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1. Hay, 20 pounds; oats, 3 pounds; corn and cob meal, 3 pounds; linseed meal, 2 pounds.

2. Hay, 10 pounds; cornstalks, ad lib.; wheat bran, 3 pounds; corn meal, 2 pounds; cotton-seed meal, 2 pounds.

3. Roots, 60 pounds; stover, ad lib.; oats, 3 pounds; bran, 3 pounds; gluten feed, 3 pounds.

4. Corn fodder, ad lib.; corn silaye, 40 pounds; shorts, 2 pounds; dried brewers' grains, 2 pounds; linseed meal, 2 pounds.

5. Corn silage, 35 pounds; hay, ad lib.; bran, 4 pounds; oats, 2 pounds; gluten meal, 2 pounds.

6. Corn silage, 30 pounds; hay, ad lib.; oats, 4 pounds; linseed meal, 2 pounds; cotton-seed meal, 1 pound.

7. Corn silage, 30 pounds; clover hay, ad lib.; bran, oats, and corn meal, 2 pounds each.

8. Clover silage, 25 pounds; hay, 5 pounds; cornstalks, ad lib; oats, 3 pounds; corn meal and linseed meal, 2 pounds each.

9. Clover or alfalfa silage, 30 pounds; hay, ad lib.; bran, 4 pounds; middlings, 3 pounds; linseed meal, 1 pound.

10. Alfalfa hay, 20 pounds; oats, 4 pounds; corn meal, 2 pounds.

11. Hay, 10 pounds; cotton-seed hulls, 10 pounds; cotton-seed meal, 4 pounds; wheat bran, 2 pounds.

12. Corn silage, 40 pounds; alfalfa hay, 25 pounds; barley, 4 pounds; dried beet pulp, 3 pounds; wheat bran, 2 pounds.

13. Corn silage, 30 pounds; cotton-seed hulls, 12 pounds; bran, 6 pounds; cotton-seed meal, 3 pounds.

The time of feeding is also important. The feeding should be as regular as the milking. Many farmers feed either hay or grain feeds directly before or during milking, but this is not, as a rule, to be recommended, both on account of the tendency it has to interfere with the letting-down of the milk, and the danger of contamination of the milk with dust and bacteria that it involves, especially when hay is fed directly before or during the milking.

A good order of the day's work in the dairy barn during the winter in northern states is as follows: Cleaning gutters, watering, feeding hay, grooming, and cleaning cows, milking, feeding grain, feeding silage, turning out in the yard (on pleasant days for one or two hours in the early afternoon), watering, cleaning stable, feeding grain, cleaning cows, milking, feeding silage, a last feed of hay if desired, and arranging bedding.

Feeding the Dairy Bull.—The bull at the head of a dairy herd should receive a large share of his feed in the shape of dry roughage, hay from the grasses or legumes, cornstalks, etc., with only limited amounts of concentrated feeds. Of the latter, wheat bran, shorts, oats, and a little corn meal are to be preferred. Roots are good as a relish, while corn silage and other kinds of silage should be fed sparingly to breeding bulls, not over 10 pounds per head daily. Fattening feeds and excessive grain feeding should be

21 Ohio Bulletins 295, 308, 330.


avoided, so that the animal may be kept in a vigorous, active condition. Indian corn and similar feeds are, for this reason, to be feil with care; high feeding and lack of exercise are common causes of impotency in bulls; a wrong system of feeding and management has been the cause of shortening the period of usefulness of many bulls.

the year.

QUESTIONS 1. Give the average composition of cow's milk. 2. State ten factors that influence the milk secretion of cows. 3. What is the effect of (a) excitement, (b) time of milking, (c) condition

of the cow, on the quality of the milk secreted ? 4. Name the six most important dairy breeds in this country. 5. State the relative rank of these breeds as regards (a) yield of milk, (b)

yield of butter fat, (c) per cent of fat, (d) feed cost per pound of

butter fat, according to experiment station trials. 6. What is the normal decrease in the production of milk and butter fat

for good dairy cows due to the advance of the lactation period ? 7. How does the feed influence (a) the quality, (b) the yield of milk? 8. What method would you follow for the improvement of the production

of the dairy herd ? 9. Give the approximate amounts of dry roughage, succulent feeds, pasture,

concentrates eaten by a good dairy cow in the northern States during 10. State how the Wolff-Lehmann standards for milch cows have been modi.

