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and, if necessity enforce it, fit the rest to it; for it is a secret both in nature and state, that it is safer to change many things than one. Examine thy customs of diet, sleep exercise, apparel, and the like ; and try, in anything thou shalt judge hurtful, to discontinue it by little and little; but so, as if thou dost find any inconvenience by the change, thou come back to it again: for it is hard to distinguish that which is generally held good and wholesome, from that which is good particularly, and fit for thine own body. To be freeminded and cheerfully disposed at hours of meat, and of sleep, and of exercise, is one of the best precepts of long lasting. As for the passions and studies of the mind, avoid envy, anxious fears, anger fretting inwards, subtle and knotty inquisitions, joys, and exhilarations in excess, sadness not communicated. Entertain hopes, mirth rather than joy, variety of delights, rather than surfeit of them ; wonder and admiration, and therefore novelties ; studies that fill the mind with splendid and illustrious objects; as histories, fables, and contemplations of nature. If you fly physic in health altogether, it will be too strange for your body when you shall need it; if you make it too familiar, it will work no extraordinary effect when sickness cometh. I commend rather some diet, for certain seasons, than frequent use of physic, except it be grown into a custom ; for those diets alter the body more, and trouble it less. Despise no new accident in your body, but ask opiniond of it. In sickness, respect health principally; and in health, action : for those that put their bodies to endure in health, may, in most sicknesses which are not very sharp, be cured only with diet and tendering. Celsus could never have spoken it as a physician, had he not been a wise man withal, when he giveth it for one of the great precepts of health and lasting, that a man do vary and interchange contraries, but with an inclination to the more benign extreme : use fasting and full eating, but rather full eating ;e watching and sleep, but rather sleep ; sitting and exercise, but rather exercise, and the like : 80 shall nature be cherished, and yet taught masteries. Physicians are some of them so pleasing and conformable to the humour of the patient, as they press not the true cure of the disease ; and some other are so regular in proceeding according to art for the disease, as they respect not sufficiently the condition of the patient. Take one of a middle temper; or, if it may not be found in one man, combine two of either sort ; and forget not to call as well the best acquainted with your body, as the best reputed of for his faculty.
b Of benefit in your individual case.
Any striking change in the constitution. d Take medical advice. • Incline rather to fully satisfying your hunger.
VXXXI.–OF SUSPICION. SUSPICIONS amongst thoughts are like bats amongst birds, they ever fly by twilight : certainly they are to be repressed, or at the least well guarded ; for they cloud the mind, they lose friends, and they check with business, whereby business cannot go on currently and constantly : they dispose kings to tyranny, husbands to jealousy, wise men to irresolution and melancholy : they are defects, not in the heart, but in the brain ; for they take place in the stoutest natures, as in the example of Henry VII. of England ; there was not a more suspicious man nor a more stout : and in such a composition they do small hurt ; for commonly they are not admitted, but with examination, whether they be likely or no; but in fearful natures they gain ground too fast. There is nothing makes a man suspect much, more than to know little ; and therefore men should remedy suspicion by procuring to know more, and not to keep their suspicions in smother. What would men have? Do they think those they employ and deal with are saints? Do they not think they will have their own ends, and be truer to themselves than to them? Therefore there is no better way to moderate suspicions, than to account upon such suspicions as true, and yet to bridle them as false : & for so far a man ought to make use of suspicions, as to provide, as if that should be true that he guspects, yet it may do him no hurt. Suspicions that the mind of itself gathers are but buzzes ; but suspicions that Pale artificially nourished, and put into men's heads lɔy tho
• To hope the best, but be fully prepared for the worst.
tales and whisperings of others, have stings. Certainly, the best mean, to clear the way in this same wood of suspicions, is frankly to communicate them with the party that he suspects; for thereby he shall be sure to know more of the truth of them than he did before ; and withal shall make that party more circumspect, not to give further cause of suspicion.
But this would not be done to men of base natures ; for they, if they find themselves once suspected, will never be true. The Italian says, “Sospetto licentia fede;"b as if suspicion did give a passport to faith ; but it ought rather to kindle it to discharge itself.
