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citizen the right of appeal from the sentence of a magistrate; and it was this law which St Paul availed himself of when

he 'appealed unto Cæsar'-Acts xxvi. 38. in order to that end'-aiming towards that object. 39. “intervenient in'-mingled with ; involved in.

meum and tuum'-mine and yours. 41. 'that'-thus, so that. 42. 1 Kings x, 19, 20: 'The throne had six steps, and the top of

the throne was round behind : and there were stays on either side on the place of the seat, and two lions stood beside the stays. And twelve lions stood there on the one side and on the

other upon the six steps.' 43. i Tim. i, 8: 'We know that the law is good, if a man use it law



I. The function of a judge is :

1. To be an interpreter, not a maker, of law.
2. Therefore the characteristics of a judge should be:

(a.) Learning.
(6.) Reverence.
(c.) Caution.

(d.) Integrity.
II. The relation of a judge-

A. Towards suitors :

1. He should strive to be just and prompt.
2. And to suppress in suitors,

(a.) Force.
(6.) Fraud.

(c.) Contention.
3. He should avoid 'hard constructions and strained

B. Towards advocates :
1. He should show patience and gravity, remembering

that his office is to-
(a.) Direct the evidence.
(6.) Moderate the speeches.
(c.) Sum up the case.

(d.) Pronounce the rule or sentence.'
2. Yet he should not be led by the advocates.
3. He should compliment an advocate when it can be

done gracefully, and reprove him when necessary. C. Towards clerks and ministers :

1. He should drive away scandal and corruption.
2. And repress those who-

(a.) Instigate suits.

(b.) Cause quarrels of jurisdiction between courts. (c.) Seek to pervert justice by trickery.

(d.) Are pollers and exacters of fees. 3. But should honour discreet and learned officers. D. Towards the sovereign and state : 1. He should, for the good of the people, often take

counsel with the sovereign. 2. Remembering that private cases often have public

3. Though judges should be like lions, yet they should

be lions supporting the throne.
4. They should strive to use the law lawfully.

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LVII.-OF ANGER. (1625.) To seek to extinguish Anger utterly is but a bravery of the Stoics. We have better oracles : ! Be angry, but sin not: let not the sun go down upon your anger. Anger must be limited and confined both in race and in time.3 We will first speak how the natural inclination and habit, to be angry, may be attempered and calmed ; secondly, how the particular motions of Anger may be repressed, or, at least, refrained from doing mischief ; thirdly, how to raise Anger, or appease Anger in another.

For the first, there is no other way but to meditate and ruminate well upon the effects of Anger, how it troubles man's life: and the best time to do this, is to look back upon Anger when the fit is thoroughly over. Seneca saith well that ' Anger is like ruin, which breaks itself upon that it falls.' 4 The Scripture exhorteth us

to possess our souls in patience ; '5 whosoever is out of patience, is out of possession of his soul. Men must not turn bees;

-animasque in vulnere ponunt.' 6 Anger is certainly a kind of baseness, as it appears well in the weakness of those subjects in whom it reignschildren, women, old folks, sick folks. Only men must be aware that they carry their Anger rather with scorn than with fear; so that they may seem rather to be above


the injury than below it; which is a thing easily done, if a man will give law? to himself in it.

For the second point, the causes and motives of Anger are chiefly three. First, to be too sensible of hurt; for no man is angry that feels not himself hurt; and therefore tender and delicate persons must needs be oft angry, they have so many things to trouble them, which more robust natures have little sense of. The next is, the apprehension and construction of the injury offered, to be, in the circumstances thereof, full of contempt; for contempt is that which putteth an edge upon Anger, as much, or more, than the hurt itself; and, therefore, when men are ingenious in picking out circumstances of contempt, they do kindle their Anger much. Lastly, opinion of the touch of a man's reputation doth multiply and sharpen Anger; wherein the remedy is, that a man should have, as Gonsalvo was wont to say, 'Telam honoris crassiorem.'10 But in all refrainings of Anger, it is the best remedy to win time, and to make a man's self believe that the opportunity of his revenge come; but that he foresees a time for it, and so to still himself in the meantime, and reserve it.

