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mined to puzzle and astonish by prismatic experiments a public that would not buy his pictures and did not comprehend his genius (see p. 590), launched out into some of his wildest dreams” (Thornbury, i. 347). 532. LIGHT AND COLOUR. THE MORNING AFTER

THE DELUGE. J. M. W. Turner, R.A. (1775-1851). See on p. 574. 545. WHALERS.

J. M. W. Turner, R.A. (1775-1851). See on p. 574. Exhibited in 1845—Turner's first picture of a subject, suggested by Beale's Natural History of the Sperm Whale, which he repeated twice in the following year (546, now at Nottingham, and 547, now at Glasgow). 549. UNDINE GIVING THE RING TO MASANI

ELLO, FISHERMAN OF NAPLES. J. M. W. Turner, R.A. (1775-1851). See on p. 574. Undine, a water-spirit, was sent to live with an old fisherman and his wife, to console them for the loss of their daughter, She grew up a beautiful girl, full of tricks and waywardness; but without the gift of a soul : that she might not have until some noble knight should love her well enough to marry her. When the marriage was to be performed, her adopted parents produced a ring, but Undine exclaimed, “Not so ! my parents have not sent me into the world quite destitute; on the contrary, they must have anticipated with certainty that such an evening as this would come.” And so saying she left the room and reappeared with a ring (De La Motte Fouqué's Undine). Of this and the two following pictures marking the period of Turner's decline, Mr. Ruskin wrote: “They occupy to Turner's other works precisely the relation which Count Robert of Paris and Castle Dangerous hold to Scott's early novels” (Notes on the Turner Gallery, p. 75). The “Undine," in particular, was much ridiculed at the time of its exhibition. Mr. Gilbert à Beckett called it “a lobster salad”-a similitude which Turner himself once applied to his own work (see p. 590). 550. THE ANGEL STANDING IN THE SUN.

J. M. W. Turner, R.A. (1775-1851). See on p. 574. “And I saw an angel standing in the sun; and he cried with a loud voice, saying to all the fowls that fly in the midst of heaven, Come and gather yourselves together unto the supper of the great God; that ye may eat the flesh of kings, and the flesh of captains, and the flesh of mighty men, and the flesh of horses and of them that sit on them, and the flesh of all men, both free and bond, both small and great" (Revelation xix. 17, 18). 551. THE HERO OF A HUNDRED FIGHTS.

J. M. W. Turner, R.A. (1775-1851). See on p. 574. A picture, now at least, quite undecipherable, suggested by w the German invocation upon casting the bell, called in England “Tapping the Furnace.” 600. THE BLIND BEGGAR.

John Laurens Dyckmans (Flemish : 1811-1888). “A blind old man is standing in the sunshine by a church door : before him is a young girl, who is holding out her hand for alms to the passers-by; an old lady coming from the church is feeling in her pocket for a sou ; some other figures are seen in the porch at their devotions before a crucifix. Painted at Antwerp, signed J. Dyckmans, 1853" (Official Catalogue). 601. GERALDINE.

Sir William Boxall, R.A. (English : 1800–1879). Boxall, who was born at Oxford and educated at Abingdon, was a portrait painter of considerable repute in his day. He was elected A.R.A. in 1851, and R.A. in 1863. He was also Director of the National Gallery from 1865 to 1874, the purchase of the Peel collection being the most notable event of his term of office.


C. R. Leslie, R.A. (English : 1794-1859). A repetition, painted in 1842, of No. 403 (see Room XX. p. 514). 765. MAW-WORM.

R. Smirke, R.A. (English : 1752—1845). Robert Smirke, the principal of the early English genre painters, was a native of Cumberland, and originally a painter of coach panels. He was educated at the Academy schools, and was elected R.A. in 1793, but he seldom exhibited there, being chiefly employed as a book illustrator.

A scene from Bickerstaffe's play of the Hypocrite, Act ii. Sc. 1, adapted from Colley Cibber's Non-Juror.


Sebastiano Ricci (Venetian : 1659-1734). For a reference to this painter, see p. 393. 893. THE PRINCESS LIEVEN. Sir T. Lawrence, P.R.A. (English : 1769–1830).

See under 144, p. 445. A small bust portrait, from the Peel Collection. 996. A CASTLE IN A ROCKY LANDSCAPE.

Hobbema (Dutch : 1638–1708). See under X. 685, p. 235. 1015. FRUIT, FLOWERS, AND DEAD BIRDS.

