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by the arts of civilization, are much better fed and provided for.
21. The wretched Indians who reside in the districts that surround Hudson's Bay, often pass a week together without food; and frequently die of want, during the chase of an animal, which they have pursued on foot for many days together.
Obs.-Hence the origin of hospitality and social meetings kept up in civilized life, for purposes of pleasure ; but originating in ages, when to divide with friends and neighbors the produce of the chase, was the first and the kindest of duties.
22. If there are some privations to be born in society ; if the successful emulation of industry and talents, create great inequalities of enjoyment: and if the laws are abused, and sometimes bear oppressively on weak individuals, the worst condition of social and civilized man, is better than the best condition of the untutored savage.
Obs.-Such is man, in his native and original state, in all countries; and such are boundaries of knowledge, among all aboriginal people : let us now consider him in a better, in a happier and a more respectable condition.
III. Of Farming or Agriculture. 23. The first step, from savage towards civilized life, is the acquirement, protection, and recognition of property. In early ages, this consisted only of what was essential to the immediate wants of man.
24. The first property consisted of sheep, goats, and oxen ; and the first husbandmen were shepherds, who tended their flocks, and drove them without restriction from pasture to pasture.
Obs. - We have a beautiful picture of the pastoral life in the book of Genesis : Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and their families, were shepherds or husbandwen of the earliest ages. It will be seen, that their wealth consisted in their flocks and their live stock; and that they roamed over the country to find pasture wheresoever they pleased. 25. In the pastoral ages of husbandry, there was no
and comproperty in land; all the country, was open
mon to any occupier; and no one assumed to himself a property in the soil, or considered as his own, the produce of any particular spot.
26. In Africa, among the native Americans, and in most parts of Asia, there exists to this day, no property in the land; hence, in those countries, it is but little cultivated; and subsistence is precarious; notwithstanding the fertility of the soil, and the general character of the climates.
27. The recognition and protection of property in the soil, are the bases of industry, plenty, and social improvement. This is, therefore, one of the most important steps in the
from the savage, to the civilized state.
28. As soon as any man could call a spot of ground his
own, and could secure to his family the produce of it, he would carefully cultivate, sow, and plant it; knowing that he should reap the reward of his labour in the season of harvest.
29. Countries, however, in general, die open; with nothing but banks and ditches to divide the land of every husbandman: but in England, each separate farm is divided from others, by hedges and fences ; and the farms themselves are broken into small enclosures.
30. In France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and most other nations, the lands still remain unenclosed in large open fields; and those countries, in consequence, present a dreary appearance to the eye of an Englishman; whose enclosures render England the garden of the world.
31. Enclosures greatly improve the climate of a country, by protecting it from inclement winds; they pleasantly subdivide the labours of the farmer; and by restraining the exercise of cattle, they occasion them to get fat much sooner.
32. Farmers are called arable farmers, when they are chiefly employed in raising corn ; and pasture or
grass-farmers, when they are engaged in rearing and fattening sheep, and other live stock. 33. Farms vary in size, from fifty to one thousand
Arable farms are generally smaller than those employed in pasture, or grazing. Those, from two to four hundred acres, are the most beneficial to the occupiers and the public.
34. Soils are divided into clayey, loamy, chalky, sandy, gravelly, peaty, and moory. Thc clayey and loamy are called stiff or strong soils; and the sandy and gravelly, light soils.
35. Soils are barren, when they consist of two much of one kind of material, do not hold moisture, or arc two shallow. They are fertile, when they contain a due mixture of several primitive earths with vegetable and animal matter.
36. To render a barren soil fertile, it ought to be frequently turned up to the air, and to have mixed with it manures of animal dungs, decayed vegetables, lime, marl, sweepings of streets, &c.
37. In turning over the soil, the chief implements of the gardener are the spade, the hoe, and the mattock; and those of the farmer, are the plough, the harrow, the roller, the scythe, and the sickle.
