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177. THE MAGDALEN. Guido (Eclectic-Bologna : 1575-1642). See under 196, P. 321.

Just such a picture as might have suggested the lines in Pope's epistle on “ The Characters of Women ”

Let then the fair one beautifully cry,
In Magdalen's loose hair and lifted eye ;
Or dress'd in smiles of sweet Cecilia shine,
With simpering angels, palms, and harps divine ;
Whether the charmer sinner it, or saint it,

If solly grow romantic, I must paint it. Just such a picture, too, as Guido turned out in numbers. "He was specially fond,” says one of his biographers, “of depicting faces with upraised looks, and he used to say that he had a hundred different modes ” of thus supplying sentimentality to order. 174. PORTRAIT OF A CARDINAL.

Carlo Maratti (Roman : 1625-1713). Carlo Maratti (called also Carlo delle Madonne, from the large number of Madonna pictures that he painted) was an imitator of Raphael, and for nearly half a century the most eminent painter in Rome. The portrait of a cardinal should have come kindly to him, for he was in the service of several popes, and was appointed superintendent of the Vatican Chambers by Innocent XI. 172. THE SUPPER AT EMMAUS.

Caravaggio (Naturalist : 1569-1609). Michael Angelo Merigi is called Caravaggio from his birthplace of that name, near Milan. His life was not out of keeping with the characteristics of his art as described below. He had, we are told, an ungovernable temper, and led a roving life of not very reputable adventures.

One notices first in this picture the least important things -the supper before the company, the roast chicken before Christ. Next one sees how coarse and almost ruffianly are the disciples, represented as supping with their risen Lord at Emmaus (Luke xxiv. 30, 31). Both points are characteristic of the painter, who was driven by the insipidities of the preceding mannerists into a crude “realism,” which made him resolve to describe sacred and historical events just as though they were being enacted in a slum by butchers and fishwives. His first altar-piece was removed by the priests for whom it was painted, as being too vulgar for such a subject. “It seems difficult for realism, either in literature or art, not to fasten upon ugliness, vice, pain, and disease, as though these imperfections of our nature were more real than beauty, goodness, pleasure, and health. Therefore Caravaggio, the leader of a school which the Italians christened Naturalists, may be compared to Zola” (Symonds, vii. 389). 127. VENICE: THE SCUOLA DELLA CARITA.

Canaletto (Venetian : 1697-1768). See under 939, p. 316.

An interesting piece of “old Venice.” Beyond the canal is what is now the National Gallery of Venice—the Academy of Arts — but was in Canaletto's time still the Scuola della Carità, the conventual buildings. of the Brotherhood of our Lady of Charity. Notice the green grass in the little square : the Campo, as it is called the field), is now covered with flagstones (there is a sketch of this spot among the Turner drawings given by Mr. Ruskin to the University Galleries at Oxford: see Guide to the Venetian Academy, p. 34). 63. LANDSCAPE WITH FIGURES. Annibale Carracci (Eclectic-Bologna : 1560-1609).

See under 93, p. 308. This picture was originally in the Giustiniani Palace at Rome; hence the figures are supposed to represent (as stated on the frame) Prince Giustiniani and his attendants returning from the chase. 29. “OUR LADY OF THE CAT.”

Federigo Barocci, called Baroccio (Umbrian : 1528–1612).

An admirable example of the decline of Italian art. The old religious spirit has entirely vanished, and the Holy Family is represented as worrying a bird with a cat! John the Baptist holds the little goldfinch; while the Madonna expressly directs the attention of the infant Christ to the fun. “ See, the cat is trying to get at it," she seems to say. Behind the bird, the painter, in unconscious irony, has placed the Cross. The visitor who wishes to see how far Italian art has travelled in a hundred years should compare this picture with such an one as Bellini's (VII. 280, p. 153), or with one of Raphael's, of whom Baroccio was a fellow-countryman. The connecting link should then be seen in Correggio (IX. 23, p. 201), upon which master, as well as upon Raphael, Baroccio formed his

style. With Bellini or Perugino, the motive is wholly religious. With Raphael it is intermingled with artistic display. Correggio brings heaven wholly down to earth, but yet paints his domestic scene with lovely grace. Baroccio brings, one may almost say, heaven down to hell, and uses all his skill to show the infant Saviour's pleasure in teasing a bird. But the artist only embodied the spirit of his time. Baroccio was one of the most celebrated painters of his day, and his biographer (Bellori) writes of him that “his pencil may be said to have been dedicated to religion : so devout, so tender, and so calculated to awaken feelings of piety are the sentiments expressed in his pictures."

933. BOY WITH A BIRD. Alessandro Varotari, called Padovanino (Venetian :

1590–1650). Contrast with this child caressing a dove Baroccio's Christ teasing a bird Padovanino (so called from his birthplace, Padua) lived much at Venice, and shared perhaps the Venetian's fondness for pigeons— the sacred birds of St. Mark's, which are kept and fed in the great square to this day at the public charge.

