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cushion above this, and the tassels, formed of three pendent tufts of silk hung on to a gold embroidered ball, offer good decorative suggestions to the trimming manufacturer. Attached to the front of the lectern is a label or “cartellino," setting forth that “ Marco Marziale the Venetian, by command of that magnificent knight and jurisconsult the learned Thomaseo R., made this picture in the year 1500;" as it is probable that this was the first important commission Marco ever obtained on his own account, there is little wonder that he wrought the record so elaborately. This “Thomaseo R." was Raimondi, a knight of the order of Jerusalem ; a man of considerable note in Cremona as a lawyer and poet. His portrait occupies the fore-front of the right-hand corner of the picture, his set features recalling the lawyer rather than the poet. It is his mantle, however, which best repays notice—a sumptuous robe of raised red velvet, such a fabric as Venice was then winning industrial renown by weaving. The very pretty pattern is of the so-called “pomegranate form," and occurs also on the mantle of the donor's wife, who occupies a corresponding position on the left-hand side of the picture. The cope of Simeon the high priest is very pretty also : the wild pink being largely introduced (for notice of other points, see further the interesting article by G. T. Robinson in the Art Journal, June 1886). "It will thus be seen that this one picture brings before us a great number of suggestions in design for various technic arts; at least half a dozen patterns exist in the ornaments of the mosaic work of the vaults ; five or six patterns of embroidered or woven borders will be found in it, as many designs for diapered or other surface decoration, examples of beaten metalwork and of bookbinding, besides the carved wood lectern." 907. ST. CATHERINE AND MARY MAGDALENE. Carlo Crivelli (Venetian : painted 1468-1495).
See under 602, p. 180. 1125. SUMMER AND AUTUMN.
Andrea Mantegna (Paduan : 1431-1506).
See under 1145, p. 180. Summer holds a sieve for sifting the corn which she ripens. Autumn, the season in Italy of the vintage, raises a goblet of wine to her lips.
1241. CHRIST PREACHING IN THE TEMPLE.
Pedro Campaña (Flemish-Italian : 1503-1580). The painter of this picture forms an interesting link in the history of art. “In Spain the influence exercised over the national school by the northern Gothic masters, was weakened at an early stage by the Italian Renaissance. Strange to say, a Fleming, who had learned his art in the school of Michael Angelo, was the chief instrument by which Italy asserted her power. Peter de Kampeneer, to whom the Spaniards gave the name of Pedro Campaña, was born in Brussels. He left Italy, where he had enjoyed the protection of Cardinal Grimani, for Seville (1548), where he founded an academy." Luis de Morales (see XV. 1229, p. 375) is said to have been among his disciples. “In 1560 he returned to his native city, and became official painter to the Brussels tapestry workers. His masterpiece, a Descent from the Cross,' is in the Cathedral of Seville. In Spain it was called “The Famous Descent from the Cross of Seville,' and the historian Bermudez asserts that Murillo was never tired of admiring it" (Wauters: The Flemish School, pp. 184-186). 778. MADONNA AND CHILD. Martino da Udine, called Pellegrino da San Daniele 1
(Venetian : died 1547). On the right of the throne is St. James, with his hand on 1 For the biography of this inferior painter, corrected by the latest
the shoulder of the donor of the picture ; on the left St. George, with the dead dragon at his horse's feet.
285. MADONNA AND CHILD.
Francesco Morone (Veronese : 1473–1529). “A fair example of the brilliant colouring of the school.” Francesco was the son of Domenico Morone (1211 and 1212), the fellowworker of Girolamo dai Libri (VII. 748, p. 133), and the master of Morando (VII. 735 and 777, pp. 149, 156).
1135, 1136. THE CLEMENCY OF TRAJAN.
Unknown (Veronese School : 15th century). These two panels, which clearly formed two sides of an ornamental box, represent a favourite subject with Italian painters of the period. The story is that an ancient widow of Rome stopped the Emperor Trajan as he was about to proceed on one of his foreign expeditions, and asked for justice against the murderers of her son, who is here seen lying dead on the roadway. Trajan suggested that she should wait till his return. She replied that the emperor might be killed in battle. “Then,” said Trajan, “my successor will attend to the business.” “But why,” she urged, “not decide the case at once ?" The emperor on second thoughts did so, and the second panel shows him on the judgment seat. He called the culprits before him, spared their lives, but made them pay heavy damages to the widow. This incident was engraved, together with the record of his military victories, on Trajan's column. The Pope Gregory, noting it there, prayed (the story goes) that the good emperor's soul might be released from hell, and his prayer was granted
The sweet remembrance of the just
Shall flourish when he sleeps in dust. 1165. ST. HIPPOLYTUS AND ST. CATHERINE. Il Moretto (Brescian: 1498–1555). See under VII. 625, p. 131.
