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quite unable to raise a state from a low position to one of

greatness. 7. 'argument'-subject. Cf.:

"That to the height of this great argument,

I may assert Eternal Providence'-Milton's Paradise Lost, i. 8. fall under measure '—come with the range of calculation : just

as revenue may be computed, and population counted, and

cities estimated by plans, maps, and lists. 9. Matt. xiii, 31. 10. stout'—valiant, bold.

"The stout-hearted are spoiled'-Ps. lxxvi, 5.

* The character of a bold, stout, magnanimous man'-CLARENDON. II. Virgil.'

'Hic tantum boreæ curamus frigora, quantum
Aut numerum lupus, aut torrentia flumina ripas'

-Eclogues, vii, 51. 12. in the plains of Arbela.' Alexander the Great won the

battle of Arbela over the Persians, B.C. 331, in one of the plains between the river Tigris and the mountains of Kurdi

stan, called after the neighbouring town of Arbela. 13. Tigranes '

-an Armenian sovereign, who impudently styled himself 'King of Kings;' he was son-in-law of Mithridates, King of Pontus, with whom he took refuge after being defeated by the Romans. The Roman consul, Lucullus, with

a small army gained a complete victory over him. 14. odds '-—difference ; superiority of one over the other. See

note 6, Essay XXI. 15. “Solon '-(seventh century B.C.) one of the so-called Seven

Sages of Greece, and the celebrated legislator of Athens.
The account of his famous visit to Crcesus, King of Lydia,

is no doubt, in most respects, mythical. 16. mercenary'—hired foreign soldiers (which are the only re

source in case of an effeminate people). 17. 'mew them'-moult them, shed them; literally change them,

from the French muer, Latin mutare.

Hence a mew is a place of confinement for hawks while moulting; and then the word becomes transferred, especially in the plural mews, to any place of confinement, as for horses. Cf. 'To mew up your tender kinsman '-Shakespeare's 'ing

John. 18. Gen. xlix, 9, 14, 15, 19. empire'-great rule, possession of great power, or influence

over others. 20. staddles '—young trees. Hence to staddle a wood is to clear

away the large trees and leave the young ones standing; and staddle-roof is the name of the covering of a rick fastened down to it by staddles or rick-pins.

i, 531.

21. hundred poll'-one out of every hundred. 22. in regard'-in respect that ; because. 23. King Henry the Seventh.' Bacon is referring to the Statute

4 Henry VII, 16, 19, which enacted that every house of husbandry in the kingdom that had twenty acres of land or more attached to it should be maintained and kept up for ever, and used and occupied with the land. The object of this law, re-enacted by Henry VIII, was to prevent the conversion of arable land into pasture land, as was the tendency in consequence of the rapid growth of the wool trade, but which

threw many agricultural labourers out of employ. 24. 'A land strong in arms and in the fertility of the soil-Æneid, 25. Nebuchadnezzar's tree.' Dan. iv, 10: 'I saw, and, behold, a

tree in the midst of the earth, and the height thereof was great.' 26. naturalisation '-conferring the rights and privileges of native

subjects upon foreigners. 27. 'to think'-as for thinking. 28. nice '— fastidious, very particular. 29. jus civitatis '-right of citizenship ; consisting, as he enumer

ates below, not only of right of trading, right of marriage, right of inheriting, but also the right of voting, and the right

of holding office in the state. 30. •Pragmatical Sanction '-a name derived from the Byzantine

empire, and denoting the decrees promulgated by sovereigns. The special pragmatica here referred to is probably one issued by Philip IV of Spain, granting privileges to married persons,

and larger ones to those who had six children. 31. 'rid'-attend to, get rid of. 32. contain '-restrict, confine. 33. habilitations '-qualifications. So Bacon speaks of persons

who are 'not habilitate to serve in Parliament.' 34. Romulus bequeathed as a legacy to the Romans that they should

earnestly attend to military affairs. The use of intend as a transitive verb equivalent to attend to was formerly very common :

'Having no children, she did with singular care and tenderness intent

the education of Philip'-Bacon's Henry VII. 35. flash'-moment, very short time. 36. stood upon'-enlarged upon ; dwelt longer upon in speech. 37. quarrel'-ground, cause. See note 21, Essay VIII. 38. 'prest'—ready (Latin paratus, French prêt). 39. tacit conformity of estate'-an understood desire to make

every government like one's own. 40. 'It is an advantage to be always,' etc.. 41. Has the power of arbitrating and directing, and having its

wishes respected. 42. abridgment of a monarchy' '-a little monarchy in itself.


