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is an oval bag filled, in the specimens examined, with innumerable minute granules. When the animalcule was compressed between plates of glass, these granules escaped abundantly from the mouth, and from a prominent aperture a little below it on the side. The walls of the branchial sac are marked with several lines or plaits in a longitudinal direction; but I saw no traces of any vascular network. On the inner side of the branchial sac there is an obscure appearance of an intestine or vessel winding up it to end at the anal aperture (c); and near the base of the sac there is a considerable orange-coloured spot marked with longitudinal lines, and presumed to be the stomach (d). Immediately below this, the body is suddenly contracted into a very long and linear tail, as it may be called, in which, when compressed, we perceive a dark intestine-like mark, mottled with darker and lighter shades on each side, and a clear space between them; but I cannot trace any distinct termination of these organs (which are the ovaries) in the branchial sac, although the shadings at the base of this part indicate the existence and situation of some distinct organs. This species has a great resemblance to Aplidium effiisum of Savigny, but I cannot consider them identical. Hab. Berwick Bay, in deep water. Berwick upon Tweed, Sept. 1833.
ART. W. Remarks on the Natural Productions of Lerden and its Neighbourhood. By J. G. OUR village stands on a gentle slope, at the foot of which runs the river Colne, winding its course through a picturesque valley, fertilising many rich and verdant meadows, and turning in its passage a considerable number of mills. Our soil is generally a light gravel, and so very dry, that our usual paths are passable even in the depth of winter, and we are thereby afforded facilities for the enjoyment of sylvan scenery which but few neighbourhoods possess. Just below the village, on the north-west side, is a considerable extent of spongy boggy soil, full of springs of uncommon purity and strength, which, in the short space of a quarter of a mile, form a crystal stream sufficient to drive a corn mill, lately erected on the spot. This stream, which affords a supply of 400 gallons a minute, is not at all affected by the seasons, being equally strong in the driest and the most rainy weather. Our parish is particularly well wooded, producing many lofty oaks, elms, and alders; and, consequently, we have most Wol. WIl. — No. 37. C
of the birds common to wooded districts, and some which are by no means generally diffused.
The boggy ground, in which the springs have their rise, is covered with low alders, and produces much that is interesting to the botanist. The raspberry (Rubus idæ`us) abounds in it, and, when the fruit is ripe, presents a temptation to venture on the soft and treacherous soil. In spring, the brilliant Chrysosplenium oppositifòlium, with its yellow flowers and shining foliage, forms large beds of green and gold; the lowly wood sorrel (O'xalis Acetosella) hangs its pale and modest head beneath the mossy stumps of the decayed alders; the beautiful ferns, Aspídium Filix fæ'mina and Aspídium dilatàtum, luxuriate in the moisture and shade so congenial to them; and the huge Càrex paniculata rises to the height of four feet or more, and, with its long and elegant leaves issuing from the top of the stem, and reaching to the ground, might, by its exotic appearance, almost make you imagine that you had been suddenly transported into some tropical region,
“ Where the huge palms extend their shady tops,
And torrents foam o'er beds of golden sand.” But the song of the nightingale in the adjoining copse, the peculiarly joyous and happy note of the willow wren (Currùca Tróchilus), the loud and familiar laugh of the woodpecker (Picus viridis), and the often repeated note of the marsh tit (Parus palustris) are sounds which will soon awaken feelings inseparably connected with “our own, our native isle.” Amongst the vernal plants of our district must not be omitted the sweet Adoxa Moschatéllina, which rears its delicate flowers on the moss-grown bank of many a shady hedgerow; a mild and certain harbinger of sunny days to come. On the dry banks we have Jasiòne montàna and the diminutive yet elegant Orníthopus perpusillus. Our woods abound with the anemone and the hyacinth (Anemòne nemorosa and Scilla nutans), and our river banks are clothed with the beautiful spikes of Lythrum Salicària, the unassuming Scutellària galericulàta, and Cardamine amàra with its bright purple anthers.
