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10. obnoxious'-subject to; under the power of. See note 23,

Essay XX. officious '-useful, kind, obliging. The word is now gene

rally used in reference to meddlesomeness, or interfering in matters which do not pertain to one's office and business. Milton, however, uses the word several times in the same sense as Bacon.


* And with fair speech these words to him address'd,
With granted leave officious I return'

-Paradise Regained, ii, 301.
* Yet not to earth are those bright luminaries
Officious, but to thee, earth's habitant'

-Paradise Lost, viii, 98.

• Other heavens
That shine, yet bear their bright officious lamps,
Light above light, for thee alone, as seems,
In the concentring all their precious beams

Of sacred influence'-Paradise Lost, ix, 103. 12. spials '—spies, secret observers. 13. reason'-ordinary rule ; most frequent case. 14. ground'-certain fact ; statement which is always true. 15. Agesilaus'-King of Sparta, died B.C. 360. See note 17, Essay IX.

He was of low stature, but lame, and yet acquired great renown by his successful exploits. 16. • Zanger'-son of the Sultan Solyman I, commonly styled 'the

Magnificent.' See note 22, Essay XIX. When, through the intrigues of Roxolana, his brother Mustapha had been put to death (A.D. 1553), Zanger retired into privacy, and

died broken-hearted. 17. •Æsop' -a famous Greek fabulist who lived in the sixth

century B.C., and whose fables, though never written, having become generally popular, were handed down orally to successive generations. Many of the fables which commonly bear his name are undoubtedly of much later origin. He is said to have been deformed, but very little is certainly

known of him, and this rests upon no good authority. 18. "

Gasca -a Spanish hero who quelled the rebellion of Pizarro,

in Peru, A.D. 1547. 19. “Socrates' (B.C. 469-399), the great Athenian philosopher,

was not deformed, though he certainly was very ugly, and Bacon here scarcely seems to think that he ought to be reckoned among the deformed. In personal appearance he was very unsightly, with a snub nose and wide nostrils, thick lips, squab figure, and protruding belly.

ANALYSIS OF ESSAY XLIV. 1. Physical deformity often has injurious effect upon the character. II. Yet deformed persons often overcome their disadvantage, and

are successful, because deformity1. Is a spur to energy and boldness :

(a.) First in self-defence.

(6.) Afterwards in habit. 2. Makes them discern and take advantage of the weakness

of others. 3. Lessens opposition and mistrust from superiors and com

petitors. III. For this reason kings have often made deformed persons their

confidants and spies. IV. All deformed persons will try to compensate for their dis

advantage by-
(a.) Malice.
(6.) Or superior virtue.


Houses are built to live in, and not to look on; therefore let use be preferred before uniformity, except where both may be had. Leave the goodly fabrics of houses, for beauty only, to the enchanted Palaces of the poets, who build them with small cost.

He that builds a fair house upon an ill seat, committeth himself to prison: neither do I reckon it an ill seat only where the air is unwholesome, but likewise where the air is unequal ;3 as you shall see many fine seats set upon a knap 4 of ground, environed with higher hills round about it, whereby the heat of the sun is pent in, and the wind gathereth as in troughs ; so as you shall have, and that suddenly, as great diversity of heat and cold as if you dwelt in several places. Neither is it ill air only that maketh an ill seat; but ill ways, ill markets, and, if you will consult with Momus, ill neighbours. I speak not of many more ; want of water,-want of wood, shade, and shelter, want of fruitfulness, and mixture of grounds of several natures ;-want of prospect,-want of level grounds ;-want of places at some near distance for sports of hunting, hawking, and races ;-too near the sea, too remote ;-having the commodity 7 of navigable rivers, or the discommodity of their overflowing ;—too far off from great cities, which may hinder business, or too near them, which lurcheth 8 'all provisions, and maketh everything dear ;-where a man hath a great living laid together, and where he is scanted ;-all which, as it is impossible perhaps to find together, so it is good to know them, and think of them, that a man may take as many as he can; and if he have several dwellings, that he sort them so, that what he wanteth in the one he inay find in the other.

Lucullus 9 answered Pompey well

, who, when he saw his stately galleries and rooms so large and lightsome, in one of his houses, said, 'Surely an excellent place for summer, but how do you in winter ?' Lucullus answered, 'Why, do you not think me as wise as some fowls are, that ever change their abode towards the winter ?'

