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must have discharged some of his duties well. The broad golden stole over his shoulder shows him to have been also a knight of the order of the Stola d'Oro, as the Procurator's stole was of crimson velvet. 41. THE DEATH OF PETER MARTYR.

Ascribed to Cariani. See under VII. 1203, p. 151. “ Peter Martyr was general of the Dominicans in 1252, a most powerful person in the Holy Inquisition, and a violent persecutor for what he deemed the true faith, which made him many inveterate enemies. There was one family in particular which he had treated with excessive cruelty, and their relations, who were in the army, were so enraged by Peter's barbarity that they resolved to revenge themselves, ... Having been informed that he was to make a visit to a distant province in pursuit of some wretched heretics, who had been denounced to the inquisition, they lay in wait for him in a wood, through which they knew he must pass, in company with one person, a friar of his convent ; here they attacked him, cleft his skull with a sabre, and left him dead on the spot " (Mrs. Jameson : Handbook to the Public Galleries, 1842, i. 70). The man was afterwards regarded as a martyr and canonised ; and here too, notice that he is made to see the angels as he dies. For another and a more pleasing picture of the same subject, see VII. 812, p. 161. 1048. PORTRAIT OF A CARDINAL.

Unknown (Italian : 16th century). Painted on copper. The picture, says Richter, p. 104, “ seems to be by a Flemish artist, under the influence of late Italian painters. The probability is that it was executed in Italy, and this would add some special interest because it would prove that, as early as the second half of the sixteenth century, painting on copper became known in Italy. No great master of any Italian school has made use of this material, which seems to have been first adopted in the school of Antwerp." 272. AN APOSTLE.

Giovanni Antonio Licinio, called Pordenone

(Venetian : 1483-1539). An unimportant work, ascribed somewhat doubtfully to a great painter, a student of Giorgione and Titian.

931. THE MAGDALEN.

Paolo Veronese (Veronese : 1528-1588).

See under VII. 26, p. 136. The Magdalen—she who had sinned much, but who was forgiven because she loved much—is represented at the Saviour's feet, laying aside her jewels, and thus renouncing the vanities of the world. 768. ST. PETER AND ST. JEROME. Antonio Vivarini, also called Antonio da Murano

(Venetian : died 1470). One of the earliest Venetian pictures, the Venetian School thus being a century later than the Florentine (see p. 126). It was at the adjacent island of Murano (where most of the Venetian glass is now made, and which was once the resort of the wealthier Venetian citizens) that an independent school first developed itself, Antonio and his brother Bartolommeo (see VIII. 284, p. 185) being natives of that place. But for some time the painters were rather craftsmen than artists, as one may still see in this picture, where St. Peter's key is embossed in goldsmith's fashion.

ON A SCREEN 630. MADONNA AND CHILD WITH SAINTS.

Gregorio Schiavone (Paduan : painted about 1470). A picture of historical interest, as being the earliest in the Gallery of the Paduan School. Gregorio, the Sclavonian (i.e. Dalmatian), though not, one must think, a very good artist, was proud of his master, and this picture is signed (on the little card below the throne) “the work of Schiavone, the pupil of Squarcione.” That master's style was distinguished, as we have seen (p. 179), by its sculpturesque quality; and in the works of a somewhat clumsy pupil like Gregorio (“ this Dalmatian clodhopper,” Morelli calls him) one sees this tendency carried to excess; the outline of the Madonna's face here, and still more in VIII. 904, p. 185, is quite grotesquely sharp. Another characteristic of the school is exemplified in both Gregorio's pictures — the choice, namely, of antique embellishments, of bas-reliefs, and festoons of fruit, in the accessories. Thus note here the bas-relief behind the Madonna's chair, and in 904 the festoons of fruit upon the arch,

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PAINTERS of “the loveliest district of North Italy, where hills, and

streams, and air, meet in sostest harmonies” (RUSKIN : Queen
of the Air, § 157).

'Twere pleasant could Correggio's fleeting glow
Hang full in face of one where'er one roams,
Since he more than the others brings with him
Italy's self,—the marvellous Modenese !

