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such as exceed not this scantling, 23 to be solace to the sovereign, and harmless to the people : and the fourth, 'NEGOTIIS PARES ;' 24 such as have great places under princes, and execute their places with sufficiency.

There is an honour, likewise, which may be ranked amongst the greatest, which happeneth rarely; that is, of such as sacrifice themselves to death or danger for the good of their country; as was M. Regulus, and the two Decii.25



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1. He means that a man's virtue and worth are to be estimated,

not by the account he gives of himself, but by the honour he wins; for some men in their words over-estimate themselves, and others under-estimate themselves, so that the only safe plan is to estimate them by the results of their conduct. • disadvantage'-alteration, either by way of exaggeration or

disparagement. 3. affect'-aim at, seek after. See note 4, Essay I. 4. So that they are less thought of by others. 5. 'good circumstance'-surrounding circumstances that enhance

the honour of the deed. 6. temper'-blend, mix. He means that a man will ensure

general praise if he takes care to vary his actions, so that some may please one class of persons and some another, and

thus, in turn, he may please all. 7. .music'—sound of his praises. 8. “ill husband'-bad economist, unthrifty manager.

The word husband really means house-dweller, house-manager, and then, one who manages with prudence and economy Hence the verb to husband means to direct and manage with frugality.

"To husband up
The respite of the season'-WORDSWORTH.
'He is conscious how ill he has husbanded the great deposit of his
* Land so trim and well-husbanded'-Evelyn.

There's husbandry in heaven:
The candles are all out'.-Macbeth, II, i.


9. broken upon another '—made by outstripping and over-reach

ing another. 10. in their own bow'-in matters in which they have the reputa

tion of excellence.



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II. 'All fame emanates from servants.' 12. By making it clear that the real object which a man has in view

is merit and not popularity. 13. Felicity '-good luck, fortune. . See paragraph 5, Essay XL. 14. marshalling'-order, arrangement in order of real merit.

Notice that the plural are these,' following, is strictly

ungrammatical. 15. "conditores imperiorum '--founders of empires.

• Romulus '—the mythical founder and first king of Rome, and

from whom the city is said to have been named.
Cyrus '-founder of the Persian monarchy, and celebrated,
though rather in an ideal than a real character, in Xenophon's
Cyropædia. The history of his life and exploits is to a great
extent mythical. He is said to have become king by con-
quest of the Medes, B.C. 559, and to have been slain B.C.
Ottoman,' or Othman, commonly known as Ottoman I, was
the founder of the Turkish empire, and from him the Turkish
Government still takes its name. He died A.D. 1326.

Ismael '—the Sophy of Persia. See note 5, Essay XLIII. 16.·legislatores '—1

perpetui principes '-perpetual rulers.
Lycurgus'-a celebrated Spartan legislator said to have lived

in the ninth century B.C.; but the story of his life is, at least,
partly mythical.
Solon'—a celebrated Athenian legislator, and one of the
seven sages of Greece. He flourished in the sixth century

The well-known story of his visit to the court of Croesus is probably nothing more than an interesting fiction. • Justinian.'' Justinian the Great, Emperor of the East, was

born A.D. 483, and died A. D. 565. Born in obscure life, he raised himself by his own merits, and ascended the imperial throne A.D. 527.

He is memorable as the reformer of Roman jurisprudence, and the builder of the Church of St Sophia, now the principal mosque of Constantinople. Eadgar'—surnamed the Peaceful, King of England; he was

crowned A.D. 973, and died A.D. 975. Some stories are told to his discredit, but they rest upon doubtful evidence ; and the most trustworthy early writers of our history speak of him as one of the best and wisest kings of the age. Under

his rule England was certainly prosperous and peaceful. *Alphonsus of Castile' (A.D. 1221-1284). He was King of

Castile and Leon, and gained many victories over the Moors. He was a great lover of science, and had published the famous collection of laws called 'Las Siete Partidas' (=The

Seven Parts), so called because he finished it in seven years. 17.

• liberatores ’-deliverers.
• salvatores '-preservers.


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A.D. 79.


• Augustus Cæsar.' See note 14, Essay XXVII.
Vespasianus'-Roman emperor.

He was born of a poor family A.D. 9, and became a soldier, gradually rising to great distinction in the Roman army. Nero entrusted him with the conduct of the Jewish war, and before it was completed that emperor died, and shortly afterwards (A.D. 69) Vespasian was proclaimed his successor, and instantly returned to Italy, leaving the completion of the Jewish war to his son Titus.