From the beginning of autumn to the end of the year, we see on the borders of our streams that graceful little bird the grey wagtail (Motacilla Boárula) taking its insect prey among the stones in the shallow water; and, in the depth of winter, the siskin (Fringilla Spinus) abounds on the lofty alders, the seeds of which afford it acceptable food. The brilliant kingfisher (Alcedo I'spida) is almost constantly to be seen skimming over the surface of our waters, or seated on
a solitary pile or naked branch, patiently watching [IV. 450.] for its offinny prey, while its glossy and radiant plumage is strongly contrasted with the sober dress of the skulking moorhen (Gallinula chlóropus) which is flirting up its tail amongst the sedges hard by. We now and then see the kestrel (Fălco Tinnánculus), the sparrowhawk (Būteo Nisus), and the hobby" (Fălco Subbuteo); and our ears are often assailed, in the stillness of the night, by the clear and plaintive hooting of the brown owl (Strix stridula), and the hoarse scream of its congener, the white owl (Strix flámmea). The nuthatch (Sitta europaea) utters its shrill and frequent cry, “wit, wit, wit,” in our groves; while the notes of the jay, the cuckoo, the turtle dove, and the mingled melody of a host of summer visiters, “aid the full concert,” and form together a chorus which, combined with the usual scenery around, must move to ecstasy every heart that is capable of any degree of sensibility, and which ought to engage the breast in the adoration of Him who has given us all these things richly to enjoy. Our streams afford a considerable variety of fish, but to these I have paid little attention; for, even in this sequestered spot, “far from the noise, the hum, the shock of men,” the cares of life will intrude, to the exclusion of those pursuits of nature which console in adversity, and render prosperity doubly delightful. I have sometimes been much gratified in observing that elegant little animal, the water shrew (Sorex fodiens), diving and sporting under a little waterfall in one of our groves: it is one of the prettiest of our few quadrupeds, and is an animal which appears to have attracted but little notice. We have all that can be desired in a country village, and whether our lovely scenes be visited in the glorious spring, when morning puts forth its melody from grove and park and verdant field, or in the silent and mellow autumn, when the cool air breathes vigour and health to the frame, and the brilliant dews bespangle the mossy turf, now strewed with many a yellow leaf, they cannot fail to delight and exalt the soul of every rational lover of the beauties of nature. Lerden, near Colchester, 10 mo. [October] 22. 1833.
* A beautiful specimen of this bird was shot here last year by my much valued friend, Henry Doubleday of Epping, who, by his unwearied assiduity and acute observation, has done much to promote a knowledge of the ornithology of our island. [See, in VI. 521., a notice of Mr. Doubleday's discovering “several nests with eggs” of the hawfinch in Epping Forest.]
Art. VI. On the Altitude of the Habitats of Plants in Cumber
land, with Localities of the rarer Mountain Species. By Mr. HEWETT WATSON.
OFTEN as the county of Cumberland has been traversed by botanists, we are, nevertheless, yet very imperfectly acquainted with the stations of its rarer plants; and there is, perhaps, not another county of England in regard to the botanical productions of which there are so many errors in print. Under these circumstances, I need scarcely apologise for submitting some observations and discoveries, made during a month's residence at Keswick, in May and June of 1833. This county is so constantly visited by the students in every department of natural history, that there will doubtless be some, among the readers of this Magazine, to whom the following notices will be useful. My attention was principally directed towards the influence of height in changing the vegetable productions; and, taking the highest stations at which particular species were observed, they may be arranged in steps of 500 ft., as follows; but Scawfell Pikes, the highest hill of the county, being only 3166 ft., the first step in our descent will be a shorter one. The names accord with those of Hooker's British Flora.
1. Between 3000 ft. and 3160 ft. --O'xalis Acetosella, Cerastium viscosum, Saxifraga stellàris, Galium saxátile, Campanula rotundifolia, Vaccínium Myrtillus and Vìtis idæ a, Thymus Serpýllum, Rùmex Acetosa, Salix herbàcea, Empetrum nigrum, Carex rígida, Festùca ovina, Lycopodium Selàgo, Cryptográmma críspa.
