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A FEW MORE PLAYGROUND SUGGESTIONS

of the Air." Owen Hinck of the Recreation De- Entry blanks are helpful in facilitating and perpartment suggests that if properly approached haps limiting the show. Space must be provided most radio stations will be found willing to give on the blank for the name of the child, his address free publicity to local recreation programs.

and age, and the kind, age and sex of the pet or Pet Shows. Pet shows have won a permanent

pets entered. There should be a space for a numplace on the playground program. Here are a few

ber and the closing date for entries. Entry rules suggestions for conducting them :

should be printed on the blank to make sure the

children know them. These may include the folThe pet show is often not just an affair of an

lowing: hour or an afternoon. It lasts a week or more in many places, beginning with stories in the story

1. Each pet must belong to the exhibitor or his

family. hour and talks by pet shop owners, the S.P.C.A. or the children on the care of pets, a trip to the

2. Only children under 18 may exhibit pets. (A zoo or an exploration trip in the woods for the

special event may be introduced for older ex

hibitors if so desired.) purpose of finding wild life in stream and woods. On one playground a preliminary event to the

3. All animals, including cats, but excepting dogs,

must be in comfortable cages. Dogs may be on show was a "clinic" day for pets on which two

a leash. veterinarians volunteered their services and examined the children's pets free of charge. In an

4. No kitten or puppy under six months may be

entered. (For its health's sake.) other city the children were shown animal slides.

5. A water dish must be provided for such aniHaving aroused interest in pets and a pet show mals as dogs and birds. in any of these ways, the pet show director will A parade is in order, with each entrant wearing find that posters, announcements, newspaper

a numbered arm band and leading or carrying his stories and a prelimin

pet. Costumes for exary parade of pets will

Chief Whitefeather, Chippewa Indian, visits the play- hibitors and decorated arouse interest to a

grounds of Milwaukee to give Indian dances and stories,
display Indian crafts and teach games. This is a WPA

cages and carts add high pitch and draw project sponsored by the Milwaukee Public Schools De

color to the parade. many entries.

partment of Municipal Recreation and Adult Education. The parade may serve

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A FEW MORE PLAYGROUND SUGGESTIONS

61

one of three purposes ; namely, for the display of pets for everyone to see before the judging or for advertising purposes or as the show itself, to be judged en route as it passes and repasses the judges' stand. (The numbered arm band will assist the judges in awarding prizes and should tally with the number on the entry blank.)

In preparing for the show proper, benches or areas may be set aside for each kind of animal and should be labeled prominently. At one show the owner of a pet shop loaned blocks of wire cages in which animals could be kept until judging time. A sawdust ring may be used for judging different classes, and is especially necessary in an indoor show for the protection of the floor.

Judging is at best a difficult problem. In the eyes of its owner each pet is the very best in all the world. Who is there to judge truly in such a case? Judges should recognize this problem by giving a large number of prizes (perhaps, beginning or ending with the awarding of an "entry" prize for every entry) in not too “dead serious” a fashion. If animals are judged by kinds and each class be judged to four places, a larger number of prizes can be awarded. Prizes should be very inexpensive so that there will be as little disappointment as possible to mar the show. Colored ribbons printed in gold have proven very satisfactory. Classes should be so determined that no animal wins more than one or two prizes. Pedigreed animals are either barred, entered in a separate class or judged with the others for such informal qualities as are listed below.

There are a number of possible events. Dogs and cats form separate classes, for there are usually many of them. If there is a great number, prizes may be given for each sex and for different age groups in each class. Other animals, such as rabbits, birds and fish are divided into classes and judged in the same vein as the dogs and cats whose classes we suggest. (The obedience class for dogs involves four tests: The dog must lie down, come when called, follow the exhibitor without a leash and perform a special trick. Two minutes are given for each part of the test.) Dogs

Happiest
Oldest

Best
Ugliest

Cats
Most obedient
Longest tail

Prettiest fur
Lovingest eyes

Smallest
Healthiest

Largest

All the animals may compete in the following classes: Most unusual pet; largest number of pets in one family; most comically dressed exhibitor; best decorated cage or wagon and the pet farthest from home. A special classification of inanimate pets, drawings or models may be arranged for those who do not have live pets.