38. As a succession of the same crop tends to impoverish the soil, a rotation of different crops is necessary. Potatoes, grain, and white crops, are exhausting; but, after them, the soil is ameliorated by tares, turnips, and green or plant crops.
39. On stiff'soils,clover, beans, wheat, cabbages, and oats, may be cultivated in succession; and on light soils, potatoes, turnips, pease, oats, and barley, may succeed each other. The general rule is, one crop for man, and one for beast.
Obs. This plan of varying the crops, is a new discovery, Formerly, land lay long in fallow ; that is to say, was not worked every third or fourth year; but now, it is usual, by varying the crops, to get two, three, or four crops in a year from the same soil, without its being exhausted ; and fallow
ing is, consequently, found to be unnecessary.--See Young's Farmer's Calendar.
40. Wheat is sown in September or October ; but the spring-wheat is sown in March. It ripens in August and September, when it is reaped, housed, and threshed. After being ground at the mill and sifted, wheat forms flour : the flour mixed with water and yeast, and baked in an oven, becomes bread.
41. Barley is sown in April and May: it is made into malt, by being heated to a state of germination, and then broken in a mill. If the malt be infused in hot water, the infusion, with the addition of hops, may be fermented into beer, ale, and porter.
. 42. In England, oats are sown in February or March; when ground, they form oatmeal, and mixed with water the meal becomes oat-bread; but unground, they are favourable food for horses.
43. There are other species of grain cultivated in England, as rye, peas, and beans. The former makes black bread; and the latter are well known as delicious and wholesome food. Rice, a very nutritive grain, is much cultivated in warm climates; and there preferred to other kinds of grain for the food of man.
44. Modern husbandry has subdivided grass into nearly a hundred several kinds; of which there are two principal divisions ; natural grasses, and artificial grasses. The several sorts are sown and cultivated together, or separately; according to the nature of the soil, or the object of the cultivator.
45. The natural grasses are very numerous in their kinds; and are preferred for lands intended to be kept in grass. The artificial grasses, are ray grass, red clover, trefoil, sanfoil, lucern, tares, yarrow, turret, &c.
46. On many farms, cows are kept for the milk they yield : and for the purpose of making butter or cheese. Butter is made from cream by agitating it in a churn; and is the oily part of the cream, or a sort of a solid
oil. Cheese is made from milk by curdling it with runnet; and the curd is then pressed, shaped, and dried.
Obs.--The runnet is prepared from the stomach of a calf; which having been pickled for the purpose, is dried and afterwards ipfused in water for a few hours. The water, dissolving a kind of acid, is mixed with the milk, which it soon curdles. In commerce these stomachs are called vells. The cheese would be white, if the milk were not previously coloured with Spanish or other Arnetta. The largest cheese-farms in England, are in Cheshire and Denbigshire; and ou some of these, 500 milch cows are kept.
47. In England, of late years, selections have been made of breeds of cattle, sheep, &c. from among
those which fatten the quickest, which have the best-flavoured flesh, best wool, &c.
48. Among oxen, the kinds that have been preferred, are the middle-horned, or Devonshire, for working; and the short-borned, the spotted, and the Alderney, for milking.
The long-horned, the Welch, the Kyeloe and the Fifeshire, have also their separate purposes and recommendations.
· 49. Among the improved breeds of sheep, the favourite is the South Down; but the Tees-water, Dartmoor, and Romney-marsh-breeds, are the largest ; the new Leicester and Lincoln are the next. The fleece of the Lincoln weighs 11lbs.
50. Those sheep which produce the finest wool, are the Merino, the Ryeland, and the Shetland, but their fleeces weigh only from 2 to 3 lbs.
A male sheep is called a tup or ram; and a female, an ewe. They are usually shorne in June; and are called one-shear, two-shear, or three-shear sheep, according to their
ages. 51. Horses are divided into blood-horses or racers; hackney or riding-horses; coach-horses; Cleavelandbays; Suffolk-punches; Clydesdales; and heavy