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WITH ALTERATIONS AND IMPROVEMENTS.
Deligned for the Use of the
YOUNGER CLASS OF LEARNERS.
BY A TEACHER OF YOUTH.
Improvements secured according to Law.
FOURTH BOSTON EDITION.
No. 2, CORNHILL.
NARVARD DOLL LIBRARY
JANUARY 25, 1924
DISTRICT OF MASSACHUSETTS D19TRICT, to wit :
BEIT REMEMBERED, That on the fecond L. S.
of the independence of the United States of Amer
ica, MANNING & LORING, of the said distriệt, have deposited in this office the title of a Book, the right whereof they claim as Proprietors, in the words fol. lowing, to wit: An Abridgment of L. Murray's English Grammar. With Alterations and Improvements. Designed for the Use of the younger Class of Learners.-By a Teacher of Youth.”
In conformity to the Aft of the Congress of the United States, entitled," An Act for the encouragement of learning, by securing the copies of maps, charts, and books, to the Authors and Proprietors of such copies, during the tiines therein mentioned."
N. GOODALE, Clerk of the
District of Masachusetts. A true copy of Record.
Attest: N. GOODALE, Clerk.
ENGLISH Grammar is the art of speaking and writing the Englith language with propriety.
It is divided into four parts, viz. ORTHOGRAPHY, ETYMOLOGY, SYNTAX, and PROSODY.
LETTERS. ORTHOGRAPHY teaches the nature and pow." ers of letters, and the just method of spelling words.
[A letter is the first principle, or least part, of a word.
Letters are divided into yowels and consonants.
A yowel is a simple articulate sound, formed by the impulse of the voice.
A confonant cannot be perfectly founded by itself; but, joined with a vowel, forms an articulate found.
The vowels are, a, e, i, o, u, and sometimes w and
y. W and y are consonants when they begin a word or syllable ; but in every other situation they are called vowels.
A diphthong is the union of two vowels, pronounced by a single impulse of the voice ; as, ea in beat, ou in sound,
A proper diphthong is that in which both the powels are founded ; as, oi in voice, ou in ounce.
An improper diphthong has but one of the yow. els founded; as, ea in eagle, oa in boat.]
SYLLABLES. [A fyllable is a found either simple or compound. ed, pronounced by a fingle impulse of the voice, and constituting a word, or part of a word; as, man, man-ful.]
WORDS. Words are articulate founds, used, by common consent, as signs of our ideas.
All words are either primitive or derivative.
Primitive words cannot be reduced to any simpler words in the language; as, man, good, content.
Derivative words may be reduced to other words in English of greater fimplicity; as, mans ful, goodness, contentment,
ETYMOLOGY. Etymology treats of the different forts of words, their derivation, and their various modifications.
There are in English nine forts of words, called PARTS OF SPEECH; namely, the ARTICLE, the SUBSTANTIVE or noUN, the PRONOUN, the ADJECTIVE, the VERB, the ADVERB, the PREP. OSITION, the CONJUNCTION, and the INTERJECTION.
An Article is a word prefixed to subftantives to point them out, and to show how far their fignification extends; as, a gárden, an eagle, the woman.
2. A Substantive or noun is the name of any thing that exists, or of which we have any notion ; as, man, virtue, London,
A substantive may, in general, be distinguished by its taking an article before it, or hy its making sense of itself; as, a book, the sun, an apple ; temperance, industry, chafity 3.
A Pronoun is a word used instead of a noun, to avoid the too frequent repetition of the same word; as, The man is happy; he is benevolent; be is useful.
An Adjective is a word added to a subftantive, to express its quality; as, an industrious man, a virtuous woman.
An Adjective may be known by its making fenfe with the addition of the word thing ; as, a good thing, a bad thing ; or of any particular substantive; as, a sweet apple, a pleafAnt prospect. 5.
A Verb is a word which fignifies to be, to do, or to SUFFER ; as,
ат, , I rule, I am ruled."
A verb may be distinguished by its making sense with any of the personal pronouns, or the word to before it ; as, I walk, he plays, they write; or, to walk, to play, to write.
6. An Adverb is a part of speech joined to a verb, an adjective, and sometimes to another adverb, to express fome quality or circumstance; as, he reads well; a truly good man; he writes very correctly.
An adverb may be generally known, by its answering to the question, How? How much ? When? or Where? as, in the phrase, “ He reads correctly,” the answer to the ques. tion, How does he read ? is, correctly.
7. Prepositions serve to connect words with one another, and to show the relation between them; as, “ He went from London to York;"