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spinning into threail. Of flax, linen is made, from the finest cambric to the coarsest canvass. Hemp is chiefly used for coarse cloth, such as strong sheeting, and sacking; but it is sometimes wrought to considerable fineness ; it is also twisted into ropes and cables.
The corn-harvest begins in July in some parts of Ireland ; but August and September are the principal harvest-months.
August. In the beginning of this month, the weather is still hot, and usually calm and fair. What remained to be perfected by the powerful influence of the sun, is daily advancing to maturity. The farmer now sees the principal ob. ject of his culture, and the chief source of his riches, waiting only for the hand of the gatherer. Of the several kinds of grain, rye and oals are usually the first ripened; but this varies, according to the period of sowing; and . some of every species may be seen fit for cutting at the same time.
Every fair day is now of great importance : für, when the corn is once ripe, it is liable to continual damage while standing, either from the shedding of the seeds, from the depredations of birds, or from storms. The utmost diligence is therefore used by the careful husbandman to get it in, and labourers are hired from all quarters to hasten the work.
This pleasant harvest scene is beheld in its perfection only in the open field countries, where the sight can take in at once an úninterrupted extent of land waving with corn, and a multitude of people engaged in the various parts of the labour.
It is a prospect equally delightful to the eye and the heart, and it ought to inspire erery sentiment of benevolence to our fellow-creatures, and gra. titude to our Creator.
The rural festival of harrest home is an exs tremely natural one, and has been observed in almost all ages and all countries. The jovial harvest 'supper cheers the heart of the poor labourer, and prepares him to begin, without murmuring, the labours of another year.
This month is the season of another kind of harvest in some parts of England, which is the hop-picking. The hop is a climbing plant, sometimes growing wild in hedges, and is cultivated on account of its use in making malt liquors. It is planted in regular rows, and poles are set for it to run upon. When the poles are covered to the top, nothiæg can make a more elegant appearance, ihan one of these hop-gardens. At the time of gathering, the poles are taken up with the plants cling
ing to them; and the scaly flowering heads, which are the part used, are carefully picked off. These are a finely-flavoured bitter, which taste they readily impart to hot water. They thus improve our beer, and make it keep better. Kent, Sussex, and Worcestershire, in England, are the counties the most famous for the growth of hops; but thie plant does not grow in Ireland,
September. This is, in general, a very agreeable month, the distinguishing softness and serenity of autumn, with its deep blue skies, prevailing through great part of it. The days are now very sensibly shortened: and the mornings and evenings are chill and damp, though the warmth is still considerable in the middle of the day.
This variation of temperature is one cause why autumn is an unhealthy time, especially in the warmer climates, and in nioist situations.
The labours of the husbandman, have but a very short intermission; for, no sooner is the harvest gathered in, than the fields are again ploughed up and prepared for the winter corn, rye, and wheat, which are sown during the latter part of this month and the next.
Not only the swallow-tribe, but many other small birds, which feed on insects, disappear on the approach of cold weather, when the insects themselves are no longer to be met with.
On the other hand, some birds arrive at this season from siill more northerly countries, to spend the winter with us. The fieldfare and red-wing, whose departure was mentioned
in March, return about the end of September. They feed chiefly on the berries with which our woods and hedges are plentifully stored all the winter.
The most useful fruit this country affords, the apple, successively ripens, according to its dif. ferent kinds, from July to September, or October ; but the principal harvest of them is about the close of this month. They are now gathered for the cider-making, which in some counties is a busy and important einployment.
The apples are taken, either fresh from the tree, or after they have lain a while to mellow, and crushed in a mill, and then pressed till all their juice is extracted. This is set to ferment, whence it becomes cider, which may properly be called apple-wine. Pears treated in the same manner yield a liquor called perry, These are the common drinks in the counties where they are chiefly made.
The autumnal equinox,. when day and night are again equal over the whole globe, happens about the 23d of September. This, as well as the Spring equinox, is generally attended with storms, which throw down much of the fruit yet remaining on the trees.
October. PLANTS having gone through the progressive stages of springing, flowering, and seeding, have at this season brought to maturity