Nature Clubs. With the first signs of spring, the boys' clubs of Danville, Illinois, take to the trail in search of adventures. Junior boys' clubs in the four community centers are known as Pokagon Clubs, Pokagon being the name of a great Indian chieftain-a romantic, colorful figure, who ruled the Pottawatomie Indian tribe.

The first issue of the Pokagon newspaper, which appeared the middle of March, announced coming events and included sketches and comments, birds, pets and hobbies. In addition the paper urged club members to contribute articles to the paper and offered one free membership and the button of the Junior Audubon Club of Danville for the best story submitted each week. Another club activity was the showing of a series of bird films in connection with the regular weekly moving picture programı at each center. A list of recommended books on nature topics to be found in the public library was posted on the bulletin boards of the centers. One film which made a special appeal was “Ups and Downs,” photographed by William L. Finley, known as America's greatest wild life photographer, or the Martin Johnson of North America. In the film library of the Recreation Department a motion picture study of the following birds is represented: pelicans, terns, laughing gulls, canvasbacks, purple martins, egrets, Louisiana herons, phalaropes, marsh plover, coots, grebes, vireos, barn swallow, titmouse, flycatchers and robins. A study of these films before the hike makes the trip more interesting. Many of the boys take their own cameras on their country trips and are planning to make their own slides for club use.

The regular weekly program of activities has developed as follows: Each week the weather permits, the club members, with their nature guide, "hit the trail.” One week the hike may take the boys on a visit to Harrison Park to explore the nature trails recently developed under WPA and NYA. Trees have been labeled and trails have been marked, making a trip to this large natural park area more interesting than ever. On another occasion the boys may decide to explore

Loudest purr

"Something Old — Something New” "

P

ERHAPS you are And a few interesting facts which you may

"dodo," and for a a sports enthu

some time continupossibly not have known about the origins siast, a football

ed as a successful of a number of our most popular old games or baseball fan, a a

addition to shipfollower of the

board interests. It is court game. You

rarely seen now, By JULIA POST may know a great deal about sports,

however, as a shipboard game, for it but do you know about the origins

Winthrop College has deserted its marine setting and

Rock Hill, South Carolina of such games as Badminton, table

become popular as a land sport. tennis, tether ball, shuffleboard or

Horseshoe Pitching. There are few deck tennis—those sports which in recent years people nowadays who are not familiar with horsehave enjoyed a revival.

shoe pitching as a sport. As a farmyard sport, Shuffleboard. If you have traveled or wintered

where horseshoes are to be found in abundance, in Florida, you are no doubt familiar with shuf- it has long been popular. The clang of shoes as fleboard, for there indeed it is the sport of sports! they strike each other or as they encircle the stake There is scarcely a town or city that does not have

is heard at picnics, county fairs or practically any at least one shuffleboard court, and in St. Peters- place where crowds of people are gathered for burg, the true home of American shuffleboard, an outing there are numberless courts. You may be sur

Horseshoe pitching was a great national game prised to know that shuffleboard is by no means a

before the time of Homer and was very popular new sport. True, as a land sport it dates back during the time of the Roman empire, so “even only to 1913, when it was introduced in Daytona the Greeks had a name for it.” Beach, Florida, as a sidewalk game. Since that It is interesting to note that Washington's soltime it has gained widely in popularity and is now diers when not occupied in fighting the British used extensively in parks, recreation centers and amused themselves with horseshoe pitching. "Slipschools, as well as in backyards.

per slamming" or "barnyard golf” are popular The modern game of shuffleboard was preceded

names for the homely sport of horseshoe pitching. by a shipboard game known by the same name. Badminton. The popularity of Badminton has This aquatic form was in turn directly descended received a tremendous impetus recently because of from games played in England as early as the its adoption by the Beverly Hills dwellers to whom fifteenth century and known variously as “Shove- the eyes of America frequently turn. Although groat," "Slidegroat" and "Shovel-penny," relatively new to the American public, it has been called, no doubt, because of the resemblance of the used in this country for some time, the first Baddisc used to the coins of that period.

