A History of the University in Europe: Volume 2, Universities in Early Modern Europe (1500-1800)

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Hilde de Ridder-Symoens, Walter Rüegg
Cambridge University Press, 16.10.2003 - 720 Seiten
A History of the University in Europe covers the development of the university in Europe (East and West) from its origins to the present day. No other up-to-date, comprehensive history of this type exists: its originality lies in focusing on a number of major themes viewed from a European perspective, and in its interdisciplinary, collaborative and transnational character. Volume 1, covering the Middle Ages, places the medieval European universities in their social and political context. After explaining the number and types of universities from their origins in the twelfth century to around 1500, it examines the inner workings as an institution and paints a general picture of medieval student life. Volume 2 attempts to situate the universities in their social and political context throughout the three centuries spanning the period 1500 to 1800. Volume 3 shows that by focusing on the freedom of scientific research, teaching and study, the medieval university structure was modernized and enabled discoveries to become a professional, bureaucratically-regulated activity of the university. This opened the way for the victorious march of the natural sciences, and led to student movements--resulting in the university being ultimately cast in the role of a citadel of political struggle in a world-wide fight for freedom. - Publisher.
 

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Inhalt

THEMES
3
Historical turning points
8
Desire for and openness to discoveries
14
Science as a means of control over nature
17
The beginnings of cosmography
18
Human rights and international law
22
New objectives of university education
24
International and national academic communication
26
modus Paristensis modus Bononiensis
329
Academic privileges
331
The collegiate system
333
The academic day
339
Teaching forms and teaching practice
343
Board and lodging
345
Student ceremonies
349
Holidays and free time
351

The age of eloquence
28
The new collective selfconsciousness
29
Humanism and the universities
33
Select bibliography
41
PATTERNS
43
What was a university in the early modern period?
47
The status of higher education
52
The university and its competitors
57
Typologies
64
The place of university foundation
70
full and empty spaces on the map
74
List of European universities in the early modern period
80
Maps
90
Select bibliography
106
STRUCTURES
111
RELATIONS WITH AUTHORITY
113
The development of the early modern state
114
Humanism Reformation CounterReformation
115
Absolutism and Enlightenment
122
French universities
124
Universities in the Iberian peninsula
129
Universities in the British Isles
134
Universities in the Holy Roman Empire
140
Confederate universities
143
Universities in the Low Countries
144
Polish universities
146
Universities in the northern European countries
147
Italian universities
148
Select bibliography
152
MANAGEMENT AND RESOURCES
154
General university structure
155
Colleges and nations
158
Internal government
164
External government
179
Finance
183
Academic buildings
190
Libraries archives and university presses
195
Academic insignia
205
Select bibliography
208
TEACHERS
210
Teaching as a profession
214
Appointments
219
Some general characteristics of the professoriate
223
University teaching a wellpaid profession?
232
Careers and mobility
239
Professors a distinct and distinguished social class?
244
Individual taxes levied in the duchy of Brabant in 1631
252
Select bibliography
255
EXPORTING MODELS
256
The models available
259
The foundation of colonial universities
262
The working of colonial higher education
267
The achievement of the European university model in the Americas
280
Select bibliography
282
STUDENTS
283
ADMISSION
285
Intellectual prerequisites
289
Academic restrictions
293
Attendance trends
297
Numbers
302
The social origin of students
311
Select bibliography
324
STUDENT EDUCATION STUDENT LIFE
326
Select bibliography
353
GRADUATION AND CAREERS
355
Costs and benefits
363
Degrees as qualifications for professional practice
370
Numbers
377
Social functions
386
The alienated intellectuals
393
Professions and professionalization
397
Careers and social mobility
406
Select bibliography
415
MOBILITY
416
The Reformation and CounterReformation
419
Protestant universities
421
Catholic universities
424
Tolerant universities
426
The universities as places of refuge
428
The Grand Tour
431
The Enlightenment
436
General trends
439
Select bibliography
447
LEARNING
449
TRADITION AND INNOVATION
451
The faculty of medicine
452
The faculty of laws
455
the impact of humanism
457
the challenge of technology
464
The exodus of the scientists
470
Theology
474
Minority problems
478
The rise of the academics
480
Select bibliography
487
NEW STRUCTURES OF KNOWLEDGE
489
Types of science
491
leading science in the sixteenth century
500
leading science in the sixteenth century
509
Reorganization of the sciences and the primacy of philosophy in the Enlightenment
517
Select bibliography
529
THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION AND UNIVERSITIES
531
The Scientific Revolution
536
Examining the evidence
542
The universities and scientific thought
548
Science moves out
553
The New Science and the universities
559
Select bibliography
561
CURRICULA
563
Methods of teaching
565
The faculty of arts
570
The faculty of theology
593
The faculty of law
599
The faculty of medicine
609
Select bibliography
619
THE ENLIGHTENMENT
621
Nationalization of science
623
Educational pragmatism
624
Secularization
626
Status of the disciplines
629
Differentiation of university patterns and academic reforms
630
Select bibliography
639
Editors note on the indexes
641
Name index
642
Subject index
663
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