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2. of '--from; of a child' (i.e. from childhood)—Mark ix, 21.

'One that I brought up of a puppy'--Two Gentlemen of Verona.

*The captain of the Helots, with a blow whose violence grew of fury, not of strength, nor of strength proceeding of fury, struck Palladius upon

the side of the head -SIDNEY. 3. owing '—due to, as an undischarged debt. So we say, 'He

is badly off, but a great deal of money is owing to him;' 'Do not forget what is owing to authority.'.

The form is owing is really passive voice, like building for is being built; printing for is being printed, etc. 4. 'Bear in mind that old age draws on, and you cannot expect

always (* still") to take with impunity indulgences that seem

harmless now. 5. 'fit the rest to it'-change other habits accordingly. 6. state'-politics. 7. "generally'—by people generally; as a general rule.

particularly'-in thy own particular case. What is good for

most people may not be good for yourself.' 8. of long lasting'—for prolonging life. 9. 'fretting'-lit. eating away little by little.

‘Like as it were a moth fretting a garment'-Ps. xxxix, 11.

*This majestical roof, fretted with golden fire'-Hamlet, II, ii. He means that outbursts of anger are soon over; but angry feelings, when cherished and brooded on, tend to gradually

wear away the physical health. 10. 'Do not think lightly of any striking change you may observe in

yourself, but procure medical advice respecting it.' 11. respect'-look forward to; anticipate.

*Palladius adviseth the front of his house should so respect the

south'-BROWNE. 12. tendering'—careful treatment; nursing. 13. Celsus.' He was a Roman physician, living in the first

century of the Christian era; his eight books on medicine are still extant, and not without authority in most of the

medical schools of Europe. 14. taught masteries'-led to acquire strength, which will fortify

you against disease.


Rules for the preservation of health: 1. The best medicine is to observe what harms you, and to

discontinue it. 2. Change very gradually your habits of diet, exercise, ap

parel, etc. 3. Cultivate cheerfulness, and avoid passions that either excite

or irritate. 4. Use medicine, but sparingly (trusting rather to diet), and

seek medical advice when necessary. 5. Use variety of habit, but do not renounce 'benign' things. 6. Choose for your physician one who is skilled in his art, and

acquainted with your constitution.

XXXI.-OF SUSPICION. (1625.) SUSPICIONS amongst thoughts are like bats amongst birds, they ever fly by twilight: certainly they are to be repressed, or at the least well guarded ;1 for they cloud the mind, they lose friends, and they check with business, whereby business cannot go on 'currently and constantly: they dispose kings to tyranny, husbands to jealousy, wise men to irresolution and melancholy: they are defects, not in the heart, but in the brain; for they take place in the stoutest 4 natures, as in the example of Henry the Seventh of England; there was not a more suspicious man nor a more stout: and in such a composition they do small hurt; for commonly they are not admitted, but with examination, whether they be likely or no;5 but in fearful natures they gain ground too fast.

There is nothing makes a man suspect much, more than to know little; and therefore men should remedy suspicion by procuring to know more, and not to keep their suspicions in smother. What would men have? Do they think those they employ and deal with are

saints? Do they not think they will have their own ends, and be truer to themselves than to them? Therefore there is no better way to moderate suspicions, than to account upon such suspicions as true, and yet to bridle them as false : 6 for so far a man ought to make use of suspicions, as to provide, as if that should be true that he suspects, yet it may do him no hurt. Suspicions that the mind of itself gathers are but buzzes; but suspicions that are artificially nourished and put into men's heads by the tales and whisperings of others, have stings. Certainly, the best mean, to clear the way in this same wood of suspicions, is frankly to communicate them with the party that he suspects; for thereby he shall be sure to know more of the truth of them than he did before; and withal shall make that party more circumspect, not to give further cause of suspicion. But this would not 8 be done to men of base natures; for they, if they find themselves once suspected, will never be true. The Italian says, 'Sospetto licentia fede;'9 as if suspicion did give a passport to faith; but it ought rather to kindle it to discharge itself.


1. 'guarded'-carefully kept within proper limits. Suspicions 6. So far to reckon the suspicions true as to make preparations for

should never rule you; you should keep the mastery over

them. 2. check'-interfere, thwart. (See note 15, Essay X.) 3. currently'-smoothly and continuously, like a running stream. 4. stoutest '-bravest. Bravery or courage (Latin cor = the

heart) was supposed to be seated in the heart; hence Bacon says that suspicions are not defects in the hearti.e. in the

courage. 5. They are not entertained before they have been examined, in

order to ascertain whether there is reasonable ground for them or not.

the worst; and yet so to disregard them as to hope for the best. 7. he'-used indefinitely: we should now, in this case, use the

indefinite personal pronoun one. 8. would not'-should not, ought not. 9. Suspicion is the passport to faith.' Here 'passport' means dis

missal, discharge. So in Shakespeare, Henry V, IV, iii, 36,
the word is used of a cowardly soldier sent back home :

'Let him depart: his passport shall be made,
And crowns for convoy put into his hand.'


I. The evil effect of suspicion : viz. it interferes with business, not

only in timid persons but also brave-e.g. Henry VII. II. The remedy for suspicions:

1. Full inquiry as to their grounds.
2. Though hoping they are false, to remember that they may

be true, and to prepare accordingly.
3. To avoid artificially nourishing them.
4. To allow them frankly, except to men of base natures.'

XXXII.-OF DISCOURSE. (1597, enlarged 1612,

and again in 1625.) SOME in their Discoursel desire rather commendation of wit,in being able to hold all arguments, than of judgment,3 in discerning what is true; as if it were a praise to know what might be said, and not what should be thought. Some have certain common-places and themes, 4 wherein they are good, and want variety; which kind of poverty is for the most part tedious, and, when it is once perceived, ridiculous.

The honourablest5 part of talk is to give the occasion;6 and again to moderate and pass to somewhat else ; for then a man leads the dance. It is good in Discourse, and speech of conversation, to vary and intermingle speech of the present occasion? with arguments, tales with reasons, asking of questions with telling of opinions, and jest with earnest; for it is a dull thing to tire, and, as we say now, to jade 8 anything too far.

As for jest, there be certain things which ought to be privileged from it; namely, Religion, matters of State, great Persons, any man's present business of importance, and any case that deserveth pity; yet there be some that think their wits have been asleep, except they dart out somewhat that is piquant, and to the quick ; that is a vein which would to be bridled;

'Parce, puer, stimulis, et fortius utere loris.' 11 And, generally, men ought to find the difference between saltness and bitterness. Certainly, he that hath a satirical


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