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gallery, too, I wish that there may be, if the place will yield it, some fountains running in divers places from the wall, with some fine avoidances. 31

And thus much for the model of the palace ; save that you must have, before you come to the front, three courts; a green court plain, with a wall about it; a second court of the same, but more garnished with little turrets, or rather embellishments, upon the wall; and a third court, to make a square with the front, but not to be built, nor yet enclosed with a naked wall, but enclosed with terraces leaded aloft, 32 and fairly garnished on the three sides; and cloistered on the inside with pillars, and not with arches below.

As for Offices, let them stand at distance, with some low galleries to pass from them to the Palace itself.


1, "for beauty only'-(that are built) not for comfort, but only

for beauty. The fair houses which poets imagine and describe do not cost money, but only descriptive words, and therefore their usefulness and comfort may be left out of

consideration altogether. 2. seat'-site, position. 3. unequal'—variable ; sometimes too hot and sometimes too

cold; sometimes without any freshness of atmosphere, and

then again tempestuous. 4. "knap'-knoll, rising ground. It is the same word as knob,

and occurs in knapweed and knapbottle, the common names of two plants.

The highest part and knap of the same island'-HOLLAND. 5. Sill ways'-inconvenience of approach.

ill markets '—inconvenience of obtaining supplies. 6. «Momus '—the god of censure and fault-finding ; so called

from the Greek uwuos (from uéusomai), blame, censure, disgrace. Momus is said to have found fault with a man whom the god Vulcan made, because there was no little door left in his breast by which to look into his secret thoughts. Zeus made a bull, but this did not please Momus, who thought that its horns ought to have been placed below its eyes, so that it might see where to strike. He also found fault with



the house of Athene, because it was not provided with wheels by which to remove it from the annoyance of ill

neighbours. The story is taken from Esop's Fables, 275. 7. 'the commodity.' There is no doubt that Bacon means

commodity,' i.e. no convenience. In the Latin edition the rendering is nulla commoditas. And the sense requires this, for Bacon is not enumerating conveniences but inconveni. ences, one of which, especially in those days when land travel was difficult and dangerous, was situation remote from

any navigable river. 8. lurcheth'

-snatches up, devours. 9. · Lucullus'-at first a celebrated soldier and the conqueror of

Mithridates ; but after being superseded in his military command by Pompey, he returned to Rome, gave himself up to luxury and indolence, and lived in a style of magnificent grandeur. He died B.C. 57 or 56. The story is taken from

North's translation of Plutarch. 10. “perfection ’-practice; accomplishment ; carrying out of

precepts previously learned. *the Vatican'-the enormous papal palace at Rome. It

stands on the right bank of the Tiber, within the walls of modern Rome, on the Mons Vaticanus, which in ancient times was not regarded as part of the city. The building of the Vatican is said to have been commenced by Q. Aurelius Symmachus, a Roman senator and consul of the fourth century. The Vatican palace contains the famous Pauline and Sistine Chapels painted by Michael Angelo, ---eight noble staircases, the principal one the work of Bernini (died A.D. 1680), more than twenty courts, twelve great halls, and

4500 apartments, large and small. 12. Escurial'—a vast edifice twenty miles north-west of Madrid,

begun by Philip II of Spain in 1563, intended to commemorate the battle of St Quentin, and in honour of St Lawrence, on whose day the battle was fought ; for the latter reason the plan of the building is laid out in the form of a gridiron. The work of building occupied twenty-two years. This enormous structure consists of a palace, forming the handle of the gridiron, a convent, two colleges, three chapter-houses, and three libraries. It contains thirty-five great halls, eighty staircases, and has more than 4000

windows. 13. several '--separate. 14. Esther i, 5 : 'The king made a feast unto all that were present

in Shushan the palace, both unto great and small, seven days,

in the court of the garden of the king's palace.' 15. returns '—sides ; parts falling back from the front line of the

building. 16. at the first'-i.e. beginning nearest to the great central tower, first the Hall, then the Chapel, and at the farther end the

Parlours. 17. Parlour'-really a conversation room (French parloir, from

parler). In a religious house the Parlour is the room where inmates are permitted to meet and converse with each other, or with visitors ; in its ordinary sense it is the name of that room in a house which the family usually occupy for society

and conversation. 18. leads '-flat roof to walk upon; so called because usually

covered with lead. The word is plural in form, but Bacon

here uses it as singular. 19. 'newel.'

