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courtesy is forced and studied. No one knows a foreign language until its symbols or sounds have become so familiar to him that he knows their meaning instantly without laborious investigation. The object of the long course of tedious drill to which soldiers are subjected is so to habituate them always to perform certain actions on hearing certain signals or orders, that the orders and the actions at length become indissolubly associated, and at last they are able to obey the orders without thinking at all about them. The Chelsea pensioner who dropped his

dinner in the street, and instantly fell into the proper attitude when some rogue behind him called out 'Attention !' must have been a perfectly drilled

soldier. 5. ' He is the best liberator of the mind who bursts the chains that

gall his breast, and at the same moment ceases to grieve'

Ovid, Reinedia Amoris, 294. 6. "ever'-always. 7. Ólay.' We should now regard this usage as wrong, and say lie.

Lie is an intransitive verb, lay is its corresponding transitive form; and though they are distinct, it is a not infrequent vulgarism to confuse them, and use lay for lie, as in Byron's Childe Harold:

'And dashest him again to earth : there let him lay!'
The true use of these two verbs may be illustrated by the
following examples :

INTRANSITIVE, lie; past tense, lay; perfect past, lain.



Let me lie down.
He lay there for an hour.
He has lain there for an hour.
I always lay the book on this shelf.
He laid the book down here.
The key is laid here in my absence.

8. "happy'-fortunate.
9. 'sort'-agree, suit.
10. 'My soul hath long been a stranger'-Ps. cxx, 6.
II. 'converse'-live, act, deal with. So also the word conversation

is often used for mode of living, conduct.

Men then come to be furnished with fewer or more simple ideas from without, according as the objects they converse with afford greater or less variety'-LOCKE.

‘His apparent open guilt-
I mean his conversation with Shore's wife'

-Shakespeare, Richard III.

conversation be as becometh the Gospel'-Phil. i, 17.

12. affect'-care for, like, prefer.

Think not that wars we love, and strife affect;

Or that we hate sweet peace'-Fairfax, book ii. 13. Forces himself to do against his natural inclination. 14. Is like the soil, that must bring forth somethingeither useful

herbs or useless weeds.

I. Nature can be altered and subdued only by custom.
II. How to use custom for ruling one's nature:

1. Let the tasks be neither too easy nor too difficult, but,

when necessary

(a.) Graduated, i.e. first easy, and then more difficult,


(1) Arresting:
(2) Diminishing

(3) Discontinuing.
or (6.) Instant and complete.

or (c.) Going to contrary extremes. 2. Let the custom be rather intermittent than continuous. 3. Either altogether banish the temptation to an evil custom,

or else make it powerless by constant familiarity.
4. Custom is set aside and real nature exhibited in

(a.) Privateness.
(6.) Passion.

(c.) Novelty.
5. Custom need not force a man towards his natural in.

clination. 6. A man's nature will produce either good or bad customs.


(1612, enlarged 1625.) MEN's thoughts are much according to their inclination:1 their discourse and speeches according to their learning and infused2 opinions ; but their deeds are after as they have been accustomed: and, therefore, as Machiavel4 well noteth (though in an evil-favoured instance), there is no trusting to the force of Nature, nor to the bravery of words, except it be corroborate7 by Custom. His instance is, that for the achieving of a desperate conspiracy, a man should not rest upon the fierceness of any man's Nature, or his resolute undertakings; but take such a one as hath had his hands formerly in blood; but Machiavel knew not of a Friar Clement, nor a Ravaillac, nor a Jaureguy, nor a Baltazar Gerard; yet his rule holdeth still, that Nature, nor the engagement of words, are not so forcible as Custom. Only superstition is now so well advanced, 10 that men of the first blood 11 are as firm as butchers by occupation ; 12 and votary resolution 13 is made equipollent14 to Custom even in matter of blood. In other things, the predominancy of Custom is everywhere visible, insomuch as a man would wonder to hear men profess, protest, engage, give great words, and then do just as they have done before, as if they were dead images and engines, moved only by the wheels of Custom.

We see also the reign or tyranny of Custom, what it is. The Indians 15 (I mean the sect of their wise men) lay themselves quietly upon a stack of wood, and so sacrifice themselves by fire: nay, the wives strive to be burned with the corpses of their husbands. The lads of Sparta, of ancient time, were wont to be scourged upon the altar of Diana, without so much as queching. 16 I remember, in the beginning of Queen Elizabeth's time of England, an Irish rebel condemned, put up a petition to the deputy that he might be hanged in a withe, and not in a halter, because it had been so used with former rebels. There be monks in Russia for penance, that will sit a whole night in a vessel of water, till they be engaged 17 with hard ice.