Jan van Os (Dutch : 1744-1808). Prominent amongst the flowers is the red cockscomb. A picture by the most distinguished flower painter of his time, and characteristic, in an interesting particular, of Dutch pictures of this kind generally. “ If the reader has any familiarity with the galleries of painting in the great cities of Europe, he cannot but retain a clear, though somewhat monot. onously calm, impression of the character of those polished flower-pieces, or still-life pieces, which occupy subordinate corners, and invite to moments of repose, or frivolity, the attention and imagination which have been wearied in admiring the attitudes of heroism, and sympathising with the sentiments of piety. Recalling to his memory the brightest examples of these ... he will find that all the older ones agree, if flower-pieces—in a certain courtliness and formality of arrangement, implying that the highest honours which flowers can attain are in being wreathed into grace of garlands, or assembled in variegation of bouquets, for the decoration of beauty, or flattery of noblesse. If fruit or still-life pieces, they agree no less distinctly in directness of reference to the supreme hour when the destiny of dignified fruit is to be accomplished in a royal dessert ; and the furred and feathered life of hill and forest may bear witness to the Wisdom of Providence by its extinction for the kitchen dresser. Irrespectively of these ornamental virtues, and culinary utilities, the painter never seems to perceive any conditions of beauty in the things themselves, which would make them worth regard for their own sake: nor, even in these appointed functions, are they ever supposed to be worth painting, unless the pleasures they procure be distinguished as those of the most exalted society(Notes on Prout and Hunt, pp. 1o, II, where Mr. Ruskin goes on to contrast with this Dutch ideal the simple pleasure in the flowers and fruits for their own sake which marks W. Hunt's still-life drawings). 1187. A SKETCH OF RUSTIC FIGURES.

Sir D. Wilkie, R.A. (1785-1841).

See under XX. 99, p. 490. A study (in pen and ink) for (or from) a group in the picture of the “Village Festival,” XX. 122, p. 493. Underneath is a scrap of paper on which is written : “ Sent by D. Wilkie, 15 Aug. 1811." 1191. THE LOSS OF THE “ROYAL GEORGE ”

(August 29, 1782).

J. C. Schetky (1778–1874). John Christian Schetky (descended from an old Transylvanian family) was born in Edinburgh, and studied art under Alexander Nasmyth (XVIII. 1242, p. 455). He afterwards held appointments as drawing-master at various military and naval colleges, and was marine. painter in succession to George IV., William IV., and Queen Victoria.

The scene represented is the sinking of the Royal George, of 100 tons, at Spithead, when Admiral Kempenfeldt and his 800 men were drowned, as told in Cowper's well-known poem

It was not in the battle ;
No tempest gave the shock ;
She sprang no fatal leak,
She ran upon no rock.
A land breeze shook the shrouds,
And she was overset;
Down went the Royal George,

With all her crew complete. On the left is the Victory, firing guns of distress, and hoisting the signal for “ Boats to assist ship in distress with all speed.” 1247. THE CARD PLAYERS. Nicolas Maas (Dutch: 1632-1693). See under X. 207, p. 234.

This picture, recently purchased at the Monson sale, was stated by the auctioneer to be by Rembrandt, but there is little

doubt that it is really by his disciple, Maas ; though, as it is larger than most of the known works by that master, other critics have ascribed it to another pupil of Rembrandt named Carl Faber, or Fabricius, as he was also called, who was, unfortunately, killed, with his parents and family, in an explosion of gunpowder. “In any case it is unmistakably of the Rembrandt school, and owes its inspiration to the method of presentation peculiar to the master. From every technical point of view it is first-rate. It is infused with the largeness of style, the just appreciation of character, and the glowing colour to be found in Rembrandt's matured works. . . . The subject is a young man and woman seated at a table and playing at cards. The figures are life-size, and reach to below the knees. It is the turn of the girl to play. She regards her hand in evident perplexity, doubtful which card to throw down. The man is apparently sure of his game. He wears a black furred cloak covering a gray and silver doublet; probably he is an officer in the army. The girl is dressed in a red gown, slashed at the sleeves; her fair hair is suffused with golden light. A brown table-cloth and the base of a column in the background, the rest being lost in gloom, complete the materials of the picture" (Times, June 4, 1888). 1248. PORTRAIT OF A LADY. Bartholomeus van der Helst (Dutch : 1613–1670).

See under 140, p. 655. A lady of the Braganza family, in a richly painted blue brocade dress and pearl necklace, holding a feather in her hand. 1250. CHARLES DICKENS.

D. Maclise, R.A. (English : 1806-1870).

See under XX, 423, p. 520. [There is also in the possession of the Gallery, but not yet accessible to the public, a collection of forty-five small water. colour copies, by the late W. West, from “Old Masters.” principally, in the Prado Gallery at Madrid. The collection was presented in 1886 by Dr. E. J. Longton, of Southport.)

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