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crastily take to themselves the credit of what other people have done, and will even exaggerate their report of it, so as

to secure greater praise to themselves. 7. .affect'-like. See note 4, Essay I. 8. froward'-obstinate. absurd '—stupid, not over-sensitive. 9. prescription'-that which is previously written of them ; the

character they have already acquired for cleverness. 10. To begin talking of something else first, and carefully to avoid

the real matter, and then at last to appear to introduce it incidentally. In this way the person will probably be thrown off his guard. But sometimes the opposite course will be best, and you may attain your purpose by surprising him by

a bold and direct question. 11. `in appetite'-whose desires are not yet satisfied; who are

seeking advancement. 12. Who have gained all they wished for. 13. If a man has to deal, not with an inferior, but with another on

terms of perfect equality (* conditions '), as to the performance of a certain work, the great point is which of them shall assume the responsibility of beginning the work. The work may be of such a nature as makes it absolutely necessary for that other to assume this responsibility ; but, if not, the proposer may persuade him to assume it either by promising him future employment after he has done this, or by urging that he (the inferior) has the greater reputation for honesty,

and therefore will be less liable to suspicion. 14. practice '_business, negotiating, but used in a bad sense as


involving the notion of trickery.

'He sought to have that by practice which he could not by prayer '—SIDNEY.

'It is the shameful work of Hubert's hand,
The practice and the purpose of the king'-King John, IV, ii.

'Shall we thus permit
A blasting and a scandalous breath to fall
On him so near us? This must needs be practice.
Who knew of your intent and coming hither?'

-Measure for Measure, V, i.

"The net has fallen upon me! I shall perish
Under device and practice'-Henry VIII, I, i.


15. discover'-disclose, show their real character. But a few

words above the word is used in its only present sense for to

find out.
16. 'work'-make use of, influence.

"To hasten his destruction come yourself,
And work your royal father to his ruin'-A. PHILLIPS.


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I. Negotiation may be carried on

1. Better either by speech or mediation,

2. Than by letter or in person.
II. Still there are advantages in the latter mode of dealing:
1. By letter, because

(a.) It draws an answer.
(6.) Letters can be preserved for future justification.

(c.) It ensures continuous and complete statement.
2. In person, because-

(a.) With inferiors a man's presence is respected.
(6.) It is then easier to see when one is going too far.
(c.) It reserves liberty of disavowing and explaining

III. Who should be chosen as instruments of mediation :

1. Plain and practical men rather than cunning men.
2. Those who have a natural liking for the business to be

3. Those who are specially fit for the business.
4. Men who have been previously successful in such a

business. IV. General rules for carrying on a negotiation:

1. Sound a person carefully before you come to the real

2. Deal with men desirous of promotion.,
3. In matters of risk persuade your man to take the first

step himself, on the ground that-
(a.) The business necessarily requires it, or
(6.) It will ensure his future employment, or

(c.) His character will allay suspicion.
4. Remember that the objects of negotiation are:
(a.) To discover; and men generally disclose themselves



16.) To work a man; for which you must know-

(1.) His nature, so as to lead him.
(2.) His desires, so as to persuade him.
(3.) His weakness, so as to awe him.

(4.) His friends, so as to govern him.
5. In dealing with cunning persons say little yourself, and

do not believe all they say. 6. In difficult negotiations do not expect success too early.




(1597, slightly enlarged 1625.) Costly Followers are not to be liked ; lest while a man maketh his train a longer, he make his wings shorter. I reckon to be costly, not them alone which charge the purse, but which are wearisome and importune 3 in suits. Ordinary Followers ought to challenge no higher conditions 5 than countenance, recommendation, and protection from wrongs. Factious Followers are worse to be liked, which 6 follow not upon affection to him with whom they range themselves, but upon discontentment conceived against some other; whereupon commonly ensueth that ill intelligence? that we many times see between great personages. Likewise glorious Followers, who make themselves as trumpets of the commendation of those they follow, are full of inconvenience, for they taint business through want of secrecy; and they export honour from a man, and make him a return in envy.9 There is a kind of Followers, likewise, which are dangerous, being indeed espials ; 10 which inquire the secrets of the house, and bear tales of them to others; yet such men, many times, are in great favour; for they are officious, and commonly exchange tales.