Many examples may be put of the force of Custom, both upon mind and body: therefore, since Custom is the principal magistrate of man's life, let men by all means endeavour to obtain good Customs.

Certainly, Custom is most perfect when it beginneth in young years: this we call Education, which is, in effect, but an early Custom. So we see, in languages the tongue is more pliant to all expressions and sounds, the joints

are more supple to all feats of activity and motions in youth, than afterwards; for it is true that late learners cannot so well take the ply,18 except it be in some minds that have not suffered themselves to fix, 19 but have kept themselves open and prepared to receive continual amendment, which is exceeding rare.

But if the force of Custom, simple and separate, be great, the force of Custom, copulate and conjoined and collegiate, is far greater; for there example teacheth, company comforteth,20 emulation quickeneth, glory raiseth; so as in such places the force of Custom is in his exaltation.21 Certainly, the great multiplication of virtues upon human nature resteth upon societies well ordained and disciplined; for commonwealths and good governments do nourish virtue grown, but do not much mend the seeds ; but the misery is, that the most effectual means are now applied to the ends least to be desired.22


1. Men think of things according as they wish them to be. The

same meaning is conveyed in the expression imaginations

as one would'-Essay I. 2. 'infused '-acquired, indoctrinated. 3. after as '-according to.

‘Deal not with us after our sins'-Litany.

'He takes greatness of kingdoms according to bulk and currency, and not after their intrinsic value'-BACON. *They that are after the flesh do mind the things of the flesh'

-Rom. viii, 5. 4. •Machiavel.' See also note 1o, Essay XIII.

Niccolo Machiavelli, a famous Florentine statesman, was born A.D. 1469. He took a prominent part in the political and diplomatic affairs of the Florentine republic, and was employed in a large number of important embassies. He died at Florence A.D. 1527.

The quotation is from a work called Discourses on the First

Decade of Titus Livius. 5. Sevil-favoured'—ill-looking, ugly, distasteful. So in Pharaoh's

dream (Gen. xli), the kine are described as "well-favoured' and ill-favoured.'

“Then should I know you by description;
Such garments and such years ;

The boy is fair,
Of female favour"-As You Like It, IV, i.

“What was he like? I have forgot him; my imagination Carries no favour in't but Bertram's'

-All's Well that Ends Well I, i.

‘Only look up, clear ; To alter favour ever is to fear' -Macbeth, I, v. 6. bravery'-boastfulness, brag. 7. corroborate'--for corroborated, i.e. strengthened. 8. •Friar Clement.' After the revolt occasioned by the assassina.

tion of the two Guises, a fanatic friar, named Jacques Clement, stabbed Henry III, King of France, at St Cloud, July 31st,

1589, and he died the day after. Ravaillac.' Henry IV of France, while riding through the

streets of Paris in 1610, was delayed in the Rue de la Feronnerie by two wagons obstructing the street, when a fanatic, named Ravaillac, took advantage of the moment to perpetrate a long-meditated deed of revenge, and rushing forward,

stabbed him fatally. • Jaureguy.' A young man employed by his master, Gaspar

d'Anastro, a Spanish merchant of Antwerp, under the instigation of Philip II of Spain, and by the offer of a large reward, to murder William the Silent, Prince of Orange, and founder of the Dutch Republic. On March 18th, 1582, after a festival and dinner in his palace, while the prince was leading the way for his guests from the dining-room to his own private apartments, Juan Jaureguy stepped forward from among the servants, and, pretending to present a petition, shot the prince with a pistol through the neck and mouth. The wound, however, did not prove fatal.

Two years later, however, the wicked attempt was repeated, and this time with fatal success. On July 10th, 1584, the prince, while passing from his dining-room, was fired at by a villain named Baltazar Gerard, and three balls entered his body, and in a few minutes he breathed his last.

The student will find a full and interesting account of these abominable deeds in chapters v and vii of the last part of Motley's History of the Rise of the Dutch Republic.

In the Latin edition of Bacon's Essays the name of Guy

Fawkes is added to this list of first murderers. 9. 'engagement of words '—the express undertaking to commit a

murder. Notice the double negative; and see also note 1,

Essay VII. 10. "superstition is now so well advanced.' In neither of the

instances mentioned above was the assassination attempted on account of personal hatred caused by real or supposed wrongs, but at the instigation of others, and with the secret

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