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so angular a form as to be nearly doubled under each other. Yet between these and the former, and but little above the surface, there are other circular arches, which, instead of being deposited in the same manner as the others, have their diameter horizontal. Farther up, among the recesses of the hills, there are fragments of exotic masses, which have been brought together from various places, and piled one over the other in “most admired disorder.” As far, too, as the eye can trace and the rocks are bare, the higher strata, as they recede in perspective, appear to be laid in every irregular position, some depressed, and others elevated, as if various powers had been brought to bear upon them from above and below.

The most natural conclusion is, that there are, probably, large reservoirs of water on the mountains above, which, at some early period, whether by an extraordinary accumulation, or by the recession of the subjacent rocks, were precipitated in a flood to the valley, bearing with them the huge masses which lie about in so many rude fragments. But this could not have caused the contortions in the strata which are so remarkable.

The natural colour of the limestone is a deep indigo, but from meteoric causes the surface has assumed a yellowish and brownish tint, while fragments are strewed about, which have passed through the fire of a kiln at the foot of the fall, of a light gravelly red. At this spot, there is a surprising echo, which is “shown off” by the discharge of a small cannon; for the employment of which, the traveller is charged a fee which would not be unworthy of the guides who minister in the Devil’s Cave, at Castleton, in the Peak.

The diagrams here given in illustration are not drawn with a view to proportion; my only object has been illustration. – W. B. Clarke,

[A POSTSCRIPT to Mr. Clarke's Communication, ending in p. 630. The appearing of Meteors in November, in different Years. (p. 386, 387.) An Instance for 1834.]— On the return [in 1834] of the period when the meteors, of which I have said so much, were seen in 1799, 1832, and 1833, I felt naturally anxious to watch the atmosphere. My health, however, did not allow me to remain up all night; but on rising, at three o'clock in the morning of Nov. 13., I saw from my window, in fifteen minutes' time by the watch, fifteen falling stars, in the direction of a line from Leo to the star Miza in Ursa major. The night was cloudless, and the moon so

bright, that the constellations could be scarcely seen; but the meteors were very red and brilliant. The wind blew briskly from E.N.E., and freshened after every meteor. The coincidence between these and those before seen in America and Europe (p. 289.385. 611.) on this day of the month is curious; but those which I now mention were decidedly electrical, and of no uncommon character. One meteor fell to the south of Ursa major, and appeared to pass between Cor Caroli and Arcturus. There were no trains. Should any correspondent of the Magazine have made any farther observations, I shall be obliged for the statement of them. – W. B. Clarke.

REVIEWS.

ART. I. Titles of Works on Subjects of Natural History, published recently.

LoRD, Perceval B., M.B., M.R.C.S. of the Bombay Medical Establishment: Popular Physiology; being a Familiar Explanation of the most interesting Facts connected with the Nature and Functions of Animals, and particularly of Man. Adapted for general readers. Small 8vo, 500 pages, and several woodcuts. 1834. 7s.6d.

Lea, Isaac, Member of the American Philosophical Society, &c. : Observations on the Genus Unio, together with Descriptions of New Genera and Species in the Families Naiades, Conchae, Colimacea, Lymnaeana, Melaniana, and Peristomiana; consisting of Four Memoirs read before the American Philosophical Society, from 1827 to 1834, and originally published in their Transactions, 4to, 232 pages, with [numerous] coloured plates. Philadelphia, 1834.

Various Contributors: The Transactions of the Entomological Society of London. Vol. I. Part I. 8vo, 100 pages; 7 copperplates filled with engravings of insects, some of them coloured. London, 1834. 7s.6d.

Bagster, Samuel, Jun. : The Management of Bees; with a Description of the “Ladies' Safety Hive.” With Forty illustrative Wood Engravings, and a Frontispiece exhibiting the Queen Bee, Worker Bee, and Drone Bee, of the natural size and colour, and magnified. Small 8vo, 244 pages. London, 1834. 6s. 6d.

Purchas, Samuel, A.M., and Bagster, Samuel, Jun. : Spiritual Honey from Natural Hives; or, Meditations and Observations on the Natural History and Habits of Bees. First introduced to public notice in 1657, by Samuel Purchas, A.M.; now modified and republished by Samuel Bagster, junior. Small 8vo, 176 pages. London, 1834. 3s.

Phillips, Professor : A Guide to Geology. 5s.

Higgins, W. M., F.G.S., Lecturer on Natural Philosophy at Guy's Hospital, Author of “The Mineral and Mosaical Geologies,” &c. : Alphabet of Electricity, for the Use of Beginners. 12mo, 116 pages, and 47 engravings on wood. London, 1834. 2s. 6d.

