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For Aviaries, I like them not, except they be of that largeness as they may be turfed, and have living plants and bushes set in them; that the birds may have more scope and natural nestling, and that no foulness appear in the floor of the aviary.

So I have made a platform of a princely Garden, partly by precept, partly by drawing; not a model, but some general lines of it; and in this I have spared for no cost: but it is nothing for great princes, that for the most part, taking advice with workmen, with no less cost set their things together, and sometimes add statues and such things, for state and magnificence, but nothing to 38 the true pleasure of a Garden.

NOTES ON ESSAY XLVI. 1. "handy-works'—things wrought and fashioned by human skill,

and not adaptations and exhibitions of the beauties of nature,

as gardens are. 2. "civility'-civilisation. 'The English

are now brought unto that civility that no nation excelleth them in all goodly conversation'-SPENSER.

‘Divers great monarchies have risen from barbarism to civility, and fallen again to ruin'-Davies' Ireland.

• Wheresoe'er her conquering eagles fled,

Arts, learning, and civility were spread'-Denham's Poems. 3. "royal'-grand, magnificent. 4. Pineapple-trees'-pine-trees. 5. stoved'-grown in a hot-house. 6. warm set'-grown in warm and sheltered places. 7. •Mezereon'-a small shrub, much like common spurge laurel,

with fragrant flowers of bright purple or sometimes white, blooming at the time of the snowdrops in February and

March. 8. Chamaïris Fritellaria'-common fritillary, or snake's head,

a kind of wild tulip, of brownish purple colour with dark spots, which grows in moist meadows, and blooms in the spring It is now known as Fritillaria meleagris, but Bacon probably applies the epithet Chamaïris to it (Greek

Xawal) because its stalk springs direct from the ground. 9. Cornelian tree'-commonly called dogwood. He probably

refers the white-fruited dogwood (Cornus alba), which blossoms in early spring.

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10. “Flower-de-Luces.' The fleur-de-lis, or 'flour-de-luce,' is a

species of iris, and probably means fleur de Louis, from
Louis VII of France, who adopted it as the emblem of his
shield during the Crusades. It was the symbol of the French

11. Damascene'—the damson; so called because introduced to

Europe from Damascus. 12. Ribes'

—currants. 13. "Genitings'-early apples. 14. «Melocotones'-quince-trees, a large kind of peach; so called

from the Latin Malum cotoneum, from Cydonia, a town in

Crete, whence it was introduced. 15. Wardens'-large hard pears; so called from their property of

keeping well, and chiefly used for roasting. Warden pie is

so called because made of warden pears.
16. Services'-service-trees, a species of trees allied to the apple,

and found wild, as the American shad-bush and the European
mountain-ash or roan-tree. They have fruit richly coloured,

which is often eaten.
17. “Bullaces'—wild plums. Perhaps the word is a contracted

form of bull-sloes. 18. Perpetual spring.' 19. 'fast'-retentive. 20. “Bartholomew-tide'-late in August. St Bartholomew's Day

is on August 24th.
21. Bent'-stalked grass. What is commonly called bent_grass

now is grass belonging to the genus Agrostis, but Bacon
would seem to mean Plantain. In the Latin edition the

word used is Plantaginis.
22. 'knots '--garden plots, beds.
23. hedge'—fence.
24. deliver you'_bring you, lead you.
25. letting '-preventing, hindering.
26. welts'-small enclosures. A welt is really a border, as of a

garment or shoe.
27. chimneys'—fire-places, stoves, and ornamental devices for

heating. The ornamental wood or stone work set round a
fire-place is still called a chimney-piece. So in Shakespeare's
Cymbeline, Iachimo in describing the lady's bedroom, says
that the chimney is south the chamber.'

*The fire which the Chaldeans worshipped for a god is crept into every man's chimney'-SIR W. RALEIGH.

* Low offices, which some neighbours hardly think it worth stirring

from their chimney sides to obtain'-Swift. 28. .receipt'-receptacle. 29. 'arching water'-making it issue from a jet and fall in a

perfect arch.

30. `pricked'-planted, set.
31. here and there'-only at rare intervals.
32. "going wet'—to avoid walking in the wet.
33. 'ranges '-rows.
34. deceive'-deprive them of nourishment.
35. rest'-depend.
36. to'-in comparison with.