To contain Anger from mischief, though it take hold of man, there be two things whereof you must have special caution: the one, of extreme bitterness of words, especially if they be aculeate 11 and proper 12 (for com

( munia maledicta 13 are nothing so much); and again, that in Anger a man reveal no secrets; for that makes him not fit for society: the other, that you do not peremptorily break off in any business in a fit of Anger; but howsoever you show bitterness, do not act anything that is not revocable. 14

For raising and appeasing Anger in another, 15 it is done chiefly by choosing of times, when men are frowardest and worst disposed, to incense them; again, by gathering (as we touched before) all that you can find out to aggravate the contempt. And the two remedies are by the contraries; the former to take good times, when first to relate to a man an angry business; for the first im

is not yet

pression is much : and the other is, to sever, as much as may be, the construction of the injury from the point of contempt, imputing it to misunderstanding, fear, passion, or what you will




1. bravery'-boast ; boastful attempt. See note 20, Essay XI.

For an account of the Stoics, see note 25, Essay II. 2. Eph. iv, 26. 3. race and time'-extent and duration. 4. upon that it falls.'

The full expression would be upon that (which) it falls (upon).'

For an account of Seneca, see note 2, Essay V. The

quotation is from De Ira, I, i. 5. Luke xxi, 19 : 'In your patience possess ye your souls.' 6. 'And leave their lives in the wound.' The quotation is from

Virgil, Georgics, iv, 238. 7. 'give law '--rule, govern, habituate. 8. apprehension and construction '-recognition and inter

pretation. He means that one of the causes of anger is a distinct perception and knowledge on the part of the injured one, not only that he has been wronged, but that the wrong

has been intentional, and designed as a mark of disrespect. 9. The conviction that one's character has been attacked and

injured. For this use of the word touch, see note 18, Essay

XXXII. 10. A thicker covering for his honour.'

Hernandez Gonzalo (or Gonsalvo), surnamed the Great Captain, was born of a noble family near Cordova, A.D. 1453. He distinguished himself in the wars with the Moors carried on by Ferdinand and Isabella, and succeeded in conquering Granada. He also twice expelled the French

from Naples. He died A.D. 1515. II. aculeate'-sharp, pointed, stinging. 12. proper'-peculiarly appropriate to the person of whom they

are said. 13.

Common reproaches,' i.e. those which an angry man may apply

to all others indifferently, as distinguished from the proper scandal referred to above. Thus an angry man may be in the habit of calling all others fools, which would come under the head of communia maledicta ; but if he ventured to call a soldier a coward, or an agent dishonest, or a judge a liar,

trustee a ief, this would be 'aculeate and proper.' 14. "not revocable '-cannot be undone when once done.

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15. in another.' Bacon speaks throughout this essay of that

low and unjustifiable form of anger which is personal and malicious, and caused by wrong done to one's self; not of that lawful indignation which every good man ought to feel at the wrong which is done.


1. Anger is to be ruled, and cannot be extinguished. II. How to rule it in one's self, viz., by considering

I. Its ruinous effects.

2. Its baseness. III. How to repress it in one's self :

1. By considering its causes :

(a.) Over-sensitiveness.
(6.) Suspicion of intended insult.

(c.) Feeling that one's character has been touched.
2. By seeking to gain time for deliberation.
IV. How to prevent it from being mischievous :

1. Avoid bitterness and personality in speech.

2. Do not, in anger, reveal secrets. V. How to raise it or appease it in another. 1. It can be raised by

(a.) Assailing a man when he is specially liable to anger.

(6.) Making him believe that he has been insulted. 2. And can be appeased by carefully avoiding these.




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LVIII.—OF VICISSITUDE OF THINGS. (1625.) SALOMON saith, There is no new thing upon the earth ;'] so that as Plato had an imagination that · All knowledge was but remembrance,'? so Salomon giveth his sentence, 'That all novelty is but oblivion ;'whereby you may see, that the river of Lethe 4 runneth as well

4 above ground as below. There is an abstruse astrologer that saith, If it were not for two things that are constant (the one is, that the fixed stars ever stand at like distance one from another, and never come nearer together, nor go further asunder; the other, that the diurnal motion perpetually keepeth Time), no individual would last one moment.' Certain it is, that The Matter 5 is in a per


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