ART. II. Literary Notices.

THE Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, on the contributions to science made at the late meeting at Edinburgh, is to be put to press immediately. A Volume on Comparative Anatomy, by Dr. Grant, is to be published early in 1835, by M. Baillière: in 8vo, with numerous wood engravings. Swainson's Żoological Illustrations, Second Series. We are requested to state that not any single numbers of this work can be had after January 1, 1835. Of the 200logical Journal, part xx. (the 4th of vol. v.) is ...? nearly ready. This part will contain several plates; and there will be published, at the same time, a part consisting of supplementary plates. Of Gould's Birds of Europe, part x. is published, and it is a most interesting one: the figures of the penduline tit, the marsh sandpiper, the kite, and the little bittern, are especially commendable. The Natural History of Dogs is the subject of the next volume of the Naturalist's Library, by Sir William Jardine: the volume is nearly ready. The Deer and Antelopes are to be the subjects of the successive volume. Of Thompson's Żoological Researches a fifth Memoir has been just published; its subject is:– “Developement of Artemis salinus, or brine shrimp, demonstrative of its relationship to Branchipus and the other Crustaceous Phyllopoda, and to those enigmatical fossils the eyeless Trilobites; with a new species of Artemis and of Apus. With six plates.” In No. iv. of the Analyst, November, is an entertaining article on the nidification of the wren, and another on the plumage, nest, and eggs of the long-tailed titmouse.

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Analyst, the, noticed, 479. 656.
British Association's Third Report, announced,
480; Fourth Report, announced. 656.
Bulletin de la Société Impériale des Natural-
istes de Moscou, noticed, 187.
Bushnan's Introduction to the Study of Nature,
illustrative of the Attributes of the Almighty,
noticed, 476.
Finch's Travels in the United States of America
and in Canada, noticed, 95.
Fraser's Account of Persia, noticed, 186.
Hastings's Illustrations of the Natural History
of Worcestershire, noticed, 186.
Higgins's Alphabet of Electricity, announced.
544. 656.
Jesse's Gleanings in Natural History, Second
Series, noticed, 284.
L'Institut, noticed, 288.
Macgillivray's Memoirs of the Lives of cele.
brated Naturalists, ann., 288; not., 605.
Naturalist's, the, Poetical Companion, not., 89.
Parent's, the, Cabinet of Amusement and In-
struction, not., 96.
Partington's British Cyclopaedia, not, 38.2. 605.
Quebec Literary and Historical Society's Trans-
actions, noticed, 544.
Teacher's, a, First Lessons on Natural Religion,
e announced, 96.

GENERAL ZOOLOGY.

Bonaparte's Iconografia della Fauna Italica,
announced, 384.
Bushnan’s History of a Case in which Animals
were found in Blood drawn from the Weins
of a Boy, noticed, 94.
Cuvier's Animal Kingdom, Henderson's Trans-
lation of, noticed, 607.
Edwards on the Influence of Physical Agents
on Life, noticed, 381.
Grant's Comparative Anatomy, announced, 656.
Gray's Zoological Text Book, announced, 384.
Innes's New Edition of Goldsmith's Natural
History, noticed, 479.
Jardine's Felina, announced, 196; Dogs, 656;
Deer and Antelopes, 656.
King's Introduction to the Study of the Science
of Organisation, noticed, 543.
Lord's Popular Physiology, announced, 655.
Pritchard's Natural History of Animalcules,
noticed, 285.
Swainson's Zoological Illustrations, Second Se.
ries, announced, 656.
Thompson's Zoological Researches, Memoir 5.,
* announced, 656.
Walker's Treatise on the Nervous System,
Anatomical and Physiological, noticed, 603.
Wells's Lecture on Animal Instinct, not. 185.
Wood's Illustrated Descriptions of the Mam.
malia, announced, 192.
Zoological Journal, Part xx., announced, 656.

ORNITHOLOGY.

Brown's and Dick's Natural History of the
Parrots, noticed, 91.
Gould's Bird's of Europe, announced, 656.
Hewitson's British Oology, 338. note".
Jardine's Natural History of Gallinaceous Birds,
noticed, 381.
Jardine's Natural History of Humming-Birds,
vol. ii., noticed, 90.
Mudie on the Feathered Tribes of the British
Islands, noticed, 284.
Swainson's Ornithological Drawings, not. 185.

ICHTHYOLOGY.