Two saints who were not divided in the manner of their martyrdom, and who are united therefore on the painter's canvas. Each holds the martyr's palm. St. Catherine places her left hand on the hilt of a sword—the instrument by which researches, see Morelli, pp. 18-23. It is interesting to note that, like two or three other Venetian painters, he combined the trade of artist with that of timber merchant.
she was ultimately beheaded, whilst her foot rests upon the wheel on which she was to have been torn to death, had not an angel from heaven broken it. St. Hippolytus's death was not unlike that which had been devised for St. Catherine. He is clad in armour, for he was the soldier stationed as guard over St. Lawrence (see XI. 747, p. 277), but he is represented as bareheaded, and with his face upturned in reverence, for that “ he was so moved by that illustrious martyr's invincible courage and affectionate exhortations that he became a Christian with all his family.” Wherefore he was tied to the tails of wild horses and torn to death. On the fragment of stone in the foreground is an inscription in Latin, telling by what death the two saints glorified God—“ Membris dissolvi voluerunt ne vinculis divellerentur aeternis :" they chose to be torn limb by limb rather than by renouncing their faith to be thus torn hereafter by eternal chains. The members of the body are the chains of the soul, and the martyrs freed themselves from temporary fetters rather than submit to the fetters of everlasting punishment. 1211, 1212. FÊTES AT THE MARRIAGE OF THE MARQUIS OF MANTUA AND ISABELLA D'ESTE. Domenico Morone, called Pellacane (Veronese : born 1442,
still living 1508). Scenes in the brilliant court life of the time. Isabella d'Este and her husband Francesco Gonzaga, Marquis of Mantua, were both great patrons of the arts. The collection of Isabella in particular contained examples of the most renowned artists of the period, and correspondence of hers is extant with connoisseurs who assisted her in their acquisition. Domenico Morone, called Pellacane, the dog-skinner, from his father's occupation, may have been present at the marriage ceremony, which took place in 1490; but at any rate these little pictures are of historical interest as contemporary illustrations. The scene in both is a tilt court, with its seat of honour in the middle. In the first the knights are tilting, the marquis being on his throne and the seats filled with ladies. In the second the tilting is over, courtiers and ladies are dancing in the side compartments; whilst in the centre a knight in full armour, but bareheaded, awaits his award of victory from Isabella and her husband, who are standing on the dais. There is much artistic merit in the sprightly way
in which such momentary actions as that of the page going to spring over the partition in 1212 are rendered (see Times, July 24, 1886). 1214 CORIOLANUS, VOLUMNIA, AND VETURIA. Michele da Verona (Veronese : born 1470, still living 1523).
For Michele, who was a pupil of Domenico Morone (see under 1211), see Morelli, p. 54.
Coriolanus, a noble Roman, so called from Corioli, a city of the Volscians he had taken, bore himself haughtily, and was banished. Nursing his revenge, he threw himself into the arms of the Volscians, determined henceforth to bear himself “As if a man were author of himself, And knew no other kin," and advanced at their head upon Rome. The Romans, in terror, endeavoured in vain to appease him, and at last sent out his wife, Volumnia, with her child, here kneeling before him, and his mother, Veturia (Volumnia in Shakespeare's play), to intercede. In their presence “the strong man gave way; he throws himself on his knee, and is restored once more to human love”
Like a dull actor now,
SHAKESPEARE: Coriolanus, Act v. Sc. 3. 1212. See under 1211 above, p. 190. 1102. THE CHEVALIER ANDREA TRON. Pietro Longhi (Venetian: 1702–1762). See XIII. 1100, p. 314.
The portrait of "a procurator of St. Mark's," a dignity in the Venetian State second only to that of doge. The procurators were charged with the legal administration of all the affairs of St. Mark's, and their official palaces (the Procuratie) adjoined the church. They were further charged with the care of orphans, and with the administration of others who cared to put themselves “in chancery." The office was thus not unlike that of an English Lord Chancellor, and there is a “grand motherliness” about this procurator that makes one think he