To pass from the seat to the house itself, we will do as Cicero doth in the orator's art, who writes books De Oratore, and a book he entitles Orator; whereof the former delivers the precepts of the art, and the latter the perfection. 10 We will therefore describe a princely Palace, making a brief model thereof; for it is strange to see, now in Europe, such huge buildings as the Vatican 11 and Escurial,12 and some others be, and yet scarce a very fair room in them.

First, therefore, I say, you cannot have a perfect Palace, except you have two several 13 sides ; a side for the banquet, as is spoken of in the book of Hester, 14 and a side for the household ; the one for feasts and triumphs, and the other for dwelling. I understand both these sides to be not only returns, 15 but parts of the front; and to be uniform without, though severally partitioned within ; and to be on both sides of a great and stately Tower in the midst of the front, that as it were joineth them together on eit hand. I uld have, on the side of the banquet in front, one only goodly room above stairs, of some forty foot high ; and under it a room for a dressing or preparing place, at times of triumphs. On the other side, which is the household side, I wish it divided at the first 16 into a Hall and a Chapel (with a partition between), both of good state and bigness; and those not to go all the length, but to have at the further end a winter and a summer Parlour,17 both fair ; and under these rooms a fair and large cellar sunk under ground; and likewise some privy kitchens, with butteries and pantries, and the like. As for the Tower, I would have it two stories, of eighteen foot high apiece above the two wings; and a goodly leads 18

upon the top, railed with statues interposed ; and the same Tower to be divided into rooms, as shall be thought fit. The stairs likewise to the upper rooms, let them be upon a fair open newel,19 and finely railed in with images of wood cast into a brass colour; and a very fair landing place at the top. But this to be, if you do not point 20 any of the lower rooms for a diningplace of servants; for, otherwise, you shall have the servants' dinner after your own : for the steam of it will come up as in a tunnel.21 And so much for the front. only I understand the height of the first stairs to be sixteen foot, which is the height of the lower room.

Beyond this front is there to be a fair court, but three sides of it of a far lower building than the front; and in all the four corners of that court fair staircases, cast into turrets on the outside, and not within the row of buildings themselves : but those towers are not to be of the height of the front, but rather proportionable to the lower building. Let the court not be paved, for that striketh up a great heat in summer, and much cold in winter : but only some side alleys 22 with a cross, and the quarters to graze, being kept shorn, but not too near shorn. The row of return on the banquet side, let it be all stately Galleries : in which Galleries let there be three or five fine Cupolas in the length of it, placed at equal distance, and fine coloured windows of several works: on the household side, Chambers of Presence 23 and ordinary entertainments, with some Bed-Chambers : and let all three sides be a double house, 24 without thorough lights25 on the sides, that you may have rooms from the sun, both for forenoon and afternoon. Cast 26 it also, that you may have rooms both for summer and winter ; shady for summer, and warm for winter. You shall have sometimes fair houses so full of glass, that one cannot tell where to become 27 to be out of the sun or cold. For embowed windows, I hold them of good use (in cities, indeed, upright do better, in respect of the uniformity towards the street); for they be pretty retiring places for conference; and besides, they keep both the wind and sun off; for that which would strike almost through the room doth scarce pass the window : but let them be but few, four in the court, on the sides only.

Beyond this court, let there be an inward court, of the same square and height, which is to be environed with the garden on all sides; and in the inside, cloistered on all sides upon decent and beautiful arches, as high as the first story: on the under story towards the garden, let it be turned to grotto, or place of shade, or estivation ; 28 and only have opening and windows towards the garden, and be level upon the floor, no whit sunk under ground to avoid all dampishness: and let there be a Fountain, or some fair work of Statuas in the midst of this court, and to be paved as the other court was. These buildings to be for privy lodgings on both sides, and the end for privy Galleries; whereof you must foresee that one of them be for an Infirmary, if the prince or any special person should be sick, with chambers, bed-chamber, anticamera, and recamera, 29 joining to it; this upon the second story. Upon the ground story, a fair gallery, open, upon pillars; and upon the third story, likewise an open gallery upon pillars, to take the prospect and freshness of the garden. At both corners of the further side, by way of return, let there be two delicate or rich Cabinets, 30 daintily paved, richly hanged, glazed with crystalline glass, and a rich cupola in the midst; and all other elegancy that can be thought upon. In the upper

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