Wilson's and Duncan's Ichthyology, ann,96.
Yarrell's History of British Fishes, ann. 479.

CONCHOLOGY.

Lea's Observations on the Genus Unio, &c.
announced, 655. -
Swainson's Exotic Conchology, noticed, 86.

ENTOMOLOGY.

Bagster's Management of Bees, ann ounced, 655.
Bagster's Spiritual Honey from Natural Hives,
announced, 655.
Doncaster Agricultural Association's Report
on the Turnip Fly, noticed, 543.
Entomological Magazine, noticed, 91.480. 608.
Entomological Society's Transactions, 608. 655.
Fischer's Notice sur le Phlocerus, noticed, 187.
Gray's Entomologist's Popular, Guide to the
Study and Classification of British Insects,
announced, 384.
Newman's Grammar of Entomology, ann. 480.
Shuckard's Essay on the Indigenous Fossorial
Hymenoptera, announced, 480.
Westwood's Popular Introduction to the Mo-
dern Classification of Insects, announced, 288.
Wilson's and Duncan's Entomologia Edinensis.
Coleoptera, noticed, 188.

BOTANY.

Babington's Flora Bathonensis, noticed, 191.
Gaillon's Observations sur les Limites qui sé-
parent le Règne Végétal du Regne Animal,
noticed, 189.
Hooker's Journal of Botany, noticed, 286. 480.
Lees's Affinities of Plants with Man and Ani-
mals, noticed, 382.
Lindley's Ladies' Botany, noticed, 383.
Nees von Esenbeck's Genera Plantarum Florae
Germanicae Iconibus et Descriptionibus il-
lustrata, noticed, 190.
Paxton's Magazine of Botany, announced, 192.
Rhind's Catechism of Botany, noticed, 191.
Royle's Illustrations of the Botany, and other
Branches of the Natural History, of the
Himalayan Mountains, and of the Flora of
Cashmere, noticed, 285. 480. 608.
Wight and Arnott's Prodromus of the Cha-
racters of the Plants of the Peninsula of India,
announced, 288, 480.
Wyatt's Dried Marine Plants of Devonshire,
noticed, 95.

GEOLOGY.

Ainsworth's Account of the Caves of Bally-
bunian, reviewed, 286.
Allan's Manual of Mineralogy, ann. 544.
Boase's Treatise on Primary Geology, ann. 384.
Bylandt's Résumé Préliminaire de l'Ouvrage
sur la Théorie des Volcans, reviewed, 83. .
Geological Positions in direct Proof of an im.
portant Part of Scripture Chronology, an-
nounced, 96.
Hawkins's Memoir on the Ichthyosauri and
Plesiosauri, noticed, 384; reviewed, 476.
Lea's Contributions to Geology, noticed, 383. "
Lyell's Principles of Geology, vol. iii. of, ann.
191. A new Edition of the whole Work,
announced, 544.
Nicol's Observations on the Structure of Recent
and Fossil Coniferae, announced, 192.
Phillips's Geology of the North and west
Ridings of Yorkshire, announced, 181. 192.
Phillips's Guide to Geology, announced, 656.
Revolutions of the Globe, a work on, ann. 608,

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A can are, in the West Indies, sometimes
fatal to poultry, 633.
Achlysia Audouin deemed identical with Lim-
nócharis Latr., 161.
AE'sa monophthālma Johnston, figures, and a
description of, 233.
AEgeria, remarks on the characteristics and
synonymes of certain species of, 177.
Aglaia tail is of active habits, 532.
A’lgae, a notice of M. Gaillon's views on the
Rhysiological attributes of, 189; notice of
Mary Wyatt's work on the Algae of Devon-
shire, with a mention of some species, 95.
Albatross, the wandering, dimensions of an in-
dividual of, 74.
Alcyonia, the compound, an incidental noti-
fication of their structural distinctness from
the polypes, 13, 14; illustrations of the struc-
ture of two species of, 15, 16.
Alyssum maritimum Lam. disseminated by
waves, 272.
Amphibious animals, zoological recollections
on, 404.
Animals : notices of instances of extraordinary
increase, migrations and irruptions of animals,
birds, insects, and fishes, with a referring of
these to terrestrial and atmospherical convul-
sions, 193; thoughts on the question, Why
cannot animals speak the language of man 2
481 ; instances of animals of different genera
communicating ideas to one another, 502; an
instance of animals of the same species doing
this, 503; instances of certain species of ani-
mals of which varieties with their external