minton club having been formed in New York in Tether Ball. Another game,

1878. A similar game was the origin of which does not

played in the Orient cengo back as far as shuffleboard The Women's Rules and Editorial Com- turies ago. In India it was but which is by no means

mittee of the Women's Athletic Sec- taken up by English army new, is tether ball. This game

tion of the American Physical Educa- officers and brought by them

tion Association is performing an exdates back to 1896 when it

to England where it was ceedingly valuable service in preparwas patented under the name ing through its subcommittees a series

given the name of Badminton “Spirapole" by P. B. Cow, of handbooks on various sports for girls

in honor of the Duke of Cheapside, London. It was and women. We are presenting here

Gloucester, the name of first used on shipboard on

some extracts from an article pre- whose estate was Badminton. the maiden cruise of the

pared by Miss Post, Chairman of the The first Badminton club in

Subcommittee on Athletic Games, “Dunnegan Castle." As a whose official handbook, one of the

England was established in shipboard game the name was Spalding Athletic Library series, rec

the city of Bath. The game is changed to "tether ball" or reation workers will find very helpful. (Continued on page 104)

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HERE ARE contemplative mo- By A. D. ZANZIG girls will like. The little children ments on a play- National Recreation Association

will also want to sing some of ground; moments when the

the more active of the almost ingroup, whatever its age, falls

finite number of traditional naturally in smooth lyrical singing of the sort songs such as are in Fifty Favorite Songs for that thrives as well around a camp fire. Older Girls and Boys, obtainable for ten cents at Woolboys and girls, especially the boys, together, are worth's. Dramatised Rhythm Plays by John R. then in a mood to make harmony, and they will do Richards (A. S. Barnes & Co.), though lacking so if someone will sing a spiritual or Carry Me in opportunity for spontaneity, has helpful sugBack to Old Virginny or the like with a good gestions for making action songs of many an old smooth flow and swing. From improvising har- familiar song for children. Any singing period mony a group of teen-age boys might go into

can, of course, admit many kinds of songs, quiet learning parts in the simplest of the songs in such or animated, the contrasts in the songs and in the a collection as the Check Book of the series known singing of them making not only for greater enjoyas Twice 55 Community Songs, published by C. ment but also for more and more expressive singC. Birchard and Company of Boston. Or if some ing and enlarging experience. But the music play of the boys still have soprano or alto voices, the that seems most characteristic of the playground is Orange Book of the same series will suit them. that which calls for a still fuller measure of action.

a The Rose Book of that series is for treble voices

Singing Games alone, for girls or boys or both. The Hall and McCreary Company of Chicago also publishes a Singing games we think of, dozens of them, as series of inexpensive collections for these various natural a mode of play for children, especially kinds of groups. 'Simple rounds and descants * those under ten, as walking is a mode of locomoare a very interesting entrance into part-singing tion. Miss Neva Boyd's American and English if each singer really listens to the group as a whole Games is an especially rich collection of these. If while he sings his own part. For any part-singing leaders could only prize sufficiently the value of except rounds the leader should be capable of de- free-flowing rhythm in a singing game, the singtermining correctly which part is best suited to ing and the motions would not be so heavy as they each person's voice.

usually are. When every beat is given equal There are times also for very animated sing- weight, the onward, liberating flow of rhythm, ing, of sea chanteys, cowboy songs, team songs,

which is its most enjoyable and most longed-for hiking ones, accumulative ones like Slovette or quality, is lost. Only as we distinguish between The Tree In the Wood and other good rousers. the light beats and the intenser ones and feel the The younger children will then want to sing songs undulating forward motion of each phrase as a like The Windmill with its pantomimic actions, whole do we let the singing game give us what we and In Poland with its brisk marching rhythm, most desire in it. Let the leader sing it so and both in the National Recreation Association's move to it so, and the children will very likely do Songs for Informal Singing,

likewise. Set I, in which, as in Set II,

Encourage children to sing In this article Mr. Zanzig deals primathere are many other rousing

with the same naturalness and rily with singing, singing games, folk songs that the older boys and dancing, rhythmics and other simple

lightness and ease as they See Community and Assembly Singing,

dancing. Other forms of music for the speak, and with the same relaa detailed guide, obtainable from playground are, however, mentioned tive stresses on the words and the National Recreation Association

and reference made to source material. syllables. If they will simply

at 60c.