The following by certain estates 12 of men, answerable to that which a great person himself professeth (as of soldiers to him that hath been employed in the wars, and the like), hath ever been a thing civil 14 and well taken even in monarchies, so it be without too much pomp or popularity : but the most honourable kind of following, is to be followed as one that apprehendeth to advance virtue and desert in all sorts of persons; and yet, where there is no eminent odds in sufficiency, it is better to take with 15 the more passable, 16 than with the more able; and besides, to speak truth in base times, active men are of more use than virtuous. 17

It is true, that in government, it is good to use men of one rank equally: for to countenance some extra



ordinarily is to make them insolent, and the rest discontent; because they may claim a due: but contrariwise in favour, to use men with much difference and election 18 is good; for it maketh the persons preferred more thankful, and the rest more officious: because all is of favour.

It is good discretion not to make too much of any man at the first; because one cannot hold out that proportion.19 To be governed (as we call it) by one, is not

for it shows softness, 20 and gives a freedom to scandal and disreputation ; for those that would not censure, or speak ill of a man immediately, will talk more boldly of those that are so great with them, and thereby wound their honour; yet to be distracted with many, is worse; for it makes men to be of the last impression, 21 and full of change.

To take advice of some few Friends is ever honourable; for lookers-on many times see more than gamesters; and the vale best discovereth the hill.22 There is little friendship in the world, and least of all between equals, which was wont to be magnified. That that is, is between superior and inferior, whose fortunes may comprehend 28 the one the other.


1. In the Latin translation the title of this Essay is De Clientibus,

Famulis, et Amicis.

Bacon himself, in spite of the many wise precepts in this essay, lived very extravagantly, and maintained a costly and showy attendance of servants. When he became Lord Chancellor he had, in his London house alone, about a hundred servants, including two chaplains, six gentlemen of the chamber, four pages, two gentlemen ushers, three yeomen of the wardrobe, three yeomen of the ewry and pantry, four butlers, and twenty-six gentlemen waiters. Nor does he seem to have controlled them properly. His mother, in one of her letters, speaks of them as wretches,' and 'base

exalted men which with wiles prey upon him.' • train'--tail of a bird, as a peacock. Bacon's meaning is lest

while he makes his adornments more elaborate he decreases his ability.


3. 'importune'-importunate. See note 43, Essay VIII. 4. 'suits '-requests, petitions.

‘Many shall make suit unto thee'- Job xi, 19.
• Mine ears against your suits are stronger than
Your gates against my force'-Coriolanus, V, ii.
Moneys is your suit'-Merchant of Venice, I, iii.

5. challenge no higher conditions '-demand no higher terms

of service (than recognised position, recommendation to

future service, and a claim upon the protection of the master). 6. which '-who. Formerly which was not a pronoun used

distinctly as of neuter gender, and was often used where we should use who or that.

• Our Father which art in heaven'-Lord's Prayer.

Great John of Gaunt,
Which did subdue the greatest part of Spain'--3 Henry VI, III, iii.
The mistress which I serve'-Tempest, III, i.
Deposing thee before thou wert possess'd,
Which art possess'd now to depose thyself'-Richard II, II, i.

7. ill intelligence'-misunderstanding, disaffection. 8. 'glorious '-boastful. So also in Essay LIV he says that

they that are glorious must needs be factious, for all bravery stands but upon comparisons.'

The verb to glory is often used in the sense of to boast.

'Your glorying is not good'-1 Cor. V,

*He that glorieth, let him glory in the Lord'-1 Cor. I, 31.
'Let them look, they glory, not in mischief,
Nor build their evils on the graves of great men

--Henry VIII, II, i.

9. In return import to him the envy of others. 10. espials '—spies. In Essay XLIV we have the word shortened

into spials. 11. officious '-extremely civil ; punctilious. The word is again

used in this sense a few lines below.

'I show my officiousness by an offering, though I betray my poverty by its measure-South.

Come, come, be every one officious
To make this banquet'-Titus Andronicus, V, ii.

12..estates'-classes, professions.
13. "answerable'-corresponding.

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