covering of a colour anomalous to that of

the species are known, 589.
Annulate animals, essays in explanation of
the structure of, and of its relation to their
economy, 121. 235; an explanation of the
process of the circulation of the blood, and of
that of the respiration in, 235.
Anobium, see Pt(nidae.
Anolis, see Lizards.
Ants, various facts on the habits of various
species of, 266–270; facts on the parasol ant
of Trinidad, 363; a note on a species of very
minute ant, 269 603.
Apiocrinites, see Crinoidea.
Aplidium fallax Johnston and A. nutans John-
ston, a figure and a description of each, 15, 16.
Appetite, depraved, instances of, in mammi-
ferous animals, 135, 136. 503.
Ardèidae, Mr. Jenyns's views on the systematic
affinities of the, 93.
Argulus foliaceus Jurine, fils, a note on, 600.
Artesian wells, a request for information on
the temperature of, 81.
Ascídia 2 gémina, a figure and a description of,
129; Ascidia 2 Holothiria 2 inceps, a figure
and a description of, 130.
Aspérula arvonsis L. not a British plant, 272.
Ass, zoological recollections on the, 313; a
notice of a superstition connected with the
ass, 566; instances of the ass nearly white,
59t).
Audubon, Mr., and his work, the Biography of
the Birds of America, Mr. Waterton's re-
marks on, 66–74; Rev. John Bachman's
defence of Mr. Audubon's account of the
rattlesnake's swallowing squirrels, 164; of
his opinion that the turkey buzzard traces
its food isy sight and not by smelling, 165;
and of Mr. Audubon's claim of the author-
ship of the Boography of the Birds of America,

171; a notice by Mr. Bachman of some of
Mr. Audubon's recent contributions to or.
nithology, 174; Mr. Waterton's defence of
his own views on the claim of Mr. Audubon
to the authorship of the Biography of the
Birds qf America, 278; Mr. Waterton's views
on Mr. Audubon's ornithology, 279 ; Mr.
Waterton's analysis of Mr. Audubon's state-
ments on the passenger pigeon, 281.
Aurora borealis, particulars and observations
on a very interesting instance of the, wit-
nessed at Hull, on the evening and night of
Oct. 12, 1833, 50.
Badger, zoological recollections on the, 405.
Ballybunian, information on the caves of, 286.
Bear, zoological recollections on the, 400.
Berberry, the, shown to be uninjurious to
wheat, 26.
Birds: facts and arguments in relation to two
questions; Are all birds in the habit of allur-
ing intruders from their nest ? and, Why do
birds sing 2 483; facts and arguments on
the mode of the origin of song in birds, 245;
arguments in proof that the song of birds is
innate, 567; singing birds are lovers of music,
144; an instance of the effcct of the singing
of birds upon the feelings of man, 143; an
opinion on the degree of birds' power of
scent, 170; certain species of birds celebrated
for their stupidity and contempt of the de-
stroyer, man, acquire vigilant wariness in
places which man much frequents, 75; the
reason why nocturnal birds have become birds
of omen, and subjects of superstitions, 561 ;
insectivorous birds disgorge the indigestible
parts of coleopterous insects, 514; most, if
not all, granivorous birds, as well as some
others, swallow grit, to the end of its pro-
moting the trituration of their food, 460; the
colour of the irides of some species of birds
varies with the age of the bird, 345; the
names of species of birds of which individuals
in plumage anomalous to that of the species,
and permanent, have been known, 5'3; an
opinion that the change in the colours of the
plumage of birds kept in confinement is re-
ferable to the confinement and the nature of
the food upon which they feed, 598; a notice
of several instances of crossing and preter-
natural lengthening in the mandibles of birds.
of conditions in some of the instances, and an
opinion on the cause of all of them, 57 ; a
notice of instances of excrescences on the
head and other parts of the common hedge-
chanter and tree pipit, and a notice of con-
ditions in these instances, 58; if the mandible
of a bird be cut or broken, so as to induce
extravasation of blood, the bird must die, 57.
58; notices on a few of the birds of Lower
Canada, 508; the accumulation of all possible
information on the rock birds of Britain, by
the cooperative agency of naturalists residing
near headlands on the coasts, suggested; and
some information on the arrival, breeding.
and departure of the rock birds in the Island
of St. Kilda, 573; notes on the dates of the
arrival of the summer birds of passage about
Tooting, Surrey, with remarks on some of
the species, 338; notes on the movements of
the migratory land birds, previous to their
departure from Scotland, 145, 146 note *; a
notice of some rare species of birds observed or
killed in the county of Suffolk, and adjoining
borders of Essex, during the winter months of

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