I. The art of gardening is higher than that of building.
II. A good garden ought to-

1. Exhibit beauties during every month of the year.

2. Contain flowers of sweet perfume. III. Rules for laying out a prince-like garden of 30 acres:

A. The green (4 acres)

1. Turf being pleasant both to look at and to walk on. 2. To be surrounded with a covered walk of ornamental

carpenter's work. 3. Fanciful earth-beds are best avoided. 4. Do not have the green too bushy, nor disfigured

with trees cut fancifully. 5. A mound 30 feet high to be in the centre. 6. Fountains both for throwing and receiving water to

be used. B. The heath (6 acres), and two side gardens (4 acres

1. Should be made as much as possible like a natural

2. To contain bushes and shrubs only, not trees.
3. To be adorned with little heaps like molehills.
4. The side gardens-

(a.) To afford shelter both from sun and wind.
(6.) The walks to be finely gravelled.
(c.) To contain fruit-trees.

(d.) To be bounded by a mound 'breast-high.'
C. The main garden (12 acres) -

1. To contain fruit-trees, and arbours with seats. 2. But not to be close and shady. 3. Aviaries are objectionable unless large and natural.

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XLVII.-OF NEGOTIATING. (1597, enlarged

1612, slightly altered 1625.) It is generally better to deal by speech than by letter ; and by the mediation of a third than by a man's self. Letters are good, when a man would draw an answer by letter back again; or when it may serve for a man's justification afterwards to produce his own letter; or where it may be danger to be interrupted, or heard by pieces. To deal in person is good, when a man's face breedeth regard, as commonly with inferiors; or in tender 3 cases where a man's eye upon the countenance of him with whom he speaketh, may give him a direction how far to go: and generally where a man will reserve to himself liberty, either to disavow or to expound.

In choice of instruments, it is better to choose men of a plainer sort, that are like to do that that is committed to them, and to report back again faithfully the success,5 than those that are cunning to contrive out of other men's business somewhat to grace themselves, and will help the matter in report, for satisfaction sake.6 Use also such persons as affect? the business wherein they are employed, for that quickeneth much; and such as are fit for the matter, as bold men for expostulation, fairspoken men for persuasion, crafty men for inquiry and observation, froward and absurd 8 men for business that doth not well bear out itself. Use also such as have been lucky and prevailed before in things wherein you have employed them ; for that breeds confidence, and they will strive to maintain their prescription.'

It is better to sound a person with whom one deals afar off, 10 than to fall upon the point at first, except you mean to surprise him by some short question. It is better dealing with men in appetite, 11 than with those that are where they would be. 12 If a man deal with another upon conditions, the start of first performance is all : which a man cannot reas demand, except either the nature of the thing be such which must go before :



or else a man can persuade the other party, that he shall still need him in some other thing; or else that he be counted the honester man.

All practice 14 is to discover, or to work. Men discover 15 themselves in trust, in passion, at unawares; and of necessity, when they would have somewhat done, and cannot find an apt pretext. If you would work any man, you must either know his nature and fashions, and so lead him; or his ends, and so persuade him; or his weakness and disadvantages, and so awe him ; or those that have interest in him, and so govern him. In dealing with cunning persons, we must ever consider their ends, to interpret their speeches; and it is good to say little to them, and that which they least look for. In all Negotiations of difficulty, a man may not look to sow and reap at once; but must prepare business, and so ripen it by degrees.



1. Where there may be danger of being interrupted.

• breedeth regard'-commands respect, overawes. 3. tender’-delicate, that will bear only the most cautious and

careful handling. The same thought is often expressed by the word ticklish.

Bacon says that a man who is dealing with such a delicate case can do it best in person and by word mouth, because then he can closely observe the countenance of the one to whom he is speaking, and gather from it when he has gone as far as it is safe for him to go. A good illustrative example of this is King John's interview with Hubert de Burgh, when he wishes to sound him as to his willingness to undertake the

murder of Prince Arthur-Shakespeare's King John, II, iii. 4. Where a man does not wish hereafter to be held rigidly re

sponsible for the exact words he has used on a certain occasion, but desires to be left free, in case of emergency,

either to alter them or to explain them away. 5. success '-issue, result, consequence. The word success does

not necessarily mean favourable issue; when in common usage we inquire from any one what success he has had in some undertaking, we include the possibility of either a bad

or a good result. 6. Will not faithfully do the business entrusted to them, but will

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