fied by Haecker. 11. Give the modified figures for the Armsby standard for milch cows as

suggested by Eckles. 12. Describe briefly the system of feeding the dairy heifer. 13. Describe briefly the system of feeding dairy cows in your locality (a)

during the summer, (b) during the winter months. 14. Criticise the following rations for dairy cows, and state how they may be

changed to conform to the standards for dairy cows: (a) 20 pounds cornstalks, 10 pounds timothy hay, 6 pounds corn meal. (6) 20 pounds mixed hay, 5 pounds oats, 3 pounds corn meal. (c) 25 pounds alfalfa hay. (d) 40 pounds green alfalfa, 20 pounds alfalfa hay. (e) 50 pounds green corn fodder, 3 pounds each of wheat, bran, dry

brewers' grains and linseed meal. (f) 30 pounds corn silage, 10 pounds cornstalks, 4 pounds corn meal

and 2 pounds linseed meal. References: Washburn, “Productive Dairying,” Philadelphia, 1917. Farmers' Bul. 55, “The Dairy Herd.” 106, " Breeds of Dairy Cattle.” 743, “ The Feeding of Dairy Cows." 993, “ Coöperative Bull Associations."



Rations for Beef Cattle.-Feeding standards should be followed in preparing rations for beef cattle.

The Wolff-Lehmann Standards--1000 pounds live weight

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Systems of Feeding Beef Cattle.—There are two different systems followed in feeding beef cattle in this country. The cattle are either raised and fattened on the same farms, as is generally done in the farming and grain-growing districts, especially the corn belt, or they are raised and fattened in different regions. In the latter case, they are raised and fed until maturity mainly in the grazing districts of the western and southwestern States and then shipped to grain- or forage-growing regions to be fattened for market. The relative importance of the two systems may be inferred from the accompanying map (Fig. 57), showing the number and value of cattle other than milch cows according to the census of 1910. The seven corn belt States had about one-third of the total


Fig. 57.—The number and value of cattle other than milch cows in the United States,

April 15, 1910. (Mumford and Hall).

number of cattle other than milch cows in the United States (Fig. 58); considering the immense number of cattle brought in to be fattened there, perhaps not less than one-half of the beef cattle

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FIG. 58.—Number of boef cattle in the corn belt States, 1913. About one-third of the cattle other than milch cows in the country are kept in these States, and their value is equal to about two-fifths of the total value of such cattle in the United States. (Mumford and Hall, Illinois Circular 175.)

* Reproduced from Illinois Circular 169.

industry is centered in this section. The Far West section, on the other hand, furnished nearly one-fifth of the total number of cattle other than milch cows, which were largely raised and fattened by different owners.

With the passing of the public grazing domain and the gradual opening up of the range country in the western States to farmers, the second system is slowly giving way to the former; this implies, as we shall see, important changes also in the methods of feeding adopted. Farmers who raise and fatten their own cattle live in agriculturally well-developed States where land is high priced and

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Fig. 59.-From 1890 to 1910 the number of cattle in this country increased from 53,000,000 to 69,000,000, an increase of 30 per cent., and the population increased from 63,000,000 to 92,000,000, an increase of about 46 per cent. The ratio of cattle to population was, in 1890, 100: 84, and in 1910, 100: 67.

feeding operations expensive, and they must, therefore, get the cattle ready for market in shorter time than is necessary for the cattle men on the western plains and ranges. The latter occupy large areas of cheap lands and can keep cattle at a relatively low cost, so that it is not so important whether they are marketed at three or four years of age. The farmer in the eastern and central States can produce beef profitably only by keeping stock of the improved beef breeds or using pure-bred beef bulls and giving the cattle good care and attention; they must also be fed with a view to being marketed at an early age, either as baby beef, yearlings, or two-year-olds (Fig. 59).

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