64

MUSIC ON THE PLAYGROUND

speak the words of the game naturally just once for the fun of it, without the music, they will be almost bound to catch the idea and the rhythm and all the greater freedom and fun that goes with them. Then if they do not carry these into the singing, it will be because of bad habit which can certainly be overcome gradually without any loss of interest, especially well through singing games new to the children.

Encourage them also to enjoy the song as well as, if not more than, the rest of the game, and to enjoy it with their ears as well as with their voices. To do this and also to save their voices from danger of injury, they will need to sing the song in a proper key, in which the lowest tone will not go below D or, at the lowest exception, not below C. This care for having the song in a proper key can be made an interesting part of the game, to make the latter more enjoyable. The leader and the children can soon learn to judge by the quality of the singing as to whether it is suitably pitched or not. Let the children be interested in judging for themselves so that they will sing well even when the leader is not around. But never oppress them with this interest to endanger the spontaneity of their play. If necessary, the leader should use a pitch-pipe for the purpose until her judgment becomes surer. Perhaps the most frequent cause of harsh, inane and injurious singing is the coinmon false notion that enthusiasm and enjoyment are to be measured only by loudness. A free, bounding rhythm, even when accompanied by very light singing, is the fullest and best token of real enthusiasm. Another cause of the bad singing is public performance, when the children are urged to sing loudly in order to be heard by the entire audience. Children's play is not naturally for public performance, anyway, but if it must be put to that use the more resonant singing of real enthusiasm, and rhythm with sure familiarly with all the words, and enforced voices, may be heard farther and certainly more enjoyably than mere loudness can be.

Adults, and more and more older boys and girls, it seems, also like singing games and singing dances, but such as Captain Jinks or Come, Let Us Be Joyful in Twice 55 Games with Music, and many another good one in the Handy Kits of the Cooperative Recreation Service of Delaware, Ohio, in Skip to My Lou, published by the Girl Scouts, and in several bulletins issued by the National Recreation Association, especially one entitled Musical Mixers.

Folk Dancing If the children or older folk have developed a sense of the "phrase rhythm,” as has been suggested for the singing games, they will readily carry it over into folk dancing and enjoy it and the dancing more and more. The widely-known collections of folk dances compiled by Mary Wood Hinman and Elizabeth Burchenal, to be found in most public libraries, offer a large range of choice as to the ages and tastes of the dancers. The simpler of the English country dances and of the Morris dances, collected by Cecil Sharp and published by the H. W. Gray Company, 159 East 48th Street, New York, are suited to boys and girls of about twelve or over as well as to adults. Bean Setting and others of the traditional Morris dances in which sticks are used, or done by men alone, appeal to boys more readily than do most other folk dances. New interest in American square dancing has been growing in many communities. A thing to remember about folk dancing is that, like every other sport or art, it thrives best where there is care for doing it well without loss of spontaneity. Learning more and more folk dances and doing them better and better has become a beloved hobby for many people.

Rhythms and Other Simple Dancing Who has not seen children come bounding out of school and go skipping down the street? That is dancing, too. And the mood of it, of most eager living, is surely a boon surpassed by no other. Music can bring it to us, especially to children, even when that mood has been far away. How can that natural dancing grow into a mode of play with music, especially well suited to the playground ? Let us say that you have clearly and gaily in your mind and fingers, or in some other person's mind and fingers, such tunes as are in Folk Songs and Ballads,* Set III, published by the E. C. Schirmer Music Company of Boston, and here is a group of children. You say to them that music is a wonderful thing that is always trying to say things to us or to tell us something to do. Sometimes it tells us to skip, and sometimes to walk or run, or just sit quietly and listen. Then you play Rosa from that collection and about midway invite the children to clap to it so as to insure their really feeling the life in it. What is it telling us to do? Off they go, skipping to it. Then, after a pleasant signal, like the playing or

*

a

* These tunes are also in Sets I and II of Songs for Informal Singing, previously mentioned, but these without accompaniments.

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