it is yet worse, by how much men submit themselves to meaner persons than in service. Believe not much them that seem to respise riches, for they despise them that despair of them ; and none worse when they come to them.
Be not penny wise; riches have wings, and sometimes they fly away of themselves, sometimes they must be set flying to bring in
Men leave their riches either to their kindred, or to the public; and moderate portions prosper best in both. A great state left to an heir, is as a lure to all the birds of prey round about to seize on him, if he be not the better stablished in years and judgment: likewise, glorious gifts
b “In the sweat of another's brow.” He alludes to the words of Genesis iii. 19 : “In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread."
i Planter of sugar-canes.
* "Wills and childless persons were caught by him as though with a hunting-net."