271. “ECCE HOMO!”. Guido (Eclectic-Bologna : 1575-1642). See under 196, p. 321.

For the subject, see under IX. 15, by Correggio, p. 200. It was from Correggio that the Eclectics borrowed the type of face for this subject - which was a favourite one with them; but notice how much more they dwell on the physical pain and horror, how much less on the spiritual beauty, than Correggio did.

70. CORNELIA AND HER JEWELS. Alessandro Varotari, called Padovanino (Venetian:

1590-1650). Cornelia, a noble Roman lady, daughter of the elder Scipio Africanus, and mother of the Gracchi, was visited by a friend, who ostentatiously exhibited her jewels. Cornelia being asked to show hers in turn, pointed to her two sons, just then returning from school, and said, “These are my jewels."

.. See Blake's Auguries of Innocence.

643. THE CAPTURE OF CARTHAGENA. Ascribed to Rinaldo Mantovano (Roman : early 16th century).

This and the companion picture, 644, p. 330, formerly ascribed to Giulio Romano, are now ascribed to Rinaldo of Mantua, one of the scholars whom Giulio formed when at work in that city. Rinaldo is mentioned by Vasari as the ablest painter that Mantua ever produced, and as having been “prematurely removed from the world by death."

In the upper compartment is represented the capture of New Carthage by the Roman general, Publius Cornelius Scipio, B.C. 210. He distinguished himself on that occasion by the generosity with which he treated the Spanish hostages kept there by the Carthaginians. This is the subject of the lower compartment. Among the hostages was a girl-hardly represented here as in the story, “so beautiful that all eyes turned upon her"-whom Scipio protected from indignity and formally betrothed to her own lover : who is here advancing to touch the great man's hand, and when they brought thankofferings to Scipio, he ordered them, as we see here, to be removed again : “accept them from me," he said, “as the girl's dowry(Livy, xxvi. ch. 50). 56. LANDSCAPE WITH FIGURES. Annibale Carracci (Eclectic-Bologna : 1560–1609).

See under 93, P. 308. 941. VENICE: THE GRIMANI PALACE. Canaletto (Venetian : 1697-1768). See under 939, p. 316.

This palace—situated on the Grand Canal and used until lately as the post-office-was built in the sixteenth century by San Micheli, and is “the principal type at Venice, and one of the best in Europe, of the central architecture of the Renaissance schools ; that carefully studied and perfectly executed architecture to which those schools owė their principal claim to our respect, and which became the model of most of the important works subsequently produced by civilised nations. ... It is composed of three stories of the Corinthian order (i.e, in which the ornament is concave, distinguished from Doric, in which it is convex), at once simple, delicate, and sublime ; but on so colossal a scale that the three-storied palaces on its right and left only reach to the cornice which marks the level of its first floor" (Stones of Venice, vol. ii. ch. ii. SS 1, 2). Buildings in the same style in London are St. Paul's and Whitehall.

177. THE MAGDALEN. Guido (Eclectic-Bologna : 1575-1642). See under 196, p. 321.

Just such a picture as might have suggested the lines in Pope's epistle on “ The Characters of Women ”

Let then the fair one beautifully cry,
In Magdalen's loose hair and lifted eye ;
Or dress'd in smiles of sweet Cecilia shine,
With simpering angels, palms, and harps divine ;
Whether the charmer sinner it, or saint it,

If folly grow romantic, I must paint it. Just such a picture, too, as Guido turned out in numbers. “He was specially fond,” says one of his biographers, “ of depicting faces with upraised looks, and he used to say that he had a hundred different modes” of thus supplying sentimentality to order. 174 PORTRAIT OF A CARDINAL.

Carlo Maratti (Roman : 1625-1713). Carlo Maratti (called also Carlo delle Madonne, from the large number of Madonna pictures that he painted) was an imitator of Raphael, and for nearly half a century the most eminent painter in Rome. The portrait of a cardinal should have come kindly to him, for he was in the service of several popes, and was appointed superintendent of the Vatican Chambers by Innocent XI. 172. THE SUPPER AT EMMAUS.

Caravaggio (Naturalist : 15691609). Michael Angelo Merigi is called Caravaggio from his birthplace of that name, near Milan. His life was not out of keeping with the characteristics of his art as described below. He had, we are told, an ungovernable temper, and led a roving life of not very reputable adventures.

One notices first in this picture the least important things -the supper before the company, the roast chicken before Christ. Next one sees how coarse and almost ruffianly are the disciples, represented as supping with their risen Lord at Emmaus (Luke xxiv. 30, 31). Both points are characteristic of the painter, who was driven by the insipidities of the preceding mannerists into a crude “realism,” which made him resolve to describe sacred and historical events just as though they were being enacted in a slum by butchers and fishwives. His first altar-piece was removed by the priests for whom it was painted, as being too vulgar for such a subject. “It seems difficult

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