Fossil Earthquakes: The Formation and Preservation of Pseudotachylytes

Cover
Springer, 20.10.2007 - 348 Seiten

This book focuses on the earthquake source materials produced or deformed by both seismic faulting and aseismic creep within seismogenic fault zones at different levels of the crust. In particular, the mechanisms and processes involved in the formation of earthquake materials are covered. The book is intended to help bridge the gap between seismology and geology and to encourage further studies of earthquake mechanisms and seismic faulting processes.

 

Was andere dazu sagen - Rezension schreiben

Es wurden keine Rezensionen gefunden.

Inhalt

Introduction
2
Terminology and Origin of Pseudotachylyte
5
22 Controversy Regarding the Physical Origin of Pseudotachylyte
8
PseudotachylyteRelated Fault Rocks and Conceptual Fault Models
16
32 Fault Rocks
18
322 Mylonitic Rocks
23
323 Cataclastic Rocks
25
324 Formation of SC Fabrics
39
922 Field Occurrences of the Woodroffe Pseudotachylytes
181
923 Microstructures CPt
187
93 Dahezhen Pseudotachylytes
197
932 Field Occurrence of the Dahezhen Pseudotachylytes
198
933 Microscopy and Chemical Composition
204
94 Discussion
212
942 Conditions of Formation of the Dahezhen and Woodroffe MPt Veins
216
CrushingOrigin Pseudotachylyte and Veinlet Cataclastic Rocks
225

33 Fault Zone Strength and Fault Model
40
332 Conceptual Fault Zone Model
43
Tectonic Environment and Structure of Pseudotachylyte Veins
47
412 Field Occurrence
48
413 Chillingmargin and Crack Textures
55
42 Classification of Pseudotachylyte Veins
60
422 Pseudotachylyte Generation Zones
64
43 Relation Between Fault Vein Thickness and Slip Amount
70
Pseudotachylyte Matrix
75
52 Microstructural Characteristics
76
522 Flow Structures
81
523 Vesicles and Amygdules
84
53 Powder XRay Diffraction Analysis
90
532 Quantitative Analysis of Glass and the Crystalline Fraction
93
533 Quantitative Analysis of Crystalline Material
95
54 Discussion
96
542 Effect of Frictional Melt on Fault Strength
97
543 Estimation of the Formation Depth of Pseudotachylyte
98
Microlites
104
62 Texture and Morphology of Microlite
106
63 Microlite Chemistry and Magnetic Properties
118
632 Magnetic Properties
128
64 Discussion of the Mechanism of Microlite Formation
132
Fragments Within Pseudotachylyte Veins
139
73 Grainsize Analysis
143
A Discussion
148
74 Fabrics of Fragments and Degree of Rounding
151
A Discussion
155
Chemical Composition and Melting Processes of Pseudotachylyte
159
82 BulkVein and Matrix Compositions
160
822 Chemical Composition of Pseudotachylyte Matrix
162
823 Water Contents of Pseudotachylyte Veins
168
83 Discussion
169
832 Melt Temperature
171
833 Role of Water During Frictional Melting
173
Formation of Pseudotachylyte in the Brittle and Plastic Regimes
177
92 Woodroffe Pseudotachylytes
179
102 Occurrence of CrushingOrigin Pseudotachylyte and Cataclastic Veins
226
1022 FaultGouge Injection Veins
230
1023 Layered Fault Gouge and Pseudotachylyte Veins
232
1024 CrackFill Veins
234
103 Petrologic Characteristics of Veinlet Cataclastic Rocks
237
1032 Powder Xray Diffraction Analysis of Veinlet Material
244
1033 Chemical Composition Data and Isotope Analyses
250
104 Discussion on the Formation Mechanisms of Veinlet Cataclastic Rocks
253
1042 Coseismic Fluidization of Finegrained Material Within Fault Zones
254
1043 Repeated Events of Seismic Slip
256
1044 Repeated Coseismic Infiltration of Surface Water into Deep Fault Zones
257
Landsliderelated Pseudotachylyte
264
112 Occurrences of Landslides and Related Pseudotachylytes
266
1122 ChiufenerShan Landslide and Related Pseudotachylyte
269
113 Petrographic Characteristics of Landsliderelated Pseudotachylytes
274
1132 Petrography of the ChiufenerShan Pseudotachylyte
277
1133 Glass Contents of the Observed Pseudotachylytes
279
the Formation of Landsliderelated Pseudotachylyte
280
Experimentally Generated Pseudotachylyte
283
122 HighVelocity Frictional Experiments
284
1222 Experiment Samples and Procedures
290
1223 HighVelocity Frictional Properties
292
123 Microstructures of Experimentally Generated Pseudotachylyte
293
1232 Vein Geometry and Texture of Molten Material
294
124 Powder Xray Diffraction Analysis of Run Products
300
1242 Quantitative Analysis
301
125 Chemical Composition Data
304
1252 Granite Samples
307
1253 AlbititeQuartz and AnorthositeAnorthosite Pairs
308
126 Discussion
315
1263 Nonequilibrium Melting Processes
316
1264 Melting Temperature
318
1265 HighVelocity Slip Weakening
319
References
320
Index
341
Urheberrecht

Andere Ausgaben - Alle anzeigen

Häufige Begriffe und Wortgruppen

Beliebte Passagen

Seite 334 - Shand, SJ, 1916. The pseudotachylyte of Parijs (orange Free State), and its relation to "trap-shotten gneiss
Seite 5 - Shand (1916, p. 199) som foreslo betegnelsen pseudotachylit »in recognition of the fact that these rocks have a great similarity to tachylyte, (No. 387 = basalt-glass Trøger, 1935), also that such rocks have been mistaken for trap and tachylyte in Scotland and India as well as in South-Africa», og ga en beskrivelse av forekomstene ved Vaalelven i Oranjefristaten. I alle de 3 typer han adskilte ved mikroskop-undersøkelse, nevner han magnetit i små oktaedre eller som »skyer
Seite 327 - Lin A (1994b) Microlite morphology and chemistry in pseudotachylite, from the Fuyun fault zone, China. J Geol 102:317-29.
Seite 10 - ... have the microscopical characters of mylonite which has been hardened — fritted and rarely halffused — by the heat generated through the dislocation being confined to narrow bands, and thereby causing a higher local rise of temperature than would result from a general deformation of the rock-mass.
Seite 331 - Nie, S., Yin, A., Rowley, DB, Jin. Y., 1994. Exhumation of the Dabie Shan ultrahigh-pressure rocks and accumulation of the Songpan-Ganzi flysch sequence, central China. Geology 22, 999-1002.
Seite 320 - Cataclastic rocks of the San Gabriel fault — an expression of deformation at deeper crustal levels in the San Andreas fault zone. Tectonophysics 98, 209-251.

Bibliografische Informationen