XXXII.--OF DISCOURSE. SOME in their discourse desire rather commendation of wit, in being able to hold all arguments, than of judgment, in discerning what is true; as if it were a praise to know what might be said, and not what should be thought. Some have certain common-places and themes, wherein they are good, and want variety ; which kind of poverty is for the most part tedious, and, when it is once perceived, ridiculous. The honourablest part of talk is to give the occasion ; b and again to moderate and pass to somewhat else; for then a man leads the dance. It is good in discourse, and speech of conversation, to vary, and intermingle speech of the present occasion with arguments, tales with reasons, asking of questions with telling of opinions, and jest with earnest ; for it is a dull thing to tire, and as we say now, to jade anything too far. As for jest, there be certain things which ought to be privileged from it; namely, religion, matters of state, great persons, any man's present business of importance, and any case that deserveth pity ; yet there be some that think their wits have been asleep, except they dart out somewhat that is piquant, and to the quick ; that is a vein which would be bridled ;C
b “Suspicion is the passport to faith.”
* A censure of this nature bas been applied by some to Dr. Johnson and possibly with some reason. To start the subject.
. Requires to be bridled.
“Parce, puer, stimulis, et fortius utere loris." ; And, generally, men ought to find the difference between saltness and bitterness. Certainly, he that hath a satirical vein, as he maketh others afraid of his wit, so be had need be afraid of others' memory. He that questioneth much, shall learn much, and content much ; but especially if he apply his questions to the skill of the persons whom he asketh ; for he shall give them occasion to please then selves in speaking, and himself shall continually gather knowledge ; but let his questions not be troublesome, for that is fit for a poser ;e and let him be sure to leave other men their turns to speak : nay, if there be any that would reign and take up all the time, let him find means to take them off, and to bring others on, as musicians used to do with those that dance too long galliards. If you dissemble sometimes your knowledge of that you are thought to know, you shall be thought, another time, to know that you know not. Speech of a man's self ought to be seldom, and well chosen. I knew one was wont to say in scorn,
“He must needs be a wise man, he speaks so much of himself :" and there is but one case, wherein a man may commend himself with good grace, and that is in commending virtue in another, especially if it be such a virtue whereunto
himself pretendeth. Speech of touchs towards others should be sparingly used ; for discourse ought to be as a field, without coming home to any
I knew two noblemen, of the west part of England, whereof the one was given to scoff
, but kept ever royal cheer in his house ; the other would ask of those that had been at the other's table, “Tell truly, was there never a flouth or dry blowi given ?" To which the guest would answer, “Such and such a thing passed." The lord would say, "I thought he would mar a good dinner.” Discretion of speech is more than eloquence; and to speak agreeably to him with whom we deal, is more than to speak in good words, or in good order. A good continued speech, without a good speech of
d He quotes here from Ovid : Boy, are the whip, and tightly grasp the reins.”
e One who tests or examines. * The Galliard was a light active dance much in fashion in the time of Queen Elizabeth. 5 Hits at, or remarks intended to be applied to particular individuals. A slight or insiut.
i A sarcastic remark.
Interlocution, shows slowness; and a good reply, or second speech, without a good settled speech, showeth shallowness and weakness. As we see in beasts, that those that are weakest in the course, are yet nimblest in the turn; as it is hetwixt the greyhound and the hare. To use too many circumstances, ere one come to the matter, is wearisome; to use none at all, is blunt.
XXXIII._OF PLANTATIONS. PLANTATIONS are amongst ancient, primitive, and heroical works. When the world was young, it begat more children; but now it is old, it begets fewer : for I may justly account new plantations to be the children of former kingdoms. I like a plantation in a pure soil ; that is, where people are not displanted, to the end to plant in others; for else it is rather an extirpation than a plantation. Planting of countries is like planting of woods ; for you must make account to lose almost twenty years' profit, and expect your reconpense in the end : for the principal thing that hath been the destruction of most plantations, hath been the base and hasty drawing of profit in the first years. It is true, speedy profit is not to be neglected, as far as may stand with the good of the plantation, but no farther. It is a shameful and upblessed thing to take the scum of people and wicked condemned men, to be the people with whom you plant; and not only so, but it spoileth the plantation ; for they will ever live like rogues, and not fall to work, but be lazy, and do mischief, and spend victuals, and be quickly weary, and then certify over to their country to the discredit of the plantation. The people wherewith you plant ought to be gardeners, ploughmen, labourers, smiths, carpenters, joiners, fishermen, fowlers, with some few apothecaries, surgeons, cooks, and bakers. Ir
* The old term for Colonies.
• He perhaps alludes covertly to the conduct of the Spaniards in extirpating the aboriginal inhabitants of the West India Islands, against which the venerable Las Casas so eloquently but vainly protested.
• Of course this censure would not apply to what is primarily ana Essentially a convict colony ; the object of which is to drain the motiva country of its impure superfiuities.