43. The plan of Pompey is thoroughly Themistoclean ; for he thinks

that whoever has the mastery of the sea has the mastery of

everything: 44. The battle of Actium was won by Augustus over Antony, B.C.

31 ; that of Lepanto over the Turks in 1571. 45. Orations in praise of fallen victors. 46. personal '—bestowed as rewards upon separate persons. 47. style of Emperor.' The title imperator is really a military

one, and was commonly given by soldiers to a general after

a victory. 48. triumphs'—triumphal processions. 49. “impropriate '-appropriate, take. So also the appropriation

of church property by laymen is called impropriation. 50. Matt. vi, 27.

I. Of statesmen :

1. Many are incompetent.
2. Some can manage a government already settled.

3. Few could make a small state great. II. The true greatness of an estate consists

1. Not in towns, arsenals, armories, etc.
2. Nor in numerical strength of army,
3. But in the mettle and 'breed' of the people (examples-

Battle of Arbela ; Tigranes ; Solon).
III. How greatness is to be attained :

1. Beware of overtaxing.
2. Encourage yeomen and 'free servants' (i.e. military re-

3. Facilitate naturalisation ; on this subject take warning by

the Spartans, and follow the example of the Romans. 4. Leave sedentary and in-door arts to foreigners. 5. Let the nation learn to love and profess war. 6. Be awake to every just occasion for war. 7. The mastery of the sea is itself an immense power.

8. Assign glory and honour to warriors. IV. By war kings can add greatness and amplitude to their kingdoms.


enlarged 1612, and again 1625.)


There is a wisdom in this beyond the rules of physic: a man's own observation, what he finds good of, and what he finds hurt of, is the best physic to preserve health; but it is a safer conclusion to say, 'This agreeth not well with me, therefore I will not continue it;' than this, 'I find no offence of this, therefore I may use it:' for strength of nature in youth passeth over many excesses which are owing 3 a man till his age. Discern of the coming on of years, and think not to do the same thing still ;4 for age will not be defied. Beware of sudden change in any great point of diet, and, if necessity enforce it, fit the rest to it;5 for it is a secret both in nature and state, that it is safer to change many things than

Examine thy customs of diet, sleep, exercise, apparel, and the like; and try, in anything thou shalt judge hurtful, to discontinue it by little and little ; but so, as if thou dost find any inconvenience by the change, thou come back to it again : for it is hard to distinguish that which is generally held good and wholesome, from that which is good particularly, and fit for thine own body. To be free minded and cheerfully disposed at hours of meat, and of sleep, and of exercise, is one of the best precepts of long lasting. 8 As for the passions and studies of the mind, avoid envy, anxious fears, anger fretting inwards, subtle and knotty inquisitions, joys, and exhilarations in excess, sadness not communicated. Entertain hopes, mirth rather than joy, variety of delights rather than surfeit of them ; wonder and admiration, and therefore novelties; studies that fill the mind with splendid and illustrious objects; as histories, fables, and contemplations of nature. If you fly physic in health altogether, it will be too strange for your body when you shall need it; if you make it too familiar, it will work no extraordinary effect when sickness cometh. I commend rather some diet, for certain seasons, than frequent use of physic, except it be grown into a custom ; for those diets alter the body more, and trouble it less. Despise no new accident in your body, but ask opinion of it.10 In sickness, respect ii health principally; and in health, action : for those that put their bodies to endure in health, may, in most sicknesses which are not very sharp, be cured only with diet and tendering. 12 Celsus 18 could never have spoken it as a physician, had he not been a wise man withal, when he giveth it for one of the great precepts of health and lasting, that a man do vary and interchange contraries, but with an inclination to the more benign extreme : use fasting and full eating, but rather full eating ; watching and sleep, but rather sleep; sitting and exercise, but rather exercise, and the like: so shall nature be cherished, and yet taught masteries.14 Physicians are some of them so pleasing and conformable to the humour of the patient, as they press not the true cure of the disease ; and some other are so regular in proceeding according to art for the disease, as they respect not sufficiently the condition of the patient. Take one of a middle temper; or, if it may not be found in one man, combine two of either sort; and forget not to call as well the best acquainted with your body, as the best reputed of for his faculty.



* Regiment'—which is the same word as regimen, means, in a

general sense, ruling, regulation; and here, in its hygienic use, it denotes specially the imposition of a systematic course of living with a view to preserving health.

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