BROWNING: Bishop Blougram's Apology. NOWHERE in the Gallery are we confronted so sorely as in this room with the confusions which the loose use of the term “school” has caused in the history and criticism of art. Sometimes the term is used with reference only to the place where such and such painters principally worked. Thus Raphael and Michael Angelo, together with their followers, are sometimes called the “Roman School.” But Rome produced no great native painters : she was merely a centre to which painters were drawn from elsewhere. So too when the phrase “Milanese School” occurs, it generally means Leonardo da Vinci and his immediate pupils, because, though a Florentine, he taught at Milan. Sometimes, again, the term “school " is used as mere geographical expression. Thus under “Lombard School” are often included (as in this room, for convenience in hanging) the painters of Parma, simply because Parma

is contiguous to Lombardy. A third use of the term school, however, is that in which it means “a definite quality, native to the district, shared through many generations by all its painters, and culminating in a few men of commanding genius.” Such a definite quality is generally marked by "a special collection of traditions and processes, a particular method, a peculiar style in design, and an equally peculiar taste in colouring—all contributing to the representation of a national ideal existing in the minds of the artists of the same country at the same time.” This is the use of the term which is suggested by the main arrangement of the National Gallery, and which is at once the most instructive and the most interesting.

Following this principle in the case of the present room, we must first dispose of the pseudo-Lombards—the Cremonese, namely, and Correggio. The pictures belonging to artists of Cremona are, as will be seen below, practically Venetian. Correggio and his imitator Parmigiano are more difficult to deal with. The truth is that Correggio stands very much apart (see below, p. 200); but if he must be labelled, it seems best to follow Signor Morelli and class him, on the score of his early training, with the Ferrarese. Coming now to the genuine Lombard School, one sees by looking round the room that it is by no means identical with Leonardo da Vinci. He himself was a Florentine, who settled at Milan, and whose powerful individuality exercised a strong influence on succeeding painters there. But before his coming, there was a native Lombard School—with artists scattered about in the towns and villages around Milan, and with a distinct style of its own—a style of spirituality and purity of aim which contemporary schools had greatly lost. It is not difficult to see some reasons for this style. First, the Lombard School of painting was late in arising. The building of Milan Cathedral and the Certosa of Pavia in the first part of the fifteenth century directed the artimpulse of the time rather to sculpture, and it was not till about 1450 that Vincenzo Foppa came from Brescia and established the principal school of painting at Milan. Other schools started with spiritual aims, which wore off, as it were, under the new pleasure of sharpening their means of execution, but the Lombards first took up the art when it had already been reduced to a science. And then most of the painters were natives, not of some large capital, but of small towns or country villages. Thus Luini was born on the Lago Maggiore, and the traditions of his life all murmur about the lake district. But he learned technique at Milan; and thus came to “stand alone,” adds Mr. Ruskin, “in uniting consummate art power with untainted simplicity of religious imagination” (see references under 18 below, p. 199).

With regard to the historical development of the school, it was founded, as we have seen, by Vincenzo Foppa, “the Mantegna of the Lombard School." Borgognone, his pupil, was its Perugino. Then came Leonardo from Florence, and the school divides into two sets—those who were immediately and directly his imitators, and those who, whilst feeling his influence, yet preserved the independent Lombard traditions. The visitor will have no difficulty in recognising the pictures of Beltraffio, Oggionno, and Martino Piazza as belonging to the former class. Solario, Luini, and Lanini are more independent. Lastly Sodoma, a pupil of Leonardo, went off to Siena and established a second Sienese School there, which is represented at the National Gallery by Peruzzi (II. 218, p. 40). 806. THE PROCESSION TO CALVARY.

Boccaccio Boccaccino (Cremonese : about 1460-1524). This picture, says Layard, ii. 389, is “not characteristic of Boccaccino's manner, and is probably by another hand.”

For some remarks on the subject of this picture see under I. 1143, p. 13. 286. VIRGIN AND CHILD.

Francesco Tacconi (Cremonese : painted 1464-1490). The only signed picture by this painter still in existence. He was a native of Cremona and worked there : he and his brother pleased the Cremonese so much by painting in the Town Hall that the artists were given an exemption from taxes. But he may be classed as a Venetian, for he was an imitator of Giovanni Bellini. This

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