2. Between 2500 ft. and 3000 ft. — Ranúnculus àcris, Cáltha palustris, Cardamine pratensis, Vìola canina, V. palústris, Pýrus aucuparia (the highest arborescent species, and the specimens of it only stunted bushes), Tormenulla officinalis, Gèum rivàle, Alchemilla alpina, Rhodiola rósea, Chrysosplènium oppositifòlium, Hieracium murorum, Statice Armèria, Juniperus commúnis, Luzula [Luciola Smith] campestris, L. máxima, Júncus squarròsus, Eriophorum vaginatum, Càrex pilulífera, Anthoxanthum odoratum.
3. Between 2000 ft. and 2500 ft. — Ranunculus Flammula, , Anemone nemoròsa, Thalictrum alpinum, Cochlearia (dánica?), Stellària uligindsa, Silène acaulis, Rubus saxatilis, Epildbium alsinifdlium, Saxifraga oppositifòlia, Valeriana officinális, Callùna vulgaris, Solidàgo virgaúrea, Achillæ'a Ptármica, Apargia autumnàlis, Pinguicula vulgàris, Júncus effùsus, Eleocharis pauciflèra, Eriophorum angustifolium, Càrex binérvis, C. cæspitòsa, Polypodium Phegópteris, Bléchnum boreale.
4. Between 1500 ft. and 2000 ft. — Thalíctrum minus, Arabis hirsuta, Polygala vulgaris, Sagina procámbens, Rūbus idaeus, Alchemilla vulgăris, Móntia fontana, Saxifraga hypnóides, S. aizoides, Angélica sylvéstris, Pimpinélla Saxifraga, Heraclèum Sphondylium, Erica cinérea, E. Tétralix, A'rbutus Uva (irsi, Gnaphalium dioicum, Leóntodon Taráxacum, Cnicus palástris, Hierácium paludosum, Verónica officinalis, Melampyrum praténse, Digitalis purpurea, Pediculāris sylvática, Lysimachia némorum, Oxyria renifármis, Bétula álba, Salix (aurita ?), Orchis máscula, Hyacinthus nonscriptus, Narthècium ossifragum, Jáncus triglūmis, Carex dioica, Põa ânnua, Nárdus stricta, Aïra flexuosa, Pteris aquilina, Aspídium dilatàtum, Polypodium Phegópteris.
5. Between 1000 ft. and 1500 ft. — We begin to see the oak, ash, holly, and other trees, with a large addition of smaller species; but it does not appear to be worth while for us to carry these lists below 1500 ft., since they would become more long than interesting as we descend to the low grounds.
All these species descend to the low grounds about the lakes, except the following, the inferior limit of which appears to be at or about the heights added to their names: — Saxifraga stellaris, 500 ft.; Salix herbäcea, 2400 ft.; Eompetrum nigrum, Carex rigida, 2200 ft.; Alchemilla alpina, 400 ft. to 600 ft.; Rhodiola rösea, 700 ft.; Státice Arméria, about 1000ft. or 1200 ft.; Thalíctrum alpinum, probably 1200 ft.; Cochleåria dānica; Epilobium alsinifolium, 700 ft.; Oxyria reniförmis, 450 ft. Silêne acañlis and Saxifraga oppositifolia were only seen in one station, and are fixed at about 2000 ft. by guess. Júncus triglūmis and Arbutus Uva (irsi were also seen in only one station, not actually measured. The lake at Keswick is estimated to be 228 ft. above the sea; that of Thirlmere is nearly 500 ft. All the other species were seen at or nearly on the level of one of these lakes. The early period at which the hills were visited would no doubt prevent my seeing all the species towards their summits, in the hollows near to which some patches of snow still lingered at the end of May, but quite disappeared before the second week of June. Excluding the ferns, we have, above 3000 ft., only 13 species; between 2000 ft. and 8000 ft., 53 species; and between 1000 ft. and 2000 ft. there were 150, or more. Now, by observations in the highlands of Scotland last autumn (see Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal, No. 28.), there are at these heights on the Scottish mountains, 80, 183, and 273 species. The small extent of surface elevated above 1000 ft.
or 1500 ft. in the county of Cumberland, the dryness of the