A newel is the upright central post of a circular staircase, around which the steps wind in ascending. But when the staircase is circular, and the steps are fastened only into the outer wall, so that there is no central post, but only

an open space, as in a well-staircase, it is said to have an 20.`point'-appoint. The prefix is dropped, as in bolden for

embolden, cital for recital, get for beget, longing for belonging, plain for complain, scape for escape, turn for return, ware for

beware, etc. 21. 'tunnel '-chimney, funnel. Of course in Bacon's time the

word did not have its modern engineering meaning.

open newel.

. It was a vault ybuilt for great dispence,
With many ranges rear'd along the wall,
And one great chimney whose long tunnel thence

The smoak forth threw'--Spenser, Faerie Queene.
The water being rarified, and by rarification resolved into wind, will
force up the smoke which otherwise might linger in the tunnel'-
Wotton's Architecture,

22. alleys '-paths; literally going places. French aller. He

means that the court is to have a paved walk round it, and two others intersecting at right angles, so as to leave four

rectangular lawns of turf. 23. Chambers of Presence'-reception rooms, i.e. rooms where

the host is present to receive guests. 24. double house '—i.e. the width throughout occupied by two 29. 'anticamera, and recamera'—front room and retiring room.

sets of rooms, one on each side, and a passage down the

middle. 25. thorough lights.' See note 10, Essay V. 26. Cast'-arrange, calculate. See note 12, Essay XXXV. 27. become'--for come. This use is still retained in the expression, 'What has become of him?'

' I cannot joy until I be resolv'd

Where our right valiant father is become'-3 Henry VI, II, i. 28. •estivation' -summer enjoyment.

Probably the former word should be spelt antecamera. 30. Cabinets '-closets, small rooms. 31. 'avoidances'-outlets. 32. He seems to mean that the cloisters are to be flat-roofed and

covered with lead, so as to form walking places.


I. In building, use is to be regarded before uniformity.
II. Preliminary mistakes often made in choosing a site :

1. Unwholesome or unequal conditions of atmosphere.
2. Inconvenience of approach, marketing, or neighbours.
3. Many others, such as neglecting to consider want of-

(a.) Water.
(6.) Wood.
(c.) Appropriate soil.
(d.) Prospect.
(e.) Sports.

(f) Proximity to sea, rivers, or towns.
(It is impossible to avoid all these mistakes in one house

only.) III. Rules for the design of the house : A. The front to have1. Two separate wings for(a.) Banquets : to have one large room above, and

dressing-rooms below.
(6.) Household to have


2. A high central tower.
3. The staircases to have an open newel, and the

servants' dining-room not to be below.
B. The back :

1. A square court of turf, paved around and across.
2. Three lines of buildings to complete the court, all

two rooms deep, and one side for galleries, the

others for private rooms.
3. A few bow-windows-four at the most.
C. The further court :

1. To be enclosed by a garden, and cloistered.
2. With a fountain or other ornament in the centre.
3. The buildings to be for private apartments, infir-
4. Rich cabinets at the corners, and fountains in divers


mary, etc.

D. The ante-courts, three in number :

1. A green court enclosed with a wall.
2. A second court adorned with turrets.

3. A third court with terraces and cloisters.
E. The offices to stand at a distance, with low connecting



GOD ALMIGHTY first planted a Garden; and, indeed, it is the purest of human pleasures; it is the greatest refreshment to the spirits of man; without which buildings and palaces are but gross handy-works :1 and a man shall ever see, that, when ages grow to civility 2 and elegancy, men come to build stately, sooner than to garden finely; as if gardening were the greater perfection.

I do hold it in the royal 3 ordering of Gardens, there ought to be Gardens for all the months in the year,

in which, severally, things of beauty may be then in season. For December, and January, and the latter part of November, you must take such things as are green all winter : Holly, Ivy, Bays, Juniper, Cypress-trees, Yew, Pineappletrees; 4 Fir-trees, Rosemary, Lavender ; Periwinkle, the white, the purple, and the blue; Germander, Flags, Orange-trees, Lemon-trees, and Myrtles, if they be stoved ;5 and Sweet Marjoram, warm set. There followeth, for the latter part of January and February, the Mezereon-tree,? which then blossoms : Crocus Vernus, both the yellow and the grey; Primroses, Anemones, the early Tulip, the Hyacinthus Orientalis, Chamaïris Fritellaria. For March, there come Violets, especially the single blue, which are the earliest; the yellow Daffodil, the Daisy, the Almond-tree in blossom, the Peach-tree in blossom, the Cornelian-tree in blossom, Sweet-Briar. In April follow the double white Violet, the Wallflower, the Stock-Gilliflower, the Cowslip, Flower-de-Luces, 10 and Lilies of all natures; Rosemaryflowers, the Tulip, the double Peony, the pale Daffodil,


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