He applied himself with great earnestness to the work of government, lived in great simplicity as if he were a

private citizen, and set an example of pure morals. He died • Aurelianus'-Roman emperor. He was the son of a pea

sant, and was born A.D. 212. He distinguished himself as a valiant soldier, and afterwards as a skilful and successful general, and was chosen emperor A.D. 270. During the five years of his reign he drove the barbarians out of Italy; conquered Zenobia, Queen of Palmyra; reduced Spain, Gaul,

and Britain to obedience; and commenced many useful public works • Theodoricus'--King of the Ostrogoths, and founder of the

Gothic kingdom of Italy. Born A. D. 455, died 526. • Henry VII of England' is remarkable for the many good laws enacted during his reign for the benefit of his subjects. Henry IV of France.' See note 8, Essay XXXIX. After the peace of Vervins in 1598, he immediately set himself to restore the internal prosperity of his kingdom, and was particularly successful, with the aid of Sully, his prime minister,

in reorganising the wasted finances of the country. 18. propagatores '--extenders.

propugnatores imperii’-defenders of the empire. 19. patres patriæ '--fathers of their country. 20. participes curarum'-sharers of cares.

discharge'-impose, entrust.

• duces belli'-leaders of war. 23. "scantling'-small dimension; the limit mentioned immedi

ately afterwards. 24. 'negotiis pares '-equal to their duties.

• Marcus Regulus'- -a Roman general who commanded in the

first war against Carthage, and is famous for his great patriotism and devotion to his country. Being made prisoner by the Carthaginians, he was sent to Rome to negotiate peace, but had first to bind himself by oath to return to captivity if the terms were rejected which he was instructed to offer. He himself advised their rejection, and voluntarily returned to Carthage, where he is said to have been tortured and put to death.







21. 22.

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• the two Decii.' Publius Decius Mus was a Roman consul,

who, in the Samnite War, devoted himself to death to obtain the victory for his country, B.C. 341.

His son, of the same name, was also Roman consul, and B.C. 295, in a war with the Gauls, he followed his father's example, and was slain, after which act of sacrifice the Romans gained the victory.


1. The winning of real honour is a mean between affecting it and

darkening it.
II. Rules for gaining honour:

1. Be the first to perform some great work.
2. Try to please all classes.
3. Avoid enterprises in which failure would bring disgrace.
4. Strive to gain honour in competition.
5. Use discreet followers and servants.
6. Declare your object to be not fame but merit.

7. Attribute the glory of your success to Divine Providence. III. Degrees of honour :

A. Among sovereigns :

1. Founders of states.
2. Lawgivers.
3. Deliverers and preservers,
4. Extenders and defenders of empire.

5. Good and just rulers.
B. Among subjects :

1. Sharers of the cares of ruling.
2. Great generals.
3. Favourites.
4. Efficient statesmen.
5. But the greatest honour is that of self-sacrifice.


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JUDGES ought to remember that their office is jus dicere, and not jus dare; to interpret law, and not to make law, or give law; else will it be like the authority claimed by the Church of Rome, which, under pretext of exposition of Scripture, doth not stick? to add and alter, and to pronounce that which they do not find, and by show4




of antiquity to introduce novelty. Judges ought to be more learned than witty,5 more reverend than plausible, and more advised? than confident. Above all things, integrity is their portion and proper virtue. "Cursed (saith the law) is he that removeth the landmark.'8 The mislayer of a mere-stone' is to blame; but it is the unjust Judge that is the capital 10 remover of landmarks, when he defineth amiss of lands and property. One foul Sentence doth more hurt than many foul examples; for these do but corrupt the stream, the other corrupteth the fountain : so saith Salomon, 'Fons turbatus et vena corrupta est justus cadens in causâ suâ coram adversario.'

The office of Judges may have reference unto the parties that sue, unto the Advocates that plead, unto the Clerks and Ministers of justice underneath them, and to the Sovereign or State above them.

First, for the causes or parties that sue. There be (saith the Scripture) that turn judgment into wormwood; '12 and surely there be, also, that turn it into vinegar; for injustice maketh it bitter, and delays make it sour. The principal duty of a Judge is to suppress force and fraud; whereof force is the more pernicious when it is open, and fraud when it is close 13 and disguised. Add thereto contentious suits, which ought to be spewed out, as the surfeit of courts. A Judge ought to prepare

his a just sentence, as God useth

to prepare


way, by raising valleys and taking down hills: so when there appeareth on either side a high hand, violent prosecution, cunning advantages taken, combination, power, great counsel, then is the virtue of a Judge seen to make inequality equal; that he may plant his judgment as upon an even ground. 'Qui fortiter emungit, elicit sanguinem ;'15 and where the wine-press is hard wrought it yields a harsh wine, that tastes of the grape-stone. Judges must beware of hard constructions, and strained inferences; for there is no worse torture than the torture of laws: especially in case of laws penal, they ought to have care that that which was meant for terror be not turned into rigour; and